Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Calacarus carinatus
(purple tea mite)

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Datasheet

Calacarus carinatus (purple tea mite)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 27 September 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Calacarus carinatus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • purple tea mite
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Chelicerata
  •         Class: Arachnida
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • C. carinatus is a mite native to Asia. It is now also present in Africa, Europe, the USA and Australia. It usually attacks camellias and can reduce tea leaf production. In Kenya, C. carinatus has resul...

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Calacarus carinatus (Green 1890) Keifer, 1955

Preferred Common Name

  • purple tea mite

Other Scientific Names

  • Calacarus adornatus (Keifer), 1952
  • Eriophyes carinatus (Green) Nalepa, 1929
  • Phyllocoptes carinatus
  • Phytoptus carinatus
  • Typhlodromus carinatus Green, 1890

International Common Names

  • English: mite, purple; purple tea mite; ribbed tea mite; tea, mite, ribbed
  • French: acarien purpre et blanc

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Milbe, Purpur-; purpurmilbe
  • Netherlands: Purperen thee mijt; Purpur mijt
  • Turkey: cay pas bocusu

EPPO code

  • ERPHCA (Calacarus carinatus)

Summary of Invasiveness

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C. carinatus is a mite native to Asia. It is now also present in Africa, Europe, the USA and Australia. It usually attacks camellias and can reduce tea leaf production. In Kenya, C. carinatus has resulted in loss of capital due to the reduction in tea leaf production.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Chelicerata
  •                 Class: Arachnida
  •                     Subclass: Acari
  •                         Superorder: Acariformes
  •                             Suborder: Prostigmata
  •                                 Family: Eriophyidae
  •                                     Genus: Calacarus
  •                                         Species: Calacarus carinatus

Description

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The genus Calacarus is a distinctive group of mites, as the females usually have a purplish body and three or five longitudinal wax-bearing ridges on the opisthosoma (Lindquist et al., 1996; Anon., 2014). Wax may also occur on the dorsal shield, following the dorsal shield lines (Lindquist et al., 1996). The rostrum of the female is relatively large and curves downwards (Huang, 2014). The coverflap of the female mite is 32.2 to 36 µ wide and 19.8 to 21.3 µ long, with many faint, short lines (Huang, 2014).

C. carinatus is smaller than two-spotted spider mites, and individuals are referred to as ‘rust mites’ due to the bronzing caused on infested leaves (Anon., 2014) (see Symptoms).

The larvae are cream-coloured and pear-shaped (Lindquist et al., 1996). As they develop, they become darker.

Distribution

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The earliest geographical record of C. carinatus in the literature is from Indonesia in 1909 (Bernard, 1909 in Lindquist et al., 1996). C. carinatus is also reported from Sri Lanka (King, 1936), south India (Anstead, 1911 in Lindquist et al., 1996), southeast Asia (Pasquier, 1933), Batum, Georgia (Tulashvili, 1930), Mauritius (Moutia, 1958), New Zealand (Manson, 1959), Florida, USA (Jeppson et al., 1975), Taiwan (Shaio, 1976) and more recently, Louisiana (Oliver and Cancienne, 1980), South Africa (Immelman, 1983), Spain (Vazquez, 1991), Australia (CSIRO, 2004) and Kenya (IPPC Secretariat, 2005).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

CambodiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2014
ChinaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2014
-AnhuiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2014
-FujianPresentCABI/EPPO, 2014
-GuangdongPresentCABI/EPPO, 2014
-GuizhouPresentWang et al., 2010; CABI/EPPO, 2014
-HubeiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2014
-HunanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2014
-JiangsuPresentCABI/EPPO, 2014
-JiangxiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2014
-ShandongPresentCABI/EPPO, 2014
-ZhejiangPresentCABI/EPPO, 2014
Georgia (Republic of)PresentTulashvili, 1930; CABI/EPPO, 2014
IndiaPresentCherian, 1938; CABI/EPPO, 2014
-AssamPresentCABI/EPPO, 2014
-Himachal PradeshPresentShanker et al., 2002; CABI/EPPO, 2014
-KarnatakaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2014
-KeralaPresentMuraleedharan and Chandrasekharan, 1981; CABI/EPPO, 2014
-Tamil NaduPresentMuraleedharan and Varatharajan, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2014
-TripuraPresentPande and Nandi, 1983, recd. 1985; CABI/EPPO, 2014
-West BengalPresentCABI/EPPO, 2014
IndonesiaPresentLindquist et al., 1996; CABI/EPPO, 2014
-SumatraPresentMenzel, 1928Deli
JapanPresentHsu Fong-kan, 1936, February; CABI/EPPO, 2014
Korea, Republic ofPresentCABI/EPPO, 2014; Lee et al., 2014
LaosPresentCABI/EPPO, 2014
MalaysiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2014
Sri LankaPresentKing, 1937; CABI/EPPO, 2014
TaiwanPresentHuang, 1974; CABI/EPPO, 2014
VietnamPresentCABI/EPPO, 2014

Africa

KenyaPresentIntroduced1976 Invasive IPPC-Secretariat, 2005; CABI/EPPO, 2014
MauritiusPresentMoutia, 1958; CABI/EPPO, 2014
South AfricaPresentImmelman, 1983; CABI/EPPO, 2014

North America

USARestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2014
-CaliforniaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2014
-FloridaPresentJeppson et al., 1975; CABI/EPPO, 2014
-GeorgiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2014
-LouisianaPresentOliver and Cancienne, 1980; CABI/EPPO, 2014

Europe

ItalyPresentCABI/EPPO, 2014
PortugalPresentCABI/EPPO, 2014
Russian FederationPresentCABI/EPPO, 2014
-Southern RussiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2014
SpainPresentIntroduced1990Vázquez, 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2014

Oceania

AustraliaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2014
-New South WalesPresentCSIRO, 2004
-South AustraliaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2014
-TasmaniaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2014
-VictoriaPresentCSIRO, 2004; CABI/EPPO, 2014
New ZealandPresentManson, 1959; CABI/EPPO, 2014

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Kenya 1976 Yes IPPC-Secretariat (2005)

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedProtected agriculture (e.g. glasshouse production) Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)

Hosts/Species Affected

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C. carinatus usually attacks camellias, but has also been found attacking Spathiphyllum plants in Florida greenhouses (Anon., 2014). It is said to have an unusually wide host range compared to other members of the genus, apart from Calacarus citrifolii (Lindquist et al., 1996). In addition to attacking Camellia sinensis, it has also been reported from Camellia japonica and ‘two hosts in two other dicot families’ (Lindquist et al., 1996). Other hosts include: leaves of Viburnum opulus in California, USA; Capsicum annum in Mauritius (Moutia, 1958); and Camellia kissi and Camellia caudate in Assam, India (Das and Sengupta, 1962).

Growth Stages

Top of page Vegetative growing stage

Symptoms

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C. carinatus causes a bronzing or purple discolouration of infested leaves, hence the common name ‘rust mite’ (Mamikonyan, 1935; Anon., 2014). This is more apparent on the leaf margins (Shiao, 1976). Infested leaves also have a ‘dusty’ appearance due to the cast skins of the mites and the residue of ‘mite wax’ on the leaf surface (Anon., 2014). Leaves attacked by the mites turn completely brown and dry up, and defoliation occurs in heavy infestations (Shiao, 1976; Vazquez, 1991). The mites usually attack older leaves and show a preference for the upper surface, especially along the midrib and margins (Light, 1927).

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Growing point / external feeding
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
Leaves / external feeding

Biology and Ecology

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Reproductive Biology

The eggs are usually laid along leaf veins (Anon., 2014) and singly (Lindquist et al., 1996). The eggs hatch in approximately 6-8 days, and the total development time from egg to adult is approximately 10-12 days (Anon., 2014), although this is dependent on temperature; 13-14 days have been recorded in January (Anon., 2014), 9 days in March and 7 days in July or August in tea plantations in the USA (Jeppson et al., 1975).

There are two nymphal instars and the females begin ovipositing on the third day after the final moult (Oliver and Cancienne, 1980). According to Oliver and Cancienne (1980) an average of 7.5 eggs are laid in 8 days; King (1937) reported that females laid up to 13 eggs at a rate of 1-2 a day. King (1937) also reported that C. carinatus exhibits arrhenotokous parthenogenesis (where unfertilized eggs develop into males).

Longevity

Shiao (1976) reported that a generation lasted 20 and 50 days at 28.5 and 16.5 degrees centigrade, respectively.

Activity Patterns

Populations of mites usually build up during dry periods in tea plantations and significantly decline during rainy periods (Anon., 2014). In local greenhouses, numbers of mites decline when plants are frequently watered with over-head irrigation (Anon., 2014).

Nutrition

The adult and nymphs of C. carinatus suck the sap of host plant leaves (Radhakrishnan and Prabhakaran, 2012). When mite numbers are high, they also attack shoots and bud scales of tea (Mamikonyan, 1935).

Associations

The purple tea mite usually occurs with the pink tea mite (Acaphylla theae) in India (Lindquist et al., 1996) and was reported as ‘generally associated’ with A. theae in the USA (in Los Angeles and ‘two other counties’) on Camellia (Armitage, 1946).

Environmental Requirements

Muraleedharan and Chandrasekharan (1981) reported peak numbers of mites in January, April, May and November in tea plantations in south India. In Japan, Shiao (1976) reported that population size increased gradually from June to October, but was adversely affected by rainfall. High temperature and high relative humidity, as well as heavy rainfall, were reported to significantly reduce mite numbers in Munnar, Kerala, India (Muraleedharan et al., 1994). Low temperatures are also reported to have an adverse effect on mite populations (Muraleedharan and Chandrasekharan, 1981). In addition, Danthanarayana and Ranaweera (1972) also suggested that mite numbers could be influenced by certain biochemical processes in tea leaves. C. carinatus were reported to prefer shaded tea, except in August, in Tripura, India (Pande and Nandi, 1983).

When vertical distribution of the purple tea mite was studied on Camellia sinensis in India, it was found that mites showed a preference for bottom leaves (Muraleedharan et al., 1994). Leaves at the top and in the middle of the plants contained significantly fewer numbers of mites. Bushes that were pruned three and four years previously harboured greater densities of C. carinatus than bushes in the first half of the pruning cycle.

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Acarus
Amblyseius herbicolus
Amblyseius obtusus
Coccinella septempunctata Predator Adults/Eggs/Nymphs not specific
Diaeretiella
Exothorhis caudata
Lestodiplosis oomeni Predator Adults/Larvae
Oxyopes
Syrphus
Tydeus

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Harris (1982) reported that C. carinatus is the preferred prey of the cecidomyiid Lestodiplosis oomeni in West Java, Indonesia. However, it was also noted that the efficiency of the predator would probably be compromised by a ceraphronid parasite that frequently attacked it.

Amblyseius rhabdus, Amblyseius deleoni, Amblyseius ovalis, Tydeus sp. and Acarus have also been reported as predators of purple and pink tea mites (Rao et al., 1969; Muraleedharan and Chandrasekharan, 1981; Lindquist et al., 1996), but Lindquist et al. (1996) questioned the report on Tydeus sp. and Acarus, commenting that the feeding habits of the mites of these genera are generally not know to be predaceous.

Sharma and Kashyap (2002) reported that Syrphus sp., Coccinella septempunctata, Oxyopes sp. and the parasitoid Diaeretiella sp. are the most important natural enemies in tea orchards in general (i.e. not specific to C. carinatus) in Himachal Pradesh, India.

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal

Mites crawl, but do not fly, and so non-assisted dispersal is restricted to movement on a plant, between plants if plants are touching, or across soil from one plant to the next.

Vector Transmission (Biotic)

Mites can be carried on the wind, either on webbing or on plant parts that are scattered by the wind (Light, 1927).

Accidental Introduction

Mites can be carried on leaf parts or on the clothing of people working amongst infested plants, although the latter is thought to be of little importance (Light, 1927).

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Leaves adults; eggs; nymphs Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Negative
Environment (generally) Negative

Economic Impact

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The adult and nymphs of C. carinatus suck the sap of host plant leaves (Radhakrishnan and Prabhakaran, 2012). When mite numbers are high, they also attack shoots and bud scales of tea (Mamikonyan, 1935).

In Kenya, C. carinatus has resulted in loss of capital due to the reduction in tea leaf production (IPPC Secretariat, 2005). Due to the damage it causes to tea and ornamental plants of economic importance in other parts of the world, such as Taiwan (e.g. Huang, 1974) and India (e.g. Shanker et al., 2002), it follows that economic losses due to mite infestations will be suffered there also. Radhakrishnan and Prabhakaran (2012) stated that severe infestations result in 8-10% crop loss in tea ecosystems. Homburg (1955) suggested that a resurgence in the economic importance of mites in Indonesia was probably largely due to a result of change in cultural practices used after blister blight.

In addition to a reduction in economic return caused by mite damage, there are also costs associated with inputs. Othieno et al. (1981) published a paper on the economics of fertilizer application to smallholder tea farms in Kenya, and reported that bushes not receiving fertilizer were heavily infested with C. carinatus compared to fertilized bushes, where no mites were found.

Impact: Biodiversity

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Impact on Biodiversity

C. carinatus is a pest of aesthetically-important plant species (e.g. Oliver and Cancienne 1980), and so where these species are used in a biodiversity-rich setting, there is risk that that the biodiversity will be compromised with presence of this pest species.

Social Impact

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Calacarus carinatus is a pest of Camellia japonica, which is a flowering tree/shrub and valued for its aesthetics. Oliver and Cancienne (1980) stated that this mite and Acaphylla steinwedeni infest Camellia japonica throughout the state of Louisiana, USA. Large populations of the mites cause foliar discolouration and scabbing, which results in loss of aesthetic value and economic losses. The interaction between trees and people is often highly regarded, as outlined by Evans (2007), and so any pest that compromises this relationship will be regarded as having a negative social impact.

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Invasive in its native range
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Highly mobile locally
Impact outcomes
  • Host damage
  • Negatively impacts livelihoods
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
  • Difficult/costly to control

Detection and Inspection

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C. carinatus causes a bronzing or purple discolouration of infested leaves (Mamikonyan, 1935; Anon., 2014). Infested leaves also have a ‘dusty’ appearance due to the cast skins of the mites and the residue of ‘mite wax’ on the leaf surface (Anon., 2014). The white skins and wax on the upper leaf surface can be seen using a hand lens (Anon., 2014). Leaves attacked by the mites turn completely brown and dry up, and defoliation occurs in heavy infestations (Shiao, 1976; Vazquez, 1991).

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Early Warning Systems

Due to the fact that mites (especially the eggs) can be cryptic on plant parts and therefore pose a risk of accidental introduction in the plant trade, it is important to have measures in place to counteract accidental introduction. For example, in Kenya, the importation of any plant material is subject to strict specified conditions. Procedures include having suitable available information on the plant material to evaluate the pest risk of potential invasives. Regulations ensure that plant materials are imported and exported with appropriate permits and phytosanitary certificates. The authority is in place to treat of destroy infested plants or plant products (IPPC Secretariat, 2005).

In Kenya, inspections are carried out at international airports, sea ports and borders. Most border control points are located in the south and west, given the considerable trade in plant material with Uganda and Tanzania (IPPC Secretariat, 2005).

Public Awareness

C. carinatus was introduced into Kenya in the 1976 and caused a reduction in tea leaf production (IPPC Secretariat, 2005). Public awareness of has been raised by, for example: publishing procedures on plant import requirements in the print media; holding public seminars at entry points; and preparing and distributing pamphlets, brochures and annual reports (IPPC Secretariat, 2005).

Cultural Control and Sanitary Measures

Rau (1965) stressed the importance of providing shade, carrying out late pruning with cleaning out, avoiding disturbing soil in cold weather and ensuring good drainage as actions to control mites in tea plantations. However, this does partly contradict findings by Pande and Nandi (1983) who reported that C. carinatus actually prefers shaded tea, except in August, in Tripura, India.

 Movement Control

Care should be taken when moving infested plants within economically important tea plantations, and between countries in the import/export plant trade. By introducing border control checks, such as those in place in Kenya (IPPC Secretariat, 2005), and by considering that mites can be carried on the clothing of personnel working amongst infested plants, measures to mitigate movement of the pest can be set in place.

Biological Control

Sharma and Kashyap (2002) reported that Syrphus sp., Coccinella septempunctata, Oxyopes sp. and the parasitoid Diaeretiella sp. are the most important natural enemies in tea orchards in general in Himachal Pradesh, India, where C. carinatus is one of the most important pests attacking tea bushes. The authors investigated the effect of pesticides on pests and natural enemies and found that deltamethrin, cypermethrin and ethion were highly toxic to Syrphis sp. and C. septempunctata. Conversely, applications of 1500 ppm azadirachtin or a combination of neem, triterpenoids and azadirachtin, or Bacillus thuringiensis were found to be safe to natural enemies.

Chemical Control

Sulphur compounds have been used against various eriophyoid mites on tea for many years (e.g. Mamikonyan, 1935; Das, 1965), but if insufficient time is left after treatment and before harvest, this method of control can cause tainting problems (Cranham et al., 1962; Lindquist et al., 1996).

In Tamil Nadu, India, dicofol, sulfur, ethion, phosalone and quinalphos have been used to control various pests of tea, including C. carinatus (Muraleedharan and Varathatajan, 1988).

Due to the fact that few of the several pesticides available for mite control are suitable in organic fields, more recent control methods have evaluated plant extracts against C. carinatus (e.g. Radhakrishnan and Prabhakaran, 2012). Radhakrishnan and Prabhakaran (2012) evaluated aqueous, methanol and chloroform extracts of Lantana camara, Bidens pilosa, Ageratum conyzoides, Equisetum arvense, Tithonia diversifolia and Capsicum annum. B. pilosa, E. arvense, A. conzyzoides and C. annum were acaricidal 96 hours after spraying at higher concentrations. Methanol extracts were found to be more efficient that aqueous and chloroform extracts, and aqueous extracts of C. annum and T. diversifolia showed ovicidal effects at 5% concentration.

References

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Adarsh Shanker; Chitra Sood; Vipin Kumar; Ravindranath SD, 2002. Insect and mite pests attacking tea plantation of Kangra Valley and their management. Indian Journal of Entomology, 64(1):53-57.

Anon, 2014. A new pest of Spathiphyllum. (online). Florida, USA: University of Florida. http://www.mrec.ifas.ufl.edu/lso/erio-mite/erio-mite.htm

Armitage HM; et al, 1946. Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine. Bull. Dep. Agric. Calif, 34(4):157-212.

CABI/EPPO, 2014. Calacarus carinatus. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, No.June. Wallingford, UK: CABI, Map 324 (1st revision).

Cherian MC; 1938, September. Mite (Acariña) Pests of Crops in South India and Methods for their Control. Agriculture and Live-stock in India, 8(pt. 5):537-540 pp.

CIE, 1974. Distribution Maps of Pests, Map No. 324. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Cranham JE; Ranaweera DJW; Rajapakse GB, 1962. The mite pests of Ceylon tea: recognition and control. Tea Quarterly, 33:189-95.

CSIRO, 2004. Calacarus carinatus. Systematic names (online)., Australia: CSIRO. http://www.ces.csiro.au/aicn/system/c_70.htm

Danthanarayana W; Ranaweera DJW, 1974. The effects of rainfall and shade on the occurrence of three mite pests of tea in Ceylon. Tea Quarterly, 44(1):47-58.

Das GM; B-B, 1965. Pink and purple mites. Serial. Tocklai Experimental Station, 104/1:3 pp.

Das GM; Sengupta N, 1962. Biology and control of the purple mite, Calacarus carinatus (Green), a pest of tea in north-east India. Journal of the Zoological Society of India, 14:64-72.

Evans HF, 2007. Oak processionary moth Pest Risk Analysis. (online)., France: EPPO. http://www.fera.defra.gov.uk/plants/plantHealth/pestsDiseases/documents/processionary.pdf

Harris KM, 1982. Lestodiplosis oomeni sp.n. (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), a predator on the carinate tea mite, Calacarus carinatus (Green) (Acarina: Eriophyidae) and on other mites on tea plants in Indonesia. Entomologische Berichten, 42(2):20-23.

Homburg K, 1955. The occurrence of mites in tea growing. (Het optreden van mijt in de thee-cultuur.) Bergcultures, 24:55-67.

Hsu Fong-kan; 1936, February. The Red Mites of Tea Plants in Japan. Entomology and Phytopathology, 4(5):88-94 pp.

Huang KW, 2014. Calacarus carinatus (Green, 1890). BiotaTaiwanica., Taiwan. http://biota.taibif.tw/pages/13160

Huang T, 1974. Records of six Eriophyid mites associated with economic plants in Taiwan. Journal of Agriculture and Forestry, 23:75-88.

Immelman DW, 1983. Annual report of the Director General: Agriculture for the period 1 April 1981 to 31 March 1982. Pretoria, South Africa: Department of Agriculture, 174 pp.

IPPC-Secretariat, 2005. Identification of risks and management of invasive alien species using the IPPC framework. Proceedings of the workshop on invasive alien species and the International Plant Protection Convention, 22-26 September 2003. xii + 301 pp.

Jeppson LR; Keifer HH; Baker EW, 1975. Mites Injurious to Economic Plants. Berkeley, USA: University of California Press.

King CBR; 1937, July. Notes on the Life-history of Eriophyes carinatus, Green. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 28(pt. 2):311-314 pp.

Lee JongHo; Jung SungHoon; Lee SeungHwan, 2014. Three newly recorded species of the genera Acaphylla Keifer and Calacarus Keifer (Prostigmata: Eriophyidae) from Camellia spp. (Theaceae) in Korea. Korean Journal of Applied Entomology, 53(1):59-64. http://ocean.kisti.re.kr/is/mv/showPDF_ocean.jsp?method=download&pYear=2014&koi=KISTI1.1003%2FJNL.JAKO201409150679082&sp=59&CN1=JAKO201409150679082&poid=entomo&kojic=OOGCBV&sVnc=v53n1&sFree=

Light SS; 1927, April. Mites as Pests of the Tea Plant. Tropical Agriculturist, 68(4):229-238 pp.

Lindquist EE; Sabelis MW; Bruin J, 1996. Eriophyoid mites. Their biology, natural enemies and control. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier Science Publishers, xxxii + 790 pp.

Mamikonyan VV, 1935. Studies of the Injurious-ness, economic Importance and some Biology of the Tea Aphid and Mite. Control Measures against the Mite. Abstract in Plant Prot, 6:143-144 pp.

Manson DCM, 1959. An insect and a mite new to New Zealand. New Zealand Entomologist, 2(4):31-32 pp.

Menzel R, 1928. Entomologist's Report for 1926-27. (Verslag van den Entomoloog.) Mededelingen van het Proefstation voor Thee, c. Batavia, 24-25 pp.

Moutia LA, 1958. Contribution to the study of some phytophagous Acarina and their predators in Mauritius. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 49:59-75.

Muraleedharan N; Chandrasekharan R, 1981. Observations on the seasonal variations of Acaphylla thep Keifer and Calacarus carinatus (Green) (Acarina: Eriophyidae) in a tea field at the Anamalais (South India). Pestology, 5(6):11-15

Muraleedharan N; Mohan MS; Radhakrishnan B; Udayabhanu KG, 1994. Seasonal abundance and vertical distribution of purple mite, Calacarus carinatus (Green) (Eriophyidae: Acarina) infesting tea. Entomon, 19(1/2):53-56.

Muraleedharan N; Varatharajan R, 1988. Pattern of insecticide usage in the tea plantations of Anamallais (Coimbatore District, Tamil Nadu). Journal of Entomological Research, 12(2):113-116.

Oliver AD; Cancienne EA, 1980. Status of two species of rust mites as pests on Camellia japonica L. in Louisiana. Journal of the Georgia Entomological Society, 15(2):210-214.

Othieno CO; Siele DKA; Kilavuka CI; Mbaya M; Gitungo G; Mureithi JP, 1983. Economics of fertilizer application to smallholder tea farms in Kenya. Part II. Tea, 4(1):20-30.

Pande YD; Nandi S, 1983. Mites associated with tea in Tripura and the effect of shade on their populations. Science and Culture, 49(5):141-142.

Pasquier RDU, 1932. Principal pests of tea and coffee in the Far East, Part 4. (Principales maladies parasitaires du théier et du caféier en Extreme-Orient.) Bull. econ. Indochine, 35:689B-720B.

Radhakrishnan B; Prabhakaran P, 2012. Evaluation of certain plant extracts against the purple mite, Calacarus carinatus (green) infesting tea. Newsletter - UPASI Tea Research Foundation, 22(1):2. http://www.upasitearesearch.org

Rau SA, 1965. Note on thrips. 1. Mites of tea in Southern India. Planters' Chronicle, 60:486; 487-91.

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Draft datasheet under review

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29/05/14 Original text by:

Claire Beverley, CABI, UK

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