Invasive Species Compendium

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Acacia colei

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Datasheet

Acacia colei

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Acacia colei
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Habit of Acacia colei var. colei, near Elliot, Northern Territory, Australia.
TitleHabit
CaptionHabit of Acacia colei var. colei, near Elliot, Northern Territory, Australia.
CopyrightMaurice McDonald/CSIRO Forestry & Forest Products
Habit of Acacia colei var. colei, near Elliot, Northern Territory, Australia.
HabitHabit of Acacia colei var. colei, near Elliot, Northern Territory, Australia.Maurice McDonald/CSIRO Forestry & Forest Products
Habit of Acacia colei var. ileocarpa, at Negri River, Western Australia.
TitleHabit
CaptionHabit of Acacia colei var. ileocarpa, at Negri River, Western Australia.
CopyrightMaurice McDonald/CSIRO Forestry & Forest Products
Habit of Acacia colei var. ileocarpa, at Negri River, Western Australia.
HabitHabit of Acacia colei var. ileocarpa, at Negri River, Western Australia.Maurice McDonald/CSIRO Forestry & Forest Products
At Kununurra, Western Australia, showing var. ileocarpa (A) and var. colei (B).
TitleAcacia colei trial
CaptionAt Kununurra, Western Australia, showing var. ileocarpa (A) and var. colei (B).
CopyrightMaurice McDonald/CSIRO Forestry & Forest Products
At Kununurra, Western Australia, showing var. ileocarpa (A) and var. colei (B).
Acacia colei trialAt Kununurra, Western Australia, showing var. ileocarpa (A) and var. colei (B).Maurice McDonald/CSIRO Forestry & Forest Products
TitleYoung shrub
Caption
CopyrightLex Thomson/CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products
Young shrubLex Thomson/CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products
Flower spike from glasshouse-grown plant.
TitleFlower
CaptionFlower spike from glasshouse-grown plant.
CopyrightMaurice McDonald/CSIRO Forestry & Forest Products
Flower spike from glasshouse-grown plant.
FlowerFlower spike from glasshouse-grown plant.Maurice McDonald/CSIRO Forestry & Forest Products
Seed pods of Acacia colei var. colei, near Nicholson Station, Western Australia.
TitleSeed pods
CaptionSeed pods of Acacia colei var. colei, near Nicholson Station, Western Australia.
CopyrightMaurice McDonald/CSIRO Forestry & Forest Products
Seed pods of Acacia colei var. colei, near Nicholson Station, Western Australia.
Seed podsSeed pods of Acacia colei var. colei, near Nicholson Station, Western Australia.Maurice McDonald/CSIRO Forestry & Forest Products
Seed pods of Acacia colei var. ileocarpa, from a trial at Kununurra, Western Australia.
TitleSeed pods
CaptionSeed pods of Acacia colei var. ileocarpa, from a trial at Kununurra, Western Australia.
CopyrightMaurice McDonald/CSIRO Forestry & Forest Products
Seed pods of Acacia colei var. ileocarpa, from a trial at Kununurra, Western Australia.
Seed podsSeed pods of Acacia colei var. ileocarpa, from a trial at Kununurra, Western Australia.Maurice McDonald/CSIRO Forestry & Forest Products

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Acacia colei Maslin & L. A. J. Thomson

Variety

  • Acacia colei var. colei
  • Acacia colei var. ileocarpa M. W. McDonald & Maslin

Local Common Names

  • Australia: Cole's wattle

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Fabales
  •                         Family: Fabaceae
  •                             Subfamily: Mimosoideae
  •                                 Genus: Acacia
  •                                     Species: Acacia colei

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page The recognition of A. colei as a distinct species resulted from recent research implemented by the Australian Tree Seed Centre (CSIRO, Forestry and Forest Products). The Centre has been actively involved in the collection, documentation and trialling of Australian Acacia species for use in developing countries since the 1980s (Midgley and Gunn, 1985; Turnbull, 1986; Thomson and Cole, 1987; House and Harwood, 1992; Thomson et al., 1994; Maslin and McDonald, 1996a; Doran and Turnbull, 1997). Much of the work focussed on acacias from the tropical dry zone of Australia due to their potential as sources of fuelwood and their ability to grow on difficult sites (see Thomson et al., 1994). Field trial results, however, revealed a number of Acacia 'taxa' that had substantial variation in morphological, biological and silvicultural characteristics, in particular A. holosericea (see McDonald et al., 1996 for others). Variation once considered part of A. holosericea was documented as comprising a polyploid species complex (Maslin and Thomson, 1992). A. colei (hexaploid) was segregated from A. holosericea (tetraploid) and another species, A. neurocarpa A. Cunn. ex Hook. (diploid), previously considered synonymous with A. holosericea, was reinstated. These species are superficially similar but differ in subtle morphological and ecological traits. A. colei differs from A. holosericea and A. neurocarpa in having phyllodes with shallowly recurved apices that lack a gland at the base of the apical mucro, distinctly elongated phyllode reticulum and curved pods (Maslin and McDonald, 1996a). It also differs in having a more southerly distribution and in not being restricted to a riparian habitat. The name honours E.G. Cole, a Senior Technician with the Australian Tree Seed Centre, who conducted early seed and botanical collections of the species.

Further investigations revealed A. colei comprised two distinct variants: var. colei and var. ileocarpa (McDonald and Maslin, 1997a). Although previously thought to have evolved as a putative hybrid involving A. colei (hexaploid) and A. neurocarpa (diploid) by Maslin and Thomson (1992), var. ileocarpa is also hexaploid but differs from var. colei in having tightly, irregularly coiled or twisted pods (which are very similar to those found in the related species A. holosericea and A. neurocarpa), orange-coloured terminal branchlets, slightly narrower phyllodes and smaller seeds (McDonald and Maslin, 1997a). The varietal epithet alludes to the twisted and coiled state of its pods.

A. colei, A. holosericea and A. neurocarpa belong to the Acacia section Juliflorae (Benth.) Maiden & Betche and form part of a group which includes A. cowleana Tate, A. elachantha M.W. McDonald & Maslin (see McDonald and Maslin, 1997b for a taxonomic reappraisal of these two species), A. grandiflora Pedley, A. mangium Willd., A. nesophila Pedley, A. pellita O. Schwartz, A. sericoflora Pedley and A. thomsonii Maslin & M.W. McDonald (Maslin and Thomson, 1992). All of these species occur in the seasonally dry tropics of Australia. They are characterized by their flowers in cylindrical spikes, phyllodes with numerous, anastomosing, longitudinal nerves and narrow, curved or tightly coiled and twisted pods with small seeds that have yellow or orange arils.

Based on morphological attributes and chromosome counts, Maslin and Thomson (1992) suggest that A. colei evolved as an allopolyploid between A. neurocarpa (diploid) and A. elachantha (a tetraploid). Maslin and McDonald (1996a, 1996b) suggest that the closest relative of A. colei is A. thomsonii Maslin & McDonald. Putative natural hybrids between A. colei var. colei and A. elachantha have been noted by Thomson (1992) and Maslin and McDonald (1996a). Kenneally et al. (1996) also note putative, natural hybrids between A. colei and A. neurocarpa in the Beagle Bay region of Western Australia.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Planted Reference Notes

Africa

Burkina FasoPresentPlantedCABI (Undated b)
Cabo VerdePresentPlantedCABI (Undated b)
CameroonPresentPlantedCABI (Undated b)
KenyaPresentIntroducedInvasiveWitt and Luke (2017); CABI (Undated)
MaliPresentPlantedCABI (Undated b)
MozambiquePresentPlantedCABI (Undated b)
NigerPresentPlantedCABI (Undated b)
NigeriaPresentPlantedCABI (Undated b)
SenegalPresentPlantedCABI (Undated b)
SomaliaPresentPlantedCABI (Undated b)
SudanPresentPlantedCABI (Undated b)
TanzaniaPresentIntroducedInvasiveWitt and Luke (2017)
ZimbabwePresentPlantedCABI (Undated b)

Asia

IndiaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-RajasthanPresentPlantedCABI (Undated b)
-Tamil NaduPresentPlantedCABI (Undated b)
-West BengalPresentPlantedCABI (Undated b)
IndonesiaPresentPlantedCABI (Undated b)
NepalPresentPlantedCABI (Undated b)
ThailandPresentPlantedCABI (Undated b)
VietnamPresentPlantedCABI (Undated b)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-Northern TerritoryPresentCABI (Undated b)
-QueenslandPresentCABI (Undated b)
-Western AustraliaPresentCABI (Undated b)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
-14 -23 5 1500

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) -1
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 25 28
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 34 42
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 6 20

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration410number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall250900mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

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Summer
Uniform
Winter

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • infertile
  • shallow

Wood Products

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Charcoal

Woodware

  • Industrial and domestic woodware
  • Tool handles
  • Wood carvings

References

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Adewusi SRA, Falade OS, Harwood CE, 1998. Chemical composition of A. colei and A. tumida seeds - potential food sources in the semi-arid tropics. Food Chemistry (in press)

Arentz F, Boer E, Lemmens RHMJ, Ilic J, 1995. Acacia Miller. In: Lemmens RHMJ, Soerianegara I, Wong WC, eds. Plant resources of South-East Asia. No. 5(2). Timber Trees: minor commercial timbers. pp. 27-38. Leiden: Backhuys Publishers

ATSC, 1999. Germination test results: records of the Australian Tree Seed Centre, CSIRO, Forestry and Forest Products. Data located on Internet site: http://www.ffp.csiro.au/tigr/atscmain/

Boland DJ, 1989. Trees for the tropics. Growing Australian multipurpose trees and shrubs in Developing Countries. ACIAR Monograph, No. 10, ii + 247 pp.; 11 pp. of ref

Cossalter C, 1987. Introducing Australian acacias in dry, tropical Africa. ACIAR Proceedings, Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, No. 16, 118-122; In: Turnbull JW, ed. Australian acacias in developing countries. Proceedings of an international workshop, Gympie, Qld., Australia, 4-7 August 1986

CTFT, 1983. Document provisoire sur les acacias. Nogent-sur-Marne, France: Centre Technique Forestier Tropical (unpublished)

Dommergues Y, Duhoux E, Diem HG, 1999. Les Arbres Fixateurs D'Azote: characteristiques fondamentales et role dans l'amenagement des ecosystemes mediterraneens et tropicaux. Avec reference particuliere aux zones sunhumudes at arides. Montpellier, France: CIRAD, Editions Espaces, FAO, IRD

Doran JC, Turnbull JW, 1997. Australian trees and shrubs: species for land rehabilitation and farm planting in the tropics. Australian trees and shrubs: species for land rehabilitation and farm planting in the tropics., viii + 384 pp.; [refs]

Hamel O, 1980. Acclimatization and utilization of phyllodineous acacias from Australia in Senegal. In: Houerou HN le, ed. Browse in Africa - the current state of knowledge. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: International Livestock Centre for Africa, 361-374

Harwood C, Adewusi S, Rinaudo T, 1998. Developing Australian acacia seeds as human food. Unasylva (submitted)

Harwood CE, 1994. Human food potential of the seeds of some Australian dry-zone Acacia species. Journal of Arid Environments, 27(1):27-35; 29 ref

Harwood CE, Le Dinh Kha, Phi Quang Dien, Luu Van Thang, 1998. Performance of Australian dry-zone Acacia species on white sandy soils in south-eastern Vietnam. In: Turnbull JW, Crompton HR, Pinyopusarerk K (eds). Recent developments in acacia planting, Proceedings of an international workshop held in Hanoi, Vietnam, 27-30 October, 1997. ACIAR Proceedings No. 82, 29-35

Harwood CE, Rinaudo T, Adewusi S, 1999. Developing Australian acacia seeds as a food for the Sahel. Unasylva, 50(196):57-64

House APN, Harwood CE, 1992. Australian dry-zone acacias for human food: proceedings of a workshop held at Glen Helen, Northern Territory, Australia, 7-10 August 1991. 1992, xiii + 145 pp.; Available from CSIRO Publications, PO Box 89, East Melbourne, Victoria 3002, Australia

IRBET-CTFT, 1989. Rapport Annuel D'Activities 1988. Institut de Recherche en Biologie et Cologie Tropicale-Centre Technique Forestier Tropical. Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

Kenneally KF, Edinger DC, Willing T, 1996. Broome and beyond: Plants and people of the Dampier Peninsula, Kimberley, Western Australia. Perth, Western Australia: Department of Conservation and Land Management

Latz PK, 1995. Bushfires and bushtucker: Aboriginal plant use in Central Australia. Alice Springs: IAD Press

Maslin BR, McDonald MW, 1996. A key to useful Australian acacias for the seasonally dry tropics. 80 pp. Melbourne, Australia: CSIRO Publishing

Maslin BR, McDonald MW, 1996. Acacia thomsonii (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae: Acacia section Juliflorae), a new species from the tropical dry zone of Australia. Nuytsia, 10(3):443-449; 6 ref

Maslin BR, Thomson LAJ, 1992. Re-appraisal of the taxonomy of Acacia holosericea, including the description of a new species, A. colei, and the reinstatement of A. neurocarpa. Australian Systematic Botany, 5(6):729-743; 8 ref

McDonald MW, Maslin BR, 1997. A reappraisal of Acacia cowleana and allied taxa, including the description of a new species, A. elachantha, from the tropical dry-zone of Australia. Australian Systematic Botany, 10(3):303-320; 17 ref

McDonald MW, Maslin BR, 1997. Acacia colei var. ileocarpa (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae), a new taxon from the tropical dry-zone of north-west Australia. Nuytsia, 11:219-223

McDonald MW, Maslin BR, Harwood CE, 1996. Taxonomic studies of tropical dry zone Acacia species facilitate their domestication. In: Deiters MJ, Matheson AC, Nikles DG, Harwood CE, Walker SM, eds. Tree Improvement for Sustainable Tropical Forestry. Proceedings of a QFRI-IUFRO Conference, Caloundra, Queensland, Australia, 27 October-1 November (Queensland Forestry Research Institute, Gympie), 96-98

McKinnell FH, Harisetijono, 1991. Testing Acacia species on alkaline soils in West Timor. [Pengujian jenis akasia pada tanah alkali dt Timor.] Savana, No. 6:7-15; 7 ref

Midgley SJ, Gunn BV, 1985. Acacia aneura seed collections for international provenance trials. Forest Genetic Resources Information, FAO, No. 13:21-29; 12 ref

Mitchell MR, 1989. Susceptibility to termite attack of various tree species planted in Zimbabwe. ACIAR Monograph Canberra, Australia; Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, No. 10:215-227

Moran G, Thomson L, Grant J, Bell C, 1992. The distribution of genetic variation within two dry-zone Acacia species and the implications for their genetic improvement. In: House APN, Harwood CE, eds. Australian dry-zone acacias for human food. Canberra: CSIRO Australian Tree Seed Centre, 74-81

Moran GF, Muona O, Bell JC, 1989. Breeding systems and genetic diversity in Acacia auriculiformis and A. crassicarpa. Biotropica, 21(3):250-256; 41 ref

Rinaudo T, Burt M, Harwood C, 1995. Growth and seed production of Australian Acacia species at Maradi, Niger. ACIAR Forestry Newsletter, No. 19, 1-2; 3 ref

Rinaudo T, Burt M, Harwood CE, 1995. Growth and seed production of Australian Acacia species at Maradi, Niger. ACIAR Forestry Newsletter 19, 1-2. Canberra, Australia: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research

Ryan PA, Bell RE, 1989. Growth, coppicing and flowering of Australian tree species in southeast Queensland, Australia. ACIAR Monograph, No. 10:49-68; [refs. at end of book]

Ryan PA, Podberscek M, Raddatz CG, Taylor DW, 1987. Acacia species trials in southeast Queensland, Australia. ACIAR Proceedings, Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, No. 16, 81-85; In Australian acacias in developing countries. Proceedings of an international workshop, Gympie, Qld., Australia, 4-7 August 1986 [edited by Turnbull, J.W.]; 2 ref

Sedgley M, 1987. Reproductive biology of acacias. ACIAR Proceedings, Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, No. 16, 54-56; In: Turnbull JW, ed. Australian acacias in developing countries. Proceedings of an international workshop, Gympie, Qld., Australia, 4-7 August 1986

Souvannavong O, de Framond H, 1992. Performance of dry-zone Acacia species and provenances recently introduced to the Sahel. In: House APN, Harwood CE, eds. Australian dry-zone acacias for human food. Canberra: CSIRO Australian Tree Seed Centre, 82-92

Thomson L, 1992. Genetic variation in sub-tropical dry zone acacias. ACIAR Forestry Newsletter, No. 13, 3; 2 ref

Thomson L, Harwood C, Rinaudo T, 1996. Australian acacias - untapped genetic resources for human food production in dry tropical sub-saharan Africa. FAO Forest Genetic Resources Information, No. 24:69-75

Thomson LAJ, 1992. Australia's subtropical dry-zone Acacia species with human food potential. In: House APN, Harwood CE, eds. Australian dry-zone acacias for human food. Melbourne: CSIRO Publications, 3-36

Thomson LAJ, Cole EG, 1987. Woody plant seed collections in tropical, arid and semi-arid Australia and recommendations for international species trials. Forest Genetic Resources Information, No. 15, 37-49; 9 ref

Thomson LAJ, Turnbull JW, Maslin BR, 1994. The utilization of Australian species of Acacia, with particular reference to those of the subtropical dry zone. Journal of Arid Environments, 27(3):279-295

Turnbull JW, 1986. Multipurpose Australian trees and shrubs: lesser-known species for fuelwood and agroforestry. ACIAR Monograph No. 1

Vercoe TK, 1989. Fodder value of selected Australian tree and shrub species. ACIAR Monograph, No. 10:187-192; [refs. at end of book]

Witt, A., Luke, Q., 2017. Guide to the naturalized and invasive plants of Eastern Africa, [ed. by Witt, A., Luke, Q.]. Wallingford, UK: CABI.vi + 601 pp. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158959 doi:10.1079/9781786392145.0000

Distribution References

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Witt A, Luke Q, 2017. Guide to the naturalized and invasive plants of Eastern Africa. [ed. by Witt A, Luke Q]. Wallingford, UK: CABI. vi + 601 pp. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158959 DOI:10.1079/9781786392145.0000

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