Erschoviella musculana (Asian walnut moth)
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Distribution Table
- Risk of Introduction
- Host Plants and Other Plants Affected
- List of Symptoms/Signs
- Biology and Ecology
- Natural enemies
- Means of Movement and Dispersal
- Prevention and Control
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Erschoviella musculana Ershov
Preferred Common Name
- Asian walnut moth
Other Scientific Names
- Nycteola musculana Ershov
- Sarrothripus musculana Ershov
International Common Names
- English: walnut moth
- ERSHMU (Erschoviella musculana)
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Metazoa
- Phylum: Arthropoda
- Subphylum: Uniramia
- Class: Insecta
- Order: Lepidoptera
- Family: Noctuidae
- Genus: Erschoviella
- Species: Erschoviella musculana
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page
DescriptionTop of page
The egg is yellowish-grey to reddish-grey, spherical, 0.5 mm in diameter, strongly flattened from below and slightly flattened from the top, covered by small ribs. Both poles are covered by the net of hexagonal cells forming a star at the top (Vassiliev, 1912).
The neonate larva is cream-white to yellowish-white, 2-3 mm long with dark-brown head (0.5 mm in diameter) and with pronotum covered by a few long light hairs. The fully grown caterpillar before pupation is 15-20 mm long and approximately 5 mm wide at the first abdominal segment, light greenish-cream to greenish-brown or reddish-brown with pattern formed by small brown spots and specks. A light brownish pulsing dorsal vessel is visible through the middle of the dorsal part of the body. The body is covered by a few light brownish-cream hairs based on small dark-brown round scutella. These hairs are short on the head and rather long on the dorsal and lateral sides of the body. The anal plate is dark-brown. The pronotum is brown to greenish-brown. Thoracic legs are dark-brown and matt. Abdominal legs are of the same colour as the rest of the body. The head is brown and bright, 3-4 mm in diameter. The stigmata are very small (Vassiliev, 1912; Degtyareva, 1964; Dzhaparov, 1990).
The pupa is 11-12 mm long and 3.5-3.6 mm wide. The head, antennae, legs and wings are light brownish-ochre. A wide, darker brown to black-brown longitudinal stripe runs along the dorsal side. The abdomen is mat, light greenish-brownish-ochre. The last two tergites have transverse wrinkles. The top of the abdomen is rounded and has no cremaster. The pupa is in a snow-white dense cocoon, which is 12-14 mm long and 4.5-5.2 mm wide (in the middle), and which is narrowed at both ends (Vassiliev, 1912; Degtyareva, 1964).
The adult wingspan is 18-23 mm. The length of the body is 8-9 mm. The fore wings are, in general, leaden-grey with transverse brown, white and black bands and lines. The wing fringe is grey with black points. The hind wings are monochrome grey. The thorax is grey or brownish-grey with dark transverse stripe. The antennae are thin, light brown to dark brown, covered by rare small hairs. The palpi are long and thin, grey with dark tops. The underside of wings and of the body is monochrome light grey (Vassiliev, 1912).
DistributionTop of page
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 17 Feb 2021
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|-Jammu and Kashmir||Present|
|Turkey||Present||Original citation: Yildiz & Ayberk (2019)|
Risk of IntroductionTop of page
Host Plants and Other Plants AffectedTop of page
SymptomsTop of page
List of Symptoms/SignsTop of page
|Fruit / frass visible|
|Fruit / internal feeding|
|Stems / discoloration of bark|
|Stems / internal feeding|
|Stems / visible frass|
|Stems / wilt|
Biology and EcologyTop of page
Natural enemiesTop of page
|Natural enemy||Type||Life stages||Specificity||References||Biological control in||Biological control on|
|Pimpla spuria||Parasite||Yıldız & Ayberk (2019)|
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page
ImpactTop of page
Assessment of the economic impact of the pest in 1986/1988 in Kyrgyzstan showed high losses of the walnut growing enterprise 'Arslanbob' due to E. musculana (Dzhaparov, 1990).
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.Possibilities for control of the pest are very limited. During almost all its life cycle, it is well protected against chemical and bacterial treatments. On young trees, trapping bands are used against pest caterpillars. Removing and destruction of fallen fruits may give good results. It is also possible to destroy aggregations of pest pupae under loose bark (Degtyareva, 1964; Makhnovskii, 1970; Dzhaparov, 1990).
The natural enemies of E. musculana may play an important role in regulation of its populations. Sixteen species belonging to Ichneumonidae, Braconidae, Pteromalidae, Torymidae, Trichogrammatidae, Carabidae, Raphidiidae and Formicidae are recorded as parasitoids and predators of the pest. The most frequent of these are Trichogramma sp. and Pimpla instigator. Sometimes, caterpillars are infected by the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis or the fungus Beauveria bassiana (Degtyareva, 1964; Dzhaparov, 1990).
E. musculana was added in 2003 to the EPPO A2 action list, and endangered EPPO countries are thus recommended to regulate it as a quarantine pest. Since the risk of introduction of E. musculana with fruits, cut branches or wood appears low enough to be acceptable, phytosanitary measures need concern only plants for planting of Juglans spp. Freedom from the pest can be ensured by a pre-export inspection.
ReferencesTop of page
Degtyareva VI, 1964. [The Main Lepidopteran Pests of Trees and Shrubs of the Central Part of Gissar Mountain Ridge and Gissar valley.] Izdatel’stvo Akademii Nauk Tadzhikskoi SSR, Dushanbe (TJ) (in Russian)
Dzhaparov EB, 1990. [Biology and ecology of Erschoviella musculana in walnut forests of Southern Kirgizia.] Doctoral Thesis, Leningrad Forest Technical Academy, Sankt-Peterburg, Russia (in Russian)
EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm
Vassiliev IV, 1912. [Oriental leaf beetle Agelastica orientalis Baly and walnut moth Sarrothripus musculana Ersch. - two pests of Turkestan horticulture.] Proceedings of the Bureau of Entomology v, IX, 7. Merkushev, Sankt-Peterburg, Russia (in Russian)
Yildiz, Y., Ayberk, H., 2019. The first parasitoid record of Garella musculana (Nolidae, Lepidoptera) from Turkey; Pimpla spuria (Ichneumonidae, Hymenoptera). Applied Ecology and Environmental Research, 17(2), 3427-3431. doi: 10.15666/aeer/1702_34273431
Yildiz, Y., Yildirim. I., Bostanci, C., Aydogan, O., 2018. Erschoviella musculana Erschoff 1874, a new record and a new walnut pest in Turkey. Journal of Bartin Faculty of Forestry, 20(2), 296-302. http://dergipark.gov.tr/download/article-file/475282
Bostancı C, Yıldırım İ, Aydoğan O, Yıldız Y, 2019. New host walnut species Juglans nigra for Garella musculana. Turkish Journal of Agriculture - Food Science and Technology. 7 (12), 2133-2136. http://www.agrifoodscience.com/index.php/TURJAF/article/view/2869/1301
CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI
CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI
Yildiz Y, Yildirim I, Bostanci C, Aydogan O, 2018. Erschoviella musculana Erschoff 1874, a new record and a new walnut pest in Turkey. In: Journal of Bartin Faculty of Forestry, 20 (2) 296-302. http://dergipark.gov.tr/download/article-file/475282
Distribution MapsTop of page
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CABI Summary Records
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