Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Pectobacterium atrosepticum
(potato blackleg disease)

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Datasheet

Pectobacterium atrosepticum (potato blackleg disease)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 21 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Pectobacterium atrosepticum
  • Preferred Common Name
  • potato blackleg disease
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Bacteria
  •   Phylum: Proteobacteria
  •     Class: Gammaproteobacteria
  •       Order: Enterobacteriales
  •         Family: Enterobacteriaceae

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Blackleg symptom on a potato plant caused by E. carotovora pv. atroseptica.
TitleBlackleg symptom
CaptionBlackleg symptom on a potato plant caused by E. carotovora pv. atroseptica.
CopyrightCIP
Blackleg symptom on a potato plant caused by E. carotovora pv. atroseptica.
Blackleg symptomBlackleg symptom on a potato plant caused by E. carotovora pv. atroseptica.CIP
Collapse of potato stems due to E. carotovora.
TitleSymptoms on potato
CaptionCollapse of potato stems due to E. carotovora.
CopyrightMauritius Sugar Industry Research Institute
Collapse of potato stems due to E. carotovora.
Symptoms on potatoCollapse of potato stems due to E. carotovora.Mauritius Sugar Industry Research Institute
Blackleg of potato.
TitleSymptoms on potato
CaptionBlackleg of potato.
CopyrightMauritius Sugar Industry Research Institute
Blackleg of potato.
Symptoms on potatoBlackleg of potato.Mauritius Sugar Industry Research Institute
Aereal stem rots on a potato stems caused by  E. carotovora pv. atroseptica.
TitleAereal stem rot
CaptionAereal stem rots on a potato stems caused by E. carotovora pv. atroseptica.
CopyrightCIP
Aereal stem rots on a potato stems caused by  E. carotovora pv. atroseptica.
Aereal stem rotAereal stem rots on a potato stems caused by E. carotovora pv. atroseptica.CIP
Blackleg symptom on a potato plant caused by E. carotovora pv. atroseptica.
TitleBlackleg symptoms
CaptionBlackleg symptom on a potato plant caused by E. carotovora pv. atroseptica.
CopyrightCIP
Blackleg symptom on a potato plant caused by E. carotovora pv. atroseptica.
Blackleg symptomsBlackleg symptom on a potato plant caused by E. carotovora pv. atroseptica.CIP
Aereal stem rot and leaf symptoms on potato caused by Erwinia carotovora pv. atroseptica.
TitleAereal stem rot
CaptionAereal stem rot and leaf symptoms on potato caused by Erwinia carotovora pv. atroseptica.
CopyrightCIP
Aereal stem rot and leaf symptoms on potato caused by Erwinia carotovora pv. atroseptica.
Aereal stem rotAereal stem rot and leaf symptoms on potato caused by Erwinia carotovora pv. atroseptica.CIP
Soft rot symptom on a potato tuber caused either by Erwinia carotovora pv. atroseptica, or Erwinia carotovora pv. carotvora.
TitleSoft rot symptom
CaptionSoft rot symptom on a potato tuber caused either by Erwinia carotovora pv. atroseptica, or Erwinia carotovora pv. carotvora.
CopyrightCIP
Soft rot symptom on a potato tuber caused either by Erwinia carotovora pv. atroseptica, or Erwinia carotovora pv. carotvora.
Soft rot symptomSoft rot symptom on a potato tuber caused either by Erwinia carotovora pv. atroseptica, or Erwinia carotovora pv. carotvora.CIP
Lesions associated with lenticels on a potato tuber caused either by Erwinia carotovora pv. atroseptica, or Erwinia carotovora pv. carotvora.
TitleLesions
CaptionLesions associated with lenticels on a potato tuber caused either by Erwinia carotovora pv. atroseptica, or Erwinia carotovora pv. carotvora.
CopyrightCIP
Lesions associated with lenticels on a potato tuber caused either by Erwinia carotovora pv. atroseptica, or Erwinia carotovora pv. carotvora.
LesionsLesions associated with lenticels on a potato tuber caused either by Erwinia carotovora pv. atroseptica, or Erwinia carotovora pv. carotvora.CIP
View of potato field infected with blackleg, showing yellowing of foliage.
TitleSymptoms on potato
CaptionView of potato field infected with blackleg, showing yellowing of foliage.
CopyrightMauritius Sugar Industry Research Institute
View of potato field infected with blackleg, showing yellowing of foliage.
Symptoms on potatoView of potato field infected with blackleg, showing yellowing of foliage.Mauritius Sugar Industry Research Institute

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Pectobacterium atrosepticum (van Hall, 1902) Gardan et al. 2003

Preferred Common Name

  • potato blackleg disease

Other Scientific Names

  • Bacillus atrosepticus
  • Bacillus melanogenes Pethybridge & Murphy, 1911
  • Bacillus phytophthorus Appel, 1902
  • Bacterium atrosepticum (van Hall) Lehmann & Neumann, 1927
  • Bacterium carotovorum (Jones) Lehmann & Neumann/Burgwitz
  • Bacterium carotovorum var. atrosepticum (van Hall) Hellmers & Dowson, 1953
  • Bacterium melanogenum
  • Bacterium phytophthorum (Appel) Lehmann & Neumann, 1927
  • Erwinia atroseptica (van Hall) Jennison, 1923
  • Erwinia caricae
  • Erwinia carotovora (Jones) Holl./Berg.
  • Erwinia carotovora pv. atroseptica (van Hall, 1902) Dye, 1978
  • Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica (van Hall, 1902) Dye, 1969
  • Erwinia carotovora var. atroseptica (van Hall) Dye, 1969
  • Erwinia dahliae (Hori & Bokura) Magrou
  • Erwinia melonis (Giddings) Bergey & al.
  • Erwinia phytophthora (Appel) Bergey et al., 1934
  • Erwinia phytophthorus
  • Pectobacterium atrosepticum (van Hall) Patel & Kulkarni, 1951
  • Pectobacterium carotovorum var. atrosepticum (van Hall) Graham & Dowson, 1960
  • Pectobacterium phytophthorum (Appel) Waldee, 1945

International Common Names

  • English: bacterial mottle of sugarcane; bacterial rot of tomato; bacterial soft rot; bacterial stalk rot of stored cabbage; bacterial: potato soft rot; bacterial: vegetables soft rot; black leg of potato; hollow stalk rot; slimy soft rot; soft rot disease of Harton plantain; stem canker of papaya; storage rot
  • Spanish: pie negro (patata); pierna negra de la papa; podredumbre blanda bacteriana de la papa; podredumbre blanda del tuberculo; pudrición blanda; pudricion blanda de la cebolla
  • French: jambe noire de la pomme de terre; jambe noire du tabac; maladie bacterienne de la chicoree; pourriture bactérienne de la pomme de terre; pourriture des tiges; pourriture lenticellaire de la pomme de terre; pourriture molle bacterienne de la pomme de terre; pourriture molle des legumes; pourriture molle des tiges/fruits du papayer; tige creuse du tabac

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Bakterien-: Gemuese Nassfaeule; Nassfaeule: Kartoffel; Schwarzbeinigkeit: Kartoffel

EPPO code

  • ERWIAT (Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Bacteria
  •     Phylum: Proteobacteria
  •         Class: Gammaproteobacteria
  •             Order: Enterobacteriales
  •                 Family: Enterobacteriaceae
  •                     Genus: Pectobacterium
  •                         Species: Pectobacterium atrosepticum

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresentAgha and Fettouche (1991)
EgyptPresentBradbury (1986)
MauritiusPresentAutrey and Dookun (1989)
MoroccoPresentBradbury (1986)
MozambiquePresentBradbury (1986)
South AfricaPresentBradbury (1986)
TanzaniaPresentBradbury (1986)
TunisiaPresentBradbury (1986)
ZimbabwePresentBradbury (1986)

Asia

AzerbaijanPresentBradbury (1986)
BhutanPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Shrestha et al., 1996
ChinaPresentBradbury (1986)
-GuangdongPresentShe et al. (2013)
-JilinPresentGao and Yuan (1991); CABI (Undated);
IndiaPresentBradbury (1986)
-HaryanaPresentKarwasra and Parashar (1991)
-MaharashtraPresentThomas et al. (1979)
-PunjabPresentSomani et al. (1988)
IranPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Hassenzadeh, 1996
IsraelPresentBradbury (1986)
JapanPresentBradbury (1986)
-HokkaidoPresentTanii et al. (1973); Tanii and Akai (1975); Tanii (1984)
-HonshuPresentTogashi (1988)
KazakhstanPresentBradbury (1986)
LebanonPresentBradbury (1986)
PhilippinesPresentBradbury (1986)
TurkeyPresentBaykal and Oktem (1978); Benglioglu et al. (1991)
VietnamPresentBradbury (1986)

Europe

AustriaPresentBradbury (1986)
BulgariaPresentBradbury (1986)
CyprusPresentBradbury (1986)
CzechoslovakiaPresentBradbury (1986)
DenmarkPresentBradbury (1986)
EstoniaPresentBradbury (1986)
FinlandPresentHarju and Kankila (1987); Harju and Kankila (1993)
FrancePresentBradbury (1986)
GermanyPresentBradbury (1986)
GreecePresentBradbury (1986)
IcelandPresentBradbury (1986)
IrelandPresentBradbury (1986)
ItalyPresentBradbury (1986)
LatviaPresentBradbury (1986)
LithuaniaPresentBradbury (1986)
MaltaPresentBradbury (1986)
NetherlandsPresentBradbury (1986)
NorwayPresentBradbury (1986)
PolandPresentBradbury (1986)
PortugalPresentBradbury (1986)
RomaniaPresentBradbury (1986)
RussiaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-Russian Far EastPresentPerlov and Dzhurmina (1975); Nikitina and Korsakov (1978); Ryzhenko (1978); Nikitina and Shchelko (1981)
-SiberiaPresentBradbury (1986)
-Southern RussiaPresentBudanova and Nikitina (1973); Nikitina and Korsakov (1978); Nikitina and Shchelko (1981)
-Western SiberiaPresentBushkova (1974); CABI (Undated)
Serbia and MontenegroPresentObradovic (1994); Obradović and Arsenijević (1997); CABI (Undated)
SpainPresentBradbury (1986)
SwedenPresentBradbury (1986)
SwitzerlandPresentBradbury (1986)
United KingdomPresentBradbury (1986)

North America

BelizePresentSchotman (1989)
BermudaPresentBradbury (1986)
CanadaPresentBradbury (1986); Boer et al. (2012)
-Prince Edward IslandPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Nielson, 1978
-QuebecPresentParent et al. (1996)
Costa RicaPresentOscar Chavez (1983); Araya et al. (1988)
CubaPresentBradbury (1986)
Dominican RepublicPresentOscar Chavez (1983)
GuadeloupePresentSchotman (1989)
HondurasPresentOscar Chavez (1983)
MartiniquePresentSchotman (1989)
MexicoPresentBradbury (1986)
Saint LuciaPresentBradbury (1986)
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentSchotman (1989)
Trinidad and TobagoPresentSchotman (1989)
United StatesPresentBradbury (1986)
-ArizonaPresentMendonca and Stanghellini (1979)
-CaliforniaPresentThomson et al. (1977); Vincelli and Cappellini (1984)
-ColoradoPresentMolina and Harrison (1977); Kloepper et al. (1979); Franc and Harrison (1987); CABI (Undated)
-FloridaPresentVincelli and Cappellini (1984)
-IdahoPresentBarrett et al. (1996)
-MainePresentNielsen (1978)
-MarylandPresentStommel et al. (1996)
-MinnesotaPresentNielsen (1978)
-New JerseyPresentVincelli and Cappellini (1984)
-North CarolinaPresentAnderson et al. (1981)
-North DakotaPresentNielsen (1978)
-OregonPresentPowelson (1980); Gross et al. (1991)
-WisconsinPresentNielsen (1978); Stevenson and Vaughan (1993); Stevenson and James (1994); CABI (Undated)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-New South WalesPresentBradbury (1986)
-QueenslandPresentBradbury (1986)
-TasmaniaPresentBradbury (1986)
-Western AustraliaPresentBradbury (1986)
New ZealandPresentBradbury (1986)

South America

ArgentinaPresentMelegari et al. (1990)
BoliviaPresentOtazu et al. (1985); Harrison et al. (1987); Garvizu and Moreira (1992)
BrazilPresentBradbury (1986)
ChilePresentBradbury (1986)
ColombiaPresentBradbury (1986)
PeruPresentBradbury (1986)
SurinamePresentSchotman (1989)
VenezuelaPresentCedeño M. et al. (1990)

Growth Stages

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List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / necrotic areas
Leaves / wilting
Stems / necrosis
Stems / wilt
Vegetative organs / soft rot
Whole plant / wilt

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Leaves Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Roots Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

References

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1977. Sugar-cane diseases. Cane Growers' Quarterly Bulletin, 41(1):24 pp.

Achbani E; Maazouz H; Boulif M, 1993. Inventory and importance of fungal and bacterial diseases of potato in the Meknes region. Al Awamia, 80:73-89

Acuna I; Riffo P, 1993. Prospeccion de pie negro y potencial de infeccion latente (Erwinia spp) en semilleros de papa en certificacion de las categorias basica y prebasica en la decima region de Chile. Simiente, 63(1):42-43.

Agha NN; Fettouche F, 1991. A survey of bacterial pathogens of potato in the coastal zone of Algeria. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin, 21(4):723-726

Alarcon B; Gorris MT; Cambra M; Lopez MM, 1995. Serological characterization of potato isolates of Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica and subsp. carotovora using polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies. Journal of Applied Bacteriology, 79:592-602.

Alpat'ev NM; Artokhina VG, 1983. Against soil pathogens of lucerne. Zashchita Rastenii, No. 10:26.

Anderson TE; Echandi E; Kennedy GG, 1981. Transmission of the potato blackleg pathogen by European corn borer larvae. Journal of Economic Entomology, 74(5):630-633

Aranda S; Fucikovsky L; Ruiz D; Poot JP, 1996. Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica asociada con la pudricion del pseudotallo del banano (Musa paradisiaca) en la localidad de Sn Rafael, Ver. In: Sociedad Mexicana de Fitopatologia (SMF). Memorias del XXIII congreso nacional. Guadalajara, Mexico: SMF, APS, 006.

Araya CM; Mata F; Rivera G, 1988. Microorganismos portados en la superficie de tuberculos de papa durante poscosecha en Costa Rica. Phytopathology, 78(6):856.

Arsenijevic M; Durisic S; Milosevic D, 1994. Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica, potato pathogen in our country. Zastita Bilja, 45(3):169-178

Arsenijevic M; Durisic S; Milosevic D; Istvan M; Gajic O, 1994. Characteristics of Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica and Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora strains isolated from diseased stems and tubers of potato. Zastita Bilja, 45(1):27-39

Austin S; Lojkowska E; Ehlenfeldt MK; Kelman A; Helgeson JP, 1988. Fertile interspecific somatic hybrids of Solanum: a novel source of resistance to Erwinia soft rot. Phytopathology, 78(9):1216-1220

Autrey LJC; Dookun A, 1989. Identification and importance of soft rot erwinias infecting potato in Mauritius. In: African Potato Association (APA), eds. Proceedings of the First Triannual General Meeting and Conference. Nairobi, Kenya: APA, 182.

Avrova AO; Hyman LJ; Toth RL; Toth IK, 2002. Application of amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting for taxonomy and identification of the soft rot bacteria Erwinia carotovora and Erwinia chrysanthemi. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 68(4):1499-1508; 42 ref.

Bain RA; Perombelon MCM, 1988. Methods of testing potato cultivars for resuistance to soft rot of tuibers caused by Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica. Plant Pathology, 37:431-437.

Bain RA; Perombelon MCM; Tsror L; Nachmias A, 1990. Blackleg development and tuber yield in relation to numbers of Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica on seed potatoes. Plant Pathology, 39(1):125-133

Bang H, 1989. Prevalence of Erwinia-species in basic seed lots of potatoes grown in northern Sweden. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, 39(4):373-379

Barrett KB; Nolte P; Jones WB; Nolte LL, 1996. Antibacterial properties of a grain-derived product. American Potato Journal, 73(8):342.

Barzic M-R; Samson R; Trigalet A, 1976. Bacterial rot of tomato in the glasshouse. Annales de Phytopathologie, 8(2):237-240

Baykal N; Oktem YE, 1978. Investigations on the isolation of the potato black leg pathogen (Erwinia atroseptica van Hall) and its biological and serological characteristics. Journal of Turkish Phytopathology, 7(2/3):83-90

Bedin P, 1988. Les maladies provoquées par les bacteries du genre Erwinia. La Pomme de Terre Francaise, 50(445):65-68.

Bedlan G, 1984. Important diseases of carrot. Pflanzenarzt, 37(9):140-142

Benglioglu K; Oktem YE; Ozakman M, 1991. Bacterial diseases of potatoes in the mayor potato-growing areas in Turkey. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin, 21(1):67-72.

Bergey DH, 1994. Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology. Baltimore, USA: The Williams and Wilkins Co.

Boer SH de; Allan E; Kelman A, 1979. Survival of Erwinia carotovora in Wisconsin soils. American Potato Journal, 56(5):243-252

Boer SH de; Ward LJ, 1995. PCR detection of Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica associated with potato tissue. Phytopathology, 85(8):854-858

Boer SHDe; Copeman RJ; Vruggink H, 1979. Serogroups of Erwinia carotovora potato strains determined with diffusible somatic antigens. Phytopathology, 69(4):316-319

Boer SHde; Li X; Ward LJ, 2012. Pectobacterium spp. associated with bacterial stem rot syndrome of potato in Canada. Phytopathology, 102(10):937-947. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/phyto

Bradbury JF, 1986. Guide to Plant Pathogenic Bacteria. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Brewer JW; Harrison MD; Winston JA, 1980. Differential attraction of Drosophila melanogaster Meig. to potato tissue infected with two varieties of Erwinia carotovora. American Potato Journal, 57(5):219-224

Budanova VI; Nikitina KV, 1973. On bacterial wilt of bean in the Krasnodar region. Nauchye Trudy Krym. Opyt. Selekts. St, 7:280-287.

Burr TJ; Schroth MN, 1977. Occurrence of soft-rot Erwinia spp. in soil and plant material. Phytopathology, 67(11):1382-1387

Bushkova LN, 1974. Morphological, physiological and biochemical properties of the pathogens of bacterial diseases of bean. Byulleten' Vsesoyuznogo Nauchno-Issledovatel'skogo Instituta Zashchity Rastenii, 27:50-53

Bushkova LN; Shuvalova GV; Derzhipil'skii LM, 1981. Some aspects of protection of potato and root cruciferous crops against bacterioses. Trudy Vsesoyuznogo Nauchno-Issledovatel'skogo Instituta Zashchity Rastenii Lenin Acad. Agric. Sci. Leningrad, USSR, 71-74

Cazelles O, 1990. Survey of Erwinia on potato in Switzerland. In: EAPR, eds. 11. Triennial Conference EAPR. Edinburgh, UK: European Association for Potato Research, EAPR abstracts, 325-326.

Cazelles O; Schwarzel R, 1992. Survey of bacterial diseases caused by Erwinia in seed potato fields in western Switzerland. Revue Suisse d'Agriculture, 24(4):215-218

Cedeno M LR; Nieves M BM; Palacios Pru EL, 1990. Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica, a causal agent of soft rot disease of Harton plantain (Musa AAB) in Venezuela. Fitopatologia Venezolana, 3(1):6-9

Chavez LFC, 1983. Erwinia carotovora causante de pierna negra y pudricion blanda de tuberculo-semilla de papa en Costa Rica y otros paises del itsmo centroamericano. Fitopatologia, 18(1):13-21.

Chavez SM; Delgado MA; Cedano C, 1997. Identificacion y distribucion de las especies de Erwinias pectinoliticas causantes de pudricion blanda y pierna negra en el cultivo de papa en la zona andina de Piura. Fitopatologia, 32(1):11.

Ciampi L; Ojeda S; Bustamante P, 1988. Pudricion humeda bacteriana en papas durante el periodo invernal en el sur de Chile. Simiente (Chile), 58(1/2):38.

Ciampi L; Passalacqua P, 1983. Bacterias del genero Erwinia (grupo carotovora) aisladas de plantas y tuberculos de papa (Solanum tuberosum L.). Phyton, Argentina, 43(2):221-226.

Crowhurst RN; Wright PJ, 1988. Subspecies of Erwinia carotovora causing blackleg of potato in Pukekohe and Pukekawa and their survival in soil. New Zealand Potato Bulletin, 109:20-22

Cuppels D; Kelman A, 1974. Evaluation of selective media for isolation of soft rot bacteria from soil and plant tissue. Phytopathology, 64(4):468-475.

Czajkowski R; Grabe GJ; Wolf JMvan der, 2009. Distribution of Dickeya spp. and Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum in naturally infected seed potatoes. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 125(2):263-275. http://springerlink.metapress.com/link.asp?id=100265

Czajkowski R; Pérombelon MCM; Veen JAvan; Wolf JMvan der, 2011. Control of blackleg and tuber soft rot of potato caused by Pectobacterium and Dickeya species: a review. Plant Pathology, 60(6):999-1013. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-3059.2011.02470.x/abstract

Diallo S; Latour X; Groboillot A; Smadja B; Copin P; Orange N; Feuilloley MGJ; Chevalier S, 2009. Simultaneous and selective detection of two major soft rot pathogens of potato: Pectobacterium atrosepticum (Erwinia carotovora subsp. atrosepticum) and Dickeya spp. (Erwinia chrysanthemi). European Journal of Plant Pathology, 125(2):349-354. http://springerlink.metapress.com/link.asp?id=100265

Dorozhkin NA; Bel'skaya SI; Generalova IV, 1976. The spread and harmfulness of black leg of potato in Belorussia. Kartofelevodstvo, 3:114-118

Dorozhkin NA; Bel'skaya SI; Grigor'eva TP, 1979. Mixed tuber rots of potato during storage. Sel'skokhozyaistvennaya Biologiya, 14(1):109-111

Ebbels DL, 1983. Incidence of tuber diseases in classified seed potatoes harvested in England and Wales, 1974-77. Plant Pathology, 32(2):145-150

El-Goorani MA; El-Kazaz MK, 1975. Occurrence of black leg and dry rot of potato in Egypt through imported tubers. Plant Disease Reporter, 59(2):171-174

Elphinstone JG, 1987. Soft rot and blackleg of potato Erwinia spp. Technical Information Bulletin, International Potato Center, No. 21:18 pp.

Farag NS; Fawzi FG; Mikhail MS; El-Said SIA, 1983. Erwinia carotovora var. atroseptica in refrigerated potato stocks in Egypt. Agricultural Research Review, 61(2):215-230

Franc GD; Harrison MD, 1987. The role of contaminated irrigation water in the recontamination of Erwinia free seed potatoes. Americal Potato Journal, 64(8):438.

Frechon D; Exbrayat P; Gallet O; Guillot E; Clerc VLe; Payet N; Bertheau Y, 1995. Sequences nucleotidiques pour la detection des Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica. Brevet, 95:12-803.

French ER; De Lindo L, 1985. Sources of resistance in tuberiferous Solanum spp. to soft rot by Erwinias. In: Graham DC, Harrison MD, ed. Report of the International Conference on Potato Blackleg Disease 1984. Oxford, UK: Potato Marketing Board, p 79.

FrTchon D; Exbrayat P; Gallet O; Guillot E; Le Clerc V; Payet N; Bertheau Y, 1995. Sequences nucleotidiques pour la detection des Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica. Brevet 95.12 803 INRA, INA P-G, SDP.

Fucikovsky L; Villarreal L, 1991. Supervivencia y dispersion de Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica y E. carotovora subsp. carotovora en el valle del Toluca, Mexico. Revista Latinoamericana de la Papa (Peru), 4(1):52-61.

Gallois A; Samson R; Ageron E; Grimont PAD, 1992. Erwinia carotovora subsp. odorifera subsp. nov., associated with odorous soft rot of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.). International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 42(4):582-588

Gans PT; Lapwood DH, 1983. A method for assessing the susceptibility of potato cultivars to blackleg in the field. Potato Research, 26 (4):395.

Gans PT; Lapwood DH; Winiger FA; Stockli A, 1984. Progress towards a routine procedure for assessing the susceptibility of potato cultivars to blackleg in the field. In: Abstracts of conference papers of the 9th triennial conference of the European Association for Potato Research, Interlaken, Switzerland:EAPR.

Gao J; Yuan ML, 1991. Studies on bacterial stalk rot in sunflower. I. Symptoms and identification of causal pathogens. Acta Phytopathologica Sinica, 21(3):173-179

Garibaldi A; Rapetti S, 1984. Cryptogamic and non-parasitic diseases of Iris of economic importance in Italy. Colture Protette, 13(10):57-60; [6 fig. (3 col.)]; 14 ref.

Garvizu L; Moreira A, 1992. Enfermedades causadas por bacterias en cultivo de papa. In: Proyecto de Fortalecimiento del Sistema de Multiplicacion y Distribucion de la Semilla de Papa (PROSEMPA). Curso regional sobre produccion de papa, Cochabamba, Bolivia: PROSEMPA.

Golenia A, 1976. Generalized form of potato black leg (Erwinia carotovora Jones Bergey et al. var. atroseptica (Van Hall) Dye). Roczniki Nauk Rolniczych, E, 6(2):129-135

Gorris MT; Alarcon B; Lopez MM; Cambra M, 1994. Characterization of monoclonal antibodies specific for Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica and comparison of serological methods for its sensitive detection on potato tubers. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 60(6):2076-2085; 36 ref.

Goto M; Matsumoto K, 1987. Erwinia carotovora subsp. wasabip subsp. nov. isolated from diseased rhizomes and fibrous roots of Japanese horseradish (Eutrema wasabi Maxim.). International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 37(2):130-135

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