Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Erinnyis ello
(cassava hornworm (USA))

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Datasheet

Erinnyis ello (cassava hornworm (USA))

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Host Animal
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Erinnyis ello
  • Preferred Common Name
  • cassava hornworm (USA)
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Ello sphinx/Cassava hornworm, Erinnyis ello; larva (red form) on wild manioc (Manihot esculenta). Cordoba, Argentina, 2010.
TitleLarva (red form) on wild manioc
CaptionEllo sphinx/Cassava hornworm, Erinnyis ello; larva (red form) on wild manioc (Manihot esculenta). Cordoba, Argentina, 2010.
Copyright©A.R. Pittaway-2010
Ello sphinx/Cassava hornworm, Erinnyis ello; larva (red form) on wild manioc (Manihot esculenta). Cordoba, Argentina, 2010.
Larva (red form) on wild manioc Ello sphinx/Cassava hornworm, Erinnyis ello; larva (red form) on wild manioc (Manihot esculenta). Cordoba, Argentina, 2010.©A.R. Pittaway-2010
TitleAdult
Caption
Copyright©David Agassiz
Adult©David Agassiz

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Erinnyis ello (Linnaeus, 1758)

Preferred Common Name

  • cassava hornworm (USA)

Other Scientific Names

  • Anceryx ello (Linnaeus) Walker, 1856
  • Dilophonota ello (Linnaeus) Burmeister, 1856
  • Erinnyis cinifera Zikán, 1934
  • Erinnyis ello encantada Kenbauch, 1962
  • Sphinx ello Linnaeus, 1758

International Common Names

  • English: cassava caterpillar; cassava hawkmoth; ello sphinx (USA); hornworm, cassava; rubber hawkmoth; rubber leaf caterpillar; sphinx, ello
  • Spanish: cachudo de la yuca; gusano cachón; gusano de cuerno (Mexico); gusano de flota (Dominican Republic); gusano de la yuca; gusano de las hojas de la yuca; primavera de la yuca
  • French: sphinx du manioc
  • Portuguese: mandarova da mandioca (Brazil)

Local Common Names

  • Brazil: mandarova da mandioca

EPPO code

  • ERINEL (Erinnyis ello)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Lepidoptera
  •                         Family: Sphingidae
  •                             Genus: Erinnyis
  •                                 Species: Erinnyis ello

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 30 Jun 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

North America

Antigua and BarbudaPresent
BahamasPresent
BarbadosPresent
BelizePresent
British Virgin IslandsPresent
CanadaPresent, Few occurrences
-OntarioPresent, Few occurrences
Cayman IslandsPresent
Costa RicaPresent, Widespread
CubaPresent, Widespread
DominicaPresent
Dominican RepublicPresent, Widespread
El SalvadorPresent, Widespread
GrenadaPresent
GuadeloupePresent
GuatemalaPresent, Widespread
HaitiPresent
HondurasPresent, Widespread
JamaicaPresent
MartiniquePresent
MexicoPresent, Widespread
MontserratPresent
NicaraguaPresent
PanamaPresent, Widespread
Puerto RicoPresent, Widespread
Saint Kitts and NevisPresent
Saint LuciaPresent, Widespread
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresent
Trinidad and TobagoPresent, Localized
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresent
United StatesPresent, Localized
-ArizonaPresent
-ArkansasPresent
-CaliforniaPresent
-ColoradoPresent
-ConnecticutPresent
-FloridaPresent
-GeorgiaPresent
-IllinoisPresent
-KentuckyPresent
-MassachusettsPresent
-MichiganPresent
-MinnesotaPresent
-MississippiPresent
-MissouriPresent
-NebraskaPresent
-NevadaPresent
-New JerseyPresent
-New MexicoPresent
-New YorkPresent
-North DakotaPresent
-OklahomaPresent
-OregonPresent
-PennsylvaniaPresent
-TexasPresent
-UtahPresent
-West VirginiaPresent

Oceania

Papua New GuineaPresent

South America

ArgentinaPresent, Widespread
BoliviaPresent, Widespread
BrazilPresent, Widespread
-AmazonasPresent
-BahiaPresent, Widespread
-CearaPresent, Widespread
-Espirito SantoPresent, Widespread
-GoiasPresent
-Mato GrossoPresent
-Mato Grosso do SulPresent
-Minas GeraisPresent
-ParaPresent, Widespread
-ParaibaPresent
-ParanaPresent, Widespread
-Rio de JaneiroPresent
-Rio Grande do SulPresent
-Santa CatarinaPresent, Widespread
-Sao PauloPresent, Widespread
ColombiaPresent, Widespread
EcuadorPresent, Widespread
-Galapagos IslandsPresent
French GuianaPresent
GuyanaPresent, Widespread
ParaguayPresent, Widespread
PeruPresent, Widespread
SurinamePresent
UruguayPresent, Widespread
VenezuelaPresent, Widespread

Growth Stages

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Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / external feeding
Whole plant / external feeding

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Bacillus thuringiensis
Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki Pathogen Arthropods|Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis thuringiensis Pathogen Arthropods|Larvae
Baculovirus erinnyis Pathogen Arthropods|Larvae
Belvosia bicincta Parasite Arthropods|Larvae Brazil
Cotesia americana Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Cotesia congregata Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Drino macarensis Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Egretta thula Predator Arthropods|Larvae
Euplectrus floryae Parasite Arthropods|Larvae Bellon et al. (2013)
Granulosis virus Pathogen Arthropods|Larvae
Lecanicillium lecanii Pathogen
Polistes erythrocephalus Predator Colombia cassava
Telenomus connectans Parasite Eggs
Telenomus dilophonotae Parasite Eggs
Telenomus monilicornis Parasite Eggs
Telenomus spodopterae Parasite Eggs
Trichogramma exiguum Parasite Eggs
Trichogramma fasciatum Parasite Eggs
Trichogramma manicobai Parasite Eggs
Trichogramma minutum Parasite Eggs
Trichogramma oatmani Parasite Eggs
Trichogramma pretiosum Parasite Eggs
Trichogramma sudhae Parasite Eggs

References

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Abreu JM; Cruz PFN; Smith F GE, 1979. Seasonal abundance of the rubber hawkmoth Erinnyis ello (Lepidoptera: Sphyngidae) in Bahia. Revista Theobroma, 9(1):39-44

Abreu JMde, 1982. Investigations on the rubber leaf caterpillar Erinnyis ello in Bahia, Brazil. Revista Theobroma, 12(2):85-99; [4 fig.]; 18 ref.

Abreu JMde, 1991. Population fluctuation of Erinnyis ello L. (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) in rubber estates in Bahia. Agrotropica, 3(3):145-151

Agudelo F, 1980. Sex ratio of Telenomus sphingis (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) parasitizing Erinnyis ello (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) eggs in the Dominican Republic. Florida Entomologist, 63(3):341-343

Agudelo-Silva F, 1980. Parasitism of Erinnyis ello eggs (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) by Telenomus sphingis (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) in the Dominican Republic. Environmental Entomology, 9(2):233-235

Arias VB; Bellotti AC, 1985. Yield losses (simulated damage) caused by Erinnyis ello (L.) and critical population levels in different stages of development in three clones of cassava. Revista Colombiana de Entomologia, 10(3/4):28-35.

Arleu RJ; Furtado MJ; Fanton CJ, 1986. Population fluctuation in Erinnyis ello (L., 1758) on cassava, in the municipality of Linhares, Espirito Santo. Comunicado Tecnico, EMCAPA, No. 45:6 pp.

Bastos JAM, 1977. The prepupal and pupal periods of the cassava hawkmoth, Erinnyis ello (Linne, 1758) in Fortaleza, Ceara, Brazil. Fitossanidade, 2(2):59-60.

Bastos JAM, 1981. Attack by the cassava hawkmoth, Erinnyis ello (Linneus, 1758) in a plantation of Ceara rubber, Manihot glaziovii Muell. Arg. Fitossanidade, 5(1):55-56

Beardsley JW, 1979. New immigrant insects in Hawaii: 1962 through 1976. Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society, 23:35-44.

Bellon PP; Favero K; Tavares MT; Oliveira HNde, 2013. First record of Euplectrus floryae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) parasitizing Erinnyis ello (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) in Brazil. Revista Colombiana de Entomología, 39(1):166-167. http://www.scielo.org.co/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0120-04882013000100027&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en

Bellotti AC; Arias V B; Guzman OL, 1992. Biological control of the cassava hornworm Erinnyis ello (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). Florida Entomologist, 75(4):506-515.

Bergmann EC; Faria AM de; Fernandes SCS; Perazzolo ML; Mendonca NTde, 1990. Lepidoptera associated with rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) in Ibitinga, SP. Ecossistema, No. 15:104-113

Bergmann EC; Michalany JG; Melussi O; Bitran EA, 1983. Observations on the occurrence of damage caused by Erinnyis ello (L., 1758) (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) in rubber plantations in the Ribeira Valley. Biologico, 49(8):219-222.

CABI/EPPO, 2002. Erinnyis ello. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, No. 628. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Calil ACP, 1987. Damage caused by Erinnyis ello (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae) in a budwood garden with rubber tree clones (Hevea pauciflora). Boletim da Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias do Para, Brazil, No. 16:13-19.

Carpio N; Hernandez E, 1986. Oviposition site of the cassava hornworm (Erinnyis ello) Ciencia y Tecnica en la Agricultura, Viandas Tropicales, 9(1):15-22.

Clavijo JA; Chacin ME, 1992. Sphingidae (Insecta: Lepidoptera) reported as pests of Venezuelan crops: key to the species. Boletin de Entomologia Venezolana, 7(2):119-125.

Colombia; Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical, 1987. Biological control halts cassava hornworm. CIAT report 1987 Cali, Colombia; Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical, 34-36

Covell CV Jr, 1984. A Field Guide to the Moths of Eastern North America. Boston, USA: Houghton Mifflin Co.

D'Abrera B, 1986. Sphingidae Mundi: Hawk Moths of the World. Faringdon, UK: E. W. Classey Ltd., 226 pp. [published 1987]

Darrault RO; Schlindwein C, 2002. Hawkmoths (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae) in the Tabuleiro Paraibano, northeastern Brazil: abundance, richness and relations to sphingophilous plants. (Esfingídeos (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae) no Tabuleiro Paraibano, nordeste do Brasil: abundância, riqueza e relação com plantas esfingófilas.) Revista Brasileira de Zoologia, 19(2):429-443.

Dyar HG, 1890. Preparatory stages of Dilophonota edwardsii Butl. and D. ello Linn. Entomologica Americana, 6(8):141-146.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Gold CS; Altieri MA; Bellotti AC, 1989. Relative oviposition rates of the cassava hornworm, Erinnyis ello (Lep.: Sphingidae), and accompanying parasitism by Telenomus sphingis (Hym.: Scelionidae), on upper and lower leaf surfaces of cassava. Entomophaga, 34(1):73-76.

Hodges RW, 1971. Sphingoidea, Hawkmoths. In: Dominick RB et al., eds. The Moths of America North of Mexico (including Greenland) Vol. 21. London, UK: EW Classey & R.B.D. Publications.

Hohmann CL; Silva SMT; Santos WJ, 1989. Preliminary list of Trichogrammatidae found in Parana. Anais da Sociedade Entomologica do Brasil, 18(1):203-206.

Holland WJ, 1968. The Moth Book. New York, USA: Dover Publications, Inc.

Johnson NF, 1990. Telenomus (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) egg parasites of Erinnyis ello (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 92(2):306-309.

Marques PC, 1982. Population fluctuations in Erinnyis ello L. (1758) on rubber, in the Municipality of Viana, Espirito Santo. Pesquisa em Andamento, EMCAPA, No. 1:2 pp.

Martin P CA; Bellotti AC, 1986. Biology and behaviour of Polistes erythrocephalus Ltr. (Hymenoptera: Vespidae), a predator of cassava hornworm Erinnyis ello L. (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). Acta Agronomica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, 36(1):63-76

Moss AM, 1912. On Sphingidae of Peru. Transactions of the Zoological Society of London, 20:73-134.

Moss AM, 1920. Sphingidae of Pará, Brazil. Novitates Zoologicae, 27:333-424.

Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center, 1998. Moths of the United States: Ello Sphinx (Erinnyis ello). World Wide Web page at http://www.npwrc.org/resource/distr/lepid/moths/usa/64.htm.

Oliveira PE, 1996. Floral biology of Salvertia convallariodora (Vochysiaceae): a cerrado species pollinated by the hawk moth. Revista Brasileira de Botânica, 19(1):49-53.

Patino C H; De la Cruz J; Castillo E; Gonzalez A; Kuratomi S; Pava J; Figueroa P; Guevara P, 1977. A spectacular case of natural biological control under the ecological conditions of a rain forest. Acta Agronomica, 27(1/4):91-104

Reis Filho W; Vendramim JD; Fernandes LC, 1986. Effect of rubber (Hevea spp.) clones on the biology of Erinnyis ello ello (L., 1758) (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae). Anais da Sociedade Entomologica do Brasil, 15(Supl.):93-103.

Ribeiro Ldo P; Costa EC, 2008. Occurrence of Erinnyis ello and Spodoptera marima in castor bean plantation in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. (Ocorrência de Erinnyis ello e Spodoptera marima na cultura da mamona no Rio Grande do Sul.) Ciência Rural, 38(8):2351-2353. http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-84782008000800040&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=pt

Rothschild LW; Jordan K, 1903. A revision of the lepidopterous family Sphingidae. Novitates Zoologicae, 9 (Suppl.):1-972.

Santos BB dos, 1988. Arthropods associated with cultivated crops in the State of Paraná. II. Coffee and manioc. Revista do Setor de CiOncias Agrárias, 10(1-2):27-28.

Schmitt AT, 1988. Using Baculovirus erinnyis in the biological control of cassava hornworm. Cassava Newsletter, 12(1):1-4.

Schuster DJ; Harbaugh BK, 1977. Effect of insecticides on poinsettia and Erinnyis ello. Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society, 90:326-327.

Torre Callejas SL de la, 1980. Revision of the Trichogramma of Cuba, with the description of three new species and one variety. Revision de los Trichogramma de Cuba, con la descripcion de tres nuevas especies y una variedad. Dirrecion de Informacion Tecnica, Universidad de la Habana Havana Cuba, 41 pp.

Urías López MA, 1990. Damage and chemical control of Erinnyis ello (L), 'gusano de cuerno' of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Revista di Agricoltura Subtropicale e Tropicale, 84(2):273-280; 10 ref.

Urias Lopez MA; Carrillo Sanchez JL, 1983. Main pests of cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz, in the savanna area of Huimanguillo, Tabasco. Agricultura Tecnica en Mexico, 9(1):65-83

Urias Lopez MA; Reyes QJA, 1990. Population fluctuations and life cycle of Erinnyis ello (L.), 'gusano de cuerno' of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Revista di Agricoltura Subtropicale e Tropicale, 84(2):265-271

Vignes W des, 1986. Cassava hornworm on cassava. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, 34(4):218.

Winder JA, 1976. Ecology and control of Erinnyis ello and E. alope, important insect pests in the New World. PANS, 22(4):449-466.

Distribution References

Agudelo-Silva F, 1980. Parasitism of Erinnyis ello eggs (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) by Telenomus sphingis (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) in the Dominican Republic. Environmental Entomology. 9 (2), 233-235. DOI:10.1093/ee/9.2.233

Arleu R J, Furtado M J, Fanton C J, 1986. Population fluctuation in Erinnyis ello (L., 1758) on cassava, in the municipality of Linhares, Espírito Santo. (Flutuação populacional do Erinnyis ello (L., 1758) em mandioca, no município de Linhares, Espírito Santo.). In: Comunicado Técnico, EMCAPA, 6pp.

Bergmann E C, Faria A M de, Fernandes S C S, Perazzolo M L, Mendonça N T de, 1990. Lepidoptera associated with rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) in Ibitinga, SP. (Lepidópteros associados à seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis) in Ibitinga-SP.). Ecossistema. 104-113.

CABI, EPPO, 2002. Erinnyis ello. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Map 628. DOI:10.1079/DMPP/20066600628

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Clavijo J A, Chacín M E, 1992. Sphingidae (Insecta: Lepidoptera) reported as pests of Venezuelan crops: key to the species. (Sphingidae (Insecta: Lepidoptera) reportados como plagas en cultivos Venezolanos: clave para las especies.). Boletín de Entomología Venezolana. 7 (2), 119-125.

Darrault R O, Schlindwein C, 2002. Hawkmoths (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae) in the Tabuleiro Paraibano, northeastern Brazil: abundance, richness and relations to sphingophilous plants. (Esfingídeos (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae) no Tabuleiro Paraibano, nordeste do Brasil: abundância, riqueza e relação com plantas esfingófilas.). Revista Brasileira de Zoologia. 19 (2), 429-443. DOI:10.1590/S0101-81752002000200009

EPPO, 2021. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO. https://gd.eppo.int/

Hodges RW, 1971. Sphingoidea, Hawkmoths. In: The Moths of America North of Mexico (including Greenland), 21 [ed. by Dominick RB et al]. London, UK: EW Classey & R.B.D. Publications.

Holland WJ, 1968. The Moth Book., New York, USA: Dover Publications, Inc.

Johnson N F, 1990. Telenomus (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) egg parasites of Erinnyis ello (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington. 92 (2), 306-309.

Moss A M, 1912. On Sphingidae of Peru. Transactions of the Zoological Society of London. 73-134.

Moss A M, 1920. Sphingidae of Pará, Brazil. Novitates Zoologicae. 333-424.

Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center, 1998. Moths of the United States: Ello Sphinx (Erinnyis ello)., World Wide Web. http://www.npwrc.org/resource/distr/lepid/moths/usa/64.htm

Oliveira P E, 1996. Floral biology of Salvertia convallariodora (Vochysiaceae): a cerrado species pollinated by the hawk moth. (Biologia floral de Salvertia convallariodora (Vochysiaceae): uma espécie de cerrado polinizada por mariposas.). Revista Brasileira de Botânica. 19 (1), 49-53.

Patino C H, De la Cruz J, Castillo E, Gonzalez A, Kuratomi S, Pava J, Figueroa P, Guevara P, 1977. A spectacular case of natural biological control under the ecological conditions of a rain forest. (Un caso espectacular de control biologico natural, en las condiciones ecologicas del bosque pluvial.). Acta Agronomica. 27 (1/4), 91-104.

Ribeiro L do P, Costa E C, 2008. Occurrence of Erinnyis ello and Spodoptera marima in castor bean plantation in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. (Ocorrência de Erinnyis ello e Spodoptera marima na cultura da mamona no Rio Grande do Sul.). Ciência Rural. 38 (8), 2351-2353. http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-84782008000800040&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=pt DOI:10.1590/S0103-84782008000800040

Rothschild L W, Jordan K, 1903. A revision of the lepidopterous family Sphingidae. Novitates Zoologicae. 9 (Suppl.), 972 pp.

Schmitt A T, 1988. Using Baculovirus erinnyis in the biological control of cassava hornworm. Cassava Newsletter. 12 (1), 1-4.

Urías López M A, 1990. Damage and chemical control of Erinnyis ello (L), 'gusano de cuerno' of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). (Daño y control quimico de Erinnyis ello (L), gusano de cuernoe de la Yuca (Manihot esculenta Crantz).). Revista di Agricoltura Subtropicale e Tropicale. 84 (2), 273-280.

Vignes W des, 1986. Cassava hornworm on cassava. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin. 34 (4), 218.

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