Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Eragrostis japonica
(pond lovegrass)

Rojas-Sandoval J, 2016. Eragrostis japonica (pond lovegrass). Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CABI. DOI:10.1079/ISC.21634.20203482875

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Datasheet

Eragrostis japonica (pond lovegrass)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 19 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Eragrostis japonica
  • Preferred Common Name
  • pond lovegrass
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Monocotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • E. japonica is a good fodder grass cultivated for pasture in tropical and subtropical regions (Kumar, 2013; ...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Eragrostis japonica (pond lovegrass); panicle.
TitlePanicle
CaptionEragrostis japonica (pond lovegrass); panicle.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by Jose Hernandez, hosted by the USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database
Eragrostis japonica (pond lovegrass); panicle.
PanicleEragrostis japonica (pond lovegrass); panicle.Public Domain - Released by Jose Hernandez, hosted by the USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database
Eragrostis japonica (pond lovegrass); seeds.
TitleSeeds
CaptionEragrostis japonica (pond lovegrass); seeds.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by Jose Hernandez, hosted by the USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database
Eragrostis japonica (pond lovegrass); seeds.
SeedsEragrostis japonica (pond lovegrass); seeds.Public Domain - Released by Jose Hernandez, hosted by the USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database
Eragrostis japonica (pond lovegrass); a, Ligule, ventral view; b, young spikelet; c, mature spikelet; d, old spikelet breaking up from above; e, lower glume (G1), dorsal view; f, upper glume (G2) , dorsal view; g, lemma (L), dorsal view; h, floret; i-j, palea (P), two views; k, caryopsis, three views.
TitlePlant parts
CaptionEragrostis japonica (pond lovegrass); a, Ligule, ventral view; b, young spikelet; c, mature spikelet; d, old spikelet breaking up from above; e, lower glume (G1), dorsal view; f, upper glume (G2) , dorsal view; g, lemma (L), dorsal view; h, floret; i-j, palea (P), two views; k, caryopsis, three views.
Copyright©SEAMEO-BIOTROP
Eragrostis japonica (pond lovegrass); a, Ligule, ventral view; b, young spikelet; c, mature spikelet; d, old spikelet breaking up from above; e, lower glume (G1), dorsal view; f, upper glume (G2) , dorsal view; g, lemma (L), dorsal view; h, floret; i-j, palea (P), two views; k, caryopsis, three views.
Plant partsEragrostis japonica (pond lovegrass); a, Ligule, ventral view; b, young spikelet; c, mature spikelet; d, old spikelet breaking up from above; e, lower glume (G1), dorsal view; f, upper glume (G2) , dorsal view; g, lemma (L), dorsal view; h, floret; i-j, palea (P), two views; k, caryopsis, three views.©SEAMEO-BIOTROP

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Eragrostis japonica (Thunb.) Trin.

Preferred Common Name

  • pond lovegrass

Other Scientific Names

  • Airopsis jubata Griseb.
  • Diandrochloa diarrhena (Schult.) A.N.Henry
  • Diandrochloa diplachnoides (Steud.) A.N.Henry
  • Diandrochloa glomerata (Walter) Burkart
  • Diandrochloa japonica (Thunb.) A.N.Henry
  • Diandrochloa namaquensis (Nees) De Winter
  • Eragrostis aturensis (Kunth) Trin. ex Steud.
  • Eragrostis aurea Steud.
  • Eragrostis conferta (Elliott) Trin.
  • Eragrostis depauperata Andersson
  • Eragrostis diarrhena (Schult. and Schult.f.) Steud.
  • Eragrostis diplachnoides Steud.
  • Eragrostis elegans Nees
  • Eragrostis glomerata (Walter) Dewey ex Coult.
  • Eragrostis hapalantha Trin.
  • Eragrostis hochstetteri Steud.
  • Eragrostis koenigii (Kunth) Link
  • Eragrostis kossinskyi Roshev.
  • Eragrostis leprieurii Steud.
  • Eragrostis maritima A.Chev.
  • Eragrostis milleflora Steud.
  • Eragrostis mossulensis Steud.
  • Eragrostis namaquensis Nees
  • Eragrostis pallida Vasey
  • Eragrostis stricta (Roem. and Schult.) Steud.
  • Eragrostis volgensis Roshev.
  • Glyceria pilosa Steud.
  • Megastachya aturensis (Kunth) Roem. and Schult.
  • Megastachya glomerata (Walter) Schult.
  • Panicum leptanthum Steud.
  • Poa aturensis Kunth
  • Poa aurea (Steud.) Walp.
  • Poa biflora Retz.
  • Poa conferta Elliott
  • Poa diarrhena Schult. and Schult.f.
  • Poa glomerata Walter
  • Poa interrupta Lam.
  • Poa japonica Thunb.
  • Poa koenigii Kunth
  • Poa sporoboloides A.Rich.
  • Poa stricta Roth
  • Roshevitzia diarrhena (Schult. and Schult.f.) Tzvelev
  • Roshevitzia diplachnoides (Steud.) Tzvelev
  • Roshevitzia glomerata (Walter) Tzvelev
  • Roshevitzia japonica (Thunb.) Tzvelev
  • Sporobolus confertiflorus A.Rich.
  • Sporobolus verticillatus Nees
  • Vilfa confertiflora (A.Rich.) Steud.

International Common Names

  • English: Japanese lovegrass; teel lovegrass
  • French: pâturin de férat
  • Chinese: luan cao

Local Common Names

  • Brazil: ameixa-amarela; ameixeira; nêspera; nespereira
  • Japan: kogome-kaze-kusa
  • Malaysia: okwat; papalaan
  • Thailand: lokhwot; pee-pae
  • Vietnam: nhót tây; so'n trà nhatban'; ti ba diêp

EPPO code

  • ERAJA (Eragrostis japonica)

Summary of Invasiveness

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E. japonica is a good fodder grass cultivated for pasture in tropical and subtropical regions (Kumar, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2016). It has escaped from cultivation and naturalized principally in disturbed sites. This species behaves as a weed in abandoned pastures, cultivated land, disturbed sites, waste areas, and along roadsides and riparian areas (Barkworth et al., 2004; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016; PIER, 2016; PROTA, 2016). Currently, it is listed as invasive in Argentina, Brazil, and Cuba (Zuloaga et al., 2008; Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012; I3N-Brasil, 2016). It is well adapted to grow in seasonally waterlogged conditions and can be found growing in floodplain grassland and swampy grassland (Flora of Pakistan, 2016).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  •                     Order: Cyperales
  •                         Family: Poaceae
  •                             Genus: Eragrostis
  •                                 Species: Eragrostis japonica

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Eragrostis is the largest genus in the Chloridoideae, a well-supported monophyletic subfamily of the Poaceae. The subfamily Chloridoideae includes about 130 genera and 1721 grass species that tolerate drought and high saline conditions (Stevens, 2012). The large cosmopolitan genus Eragrostis is composed of approximately 350 species (Clayton et al., 2016). E. japonica belongs to a small group of closely allied species with membranous ligules which have been treated as a separate genus Diandrochloa. Judgement on this issue has been delayed until variation within the genus as a whole has been more closely studied (Flora of Pakistan, 2016).

Species within the genus Eragrostis are extremely polymorphic with three main sources of variation (Flora of Pakistan, 2016):

  1. Palea-keels: smooth palea-keels are confined to South and tropical Africa, while scaberulous keels are found throughout tropical Africa and Asia.

  2. Spikelet size: plants with few-flowered spikelets and lemmas less than 1 mm are generally separated as E. japonica sensu stricto, although similar forms from Africa with smooth palea-keels are called Eragrostis namaquensis, and those with rough keels are called Eragrostis diplachnoides.

  3. Panicle-form: three main sorts can be recognized: (a) interrupted with branches in pseudo whorls, almost exclusively Asian; (b) partly whorled but more generally open, branches branched from the base; and (c) branches solitary, bare at the base, panicle open.

Description

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E. japonica is an annual or short-lived perennial grass. Culms erect, or geniculate at base, 30–100 cm tall, 1.5–2.5 mm in diameter, 3–4-noded. Leaf sheaths usually loose, longer than internodes, glabrous; ligules scarious, approximately 0.5 mm, fimbriate at apex, pubescent on back; leaf blades flat, 3–25 × 0.3–0.5 cm, smooth and glabrous. Panicle elongated, 6–34 × 1.5–6 cm; branches slender, clustered or verticillate, glabrous in axils. Spikelets usually purplish at maturity, ovate, 1–2 mm, 4–8-flowered; rachilla distarticulating between florets from top downward at maturity. Glumes chartaceous, ovate-lanceolate, subequal, 0.6–0.8 mm, 1-veined, apex obtuse. Lemmas chartaceous, broadly elliptical, distinctly 3-veined, apex obtuse, lower lemma approximately 1 mm. Palea subequal to lemma, along 2 keels ciliolate. Stamens 2; anthers approximately 0.2 mm. Caryopsis red-brown, ovoid, 0.4–0.5 mm (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016; Flora of Pakistan, 2016).

Plant Type

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Annual
Grass / sedge
Seed propagated

Distribution

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E. japonica is considered native to tropical and subtropical Africa and Asia, but the exact native range is still unclear (USDA-ARS, 2016). It has been widely introduced in tropical America and the West Indies (Zuloaga et al., 2008; Clayton et al., 2016).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 17 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresentNative
AngolaPresentNative
BeninPresentNative
BotswanaPresentNative
Burkina FasoPresentNative
BurundiPresentNative
CameroonPresentNative
Central African RepublicPresentNative
ChadPresentNative
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresentNative
Congo, Republic of thePresentNative
Côte d'IvoirePresentNative
EgyptPresentNative
EritreaPresentNative
EswatiniPresentNative
EthiopiaPresentNative
GambiaPresentNative
GhanaPresentNative
GuineaPresentNative
Guinea-BissauPresentNative
KenyaPresentNative
MadagascarPresentNative
MalawiPresentNative
MaliPresentNative
MauritaniaPresentNative
MozambiquePresentNative
NamibiaPresentNative
NigerPresentNative
NigeriaPresentNative
SenegalPresentNative
Sierra LeonePresentNative
SomaliaPresentNative
South AfricaPresentNative
SudanPresentNative
TanzaniaPresentNative
TogoPresentNative
UgandaPresentNative
ZambiaPresentNative
ZimbabwePresentNative

Asia

BangladeshPresentNative
BhutanPresentNative
ChinaPresentNative
-AnhuiPresentNative
-FujianPresentNative
-GuangdongPresentNative
-GuangxiPresentNative
-GuizhouPresentNative
-HubeiPresentNative
-JiangsuPresentNative
-JiangxiPresentNative
-YunnanPresentNative
-ZhejiangPresentNative
IndiaPresentNative
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresentNative
-AssamPresentNative
-BiharPresentNative
-GujaratPresentNative
-Himachal PradeshPresentNative
-Jammu and KashmirPresentNative
-KarnatakaPresentNative
-KeralaPresentNative
-Madhya PradeshPresentNative
-MaharashtraPresentNative
-NagalandPresentNative
-OdishaPresentNative
-PunjabPresentNative
-RajasthanPresentNative
-SikkimPresentNative
-Tamil NaduPresentNative
-Uttar PradeshPresentNative
-West BengalPresentNative
IndonesiaPresentNative
-JavaPresentNative
-Lesser Sunda IslandsPresentNative
-Maluku IslandsPresentNative
-SulawesiPresentNative
-SumatraPresentNative
IranPresentNative
IraqPresentNative
IsraelPresentIntroduced
JapanPresentNative
KazakhstanPresentNative
LaosPresentNative
LebanonPresentIntroduced
MalaysiaPresentNative
MyanmarPresentNative
NepalPresentNative
North KoreaPresentNative
OmanPresentNative
PakistanPresentNative
PalestinePresentIntroduced
PhilippinesPresentNative
Saudi ArabiaPresentNative
SingaporePresentNative
South KoreaPresentNative
Sri LankaPresentNative
TaiwanPresentNative
ThailandPresentNative
VietnamPresentNative
YemenPresentNative

Europe

RussiaPresent

North America

BarbadosPresentIntroduced
Costa RicaPresentIntroduced
CubaPresentIntroducedInvasive
El SalvadorPresentIntroduced
GuatemalaPresentIntroduced
HondurasPresentIntroduced
MexicoPresentIntroduced
NicaraguaPresentIntroduced
Trinidad and TobagoPresentIntroducedTrinidad
United StatesPresentIntroduced
-AlabamaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
-ArkansasPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
-FloridaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
-GeorgiaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
-IllinoisPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
-LouisianaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
-MississippiPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
-MissouriPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
-OklahomaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
-South CarolinaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
-TennesseePresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
-TexasPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized

Oceania

Papua New GuineaPresentNative
Solomon IslandsPresentNative

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroducedInvasiveBuenos Aires, Chaco, Corrientes, Distrito Federal, Entre Rios, Formosa, Jujuy, Misiones, Salta, Tucuman
BoliviaPresentIntroduced
BrazilPresentIntroduced
-AmapaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
-AmazonasPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
-BahiaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
-CearaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
-Espirito SantoPresentIntroducedInvasive
-GoiasPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
-MaranhaoPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
-Mato GrossoPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
-Mato Grosso do SulPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
-Minas GeraisPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
-ParaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
-ParaibaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-PernambucoPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
-Rio Grande do NortePresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
-Rio Grande do SulPresentIntroducedInvasive
-RoraimaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
-Santa CatarinaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-Sao PauloPresentIntroducedInvasive
ColombiaPresentIntroduced
EcuadorPresentIntroduced
GuyanaPresentIntroduced
ParaguayPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized in Alta Parana, Alto Paraguay, Concepcion, Nembucu, San Pedro
PeruPresentIntroduced
UruguayPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized in Artigas, Paysandu, Rio Negro, Salto

History of Introduction and Spread

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E. japonica has been introduced in tropical and subtropical areas to be used as a pasture grass, however the dates of introduction and precise introduced vs. native range are unclear.

Risk of Introduction

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The risk of introduction of E.japonica is moderate to high. The success of this grass species can be attributed to its broad habitat adaptation which enables the species to grow as a weed and persist even under unfavourable conditions.

Habitat

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E. japonica grows in damp places and along riverbanks. It is a weed in cultivated land (Sreekumar and Nair, 1991; Kabeer and Nair, 2009). In the United States and South America, it grows on sandy soils at elevations from sea level to 200 m (Lægaard and Peterson, 2001; Barkworth et al., 2004).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedManaged grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedManaged grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedManaged grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Productive/non-natural

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Glycine max (soyabean)FabaceaeMain

    Biology and Ecology

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    Genetics

    The chromosome number reported for E. japonica is 2n = 20 (Bir and Sahni, 1988).

    Physiology and Phenology

    In China, E. japonica produces flowers and fruits from June to November (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016). In Pakistan it has been recorded flowering and fruiting from August-October to December (Flora of Pakistan, 2016).

    Longevity

    E. japonica is an annual or short-lived perennial grass. It competes aggressively in disturbed sites and on sandy soils (Barkworth et al., 2004; Flora of Pakistan, 2016).

    Climate

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    ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
    Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
    Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
    As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
    Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])

    Soil Tolerances

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    Soil drainage

    • seasonally waterlogged

    Soil reaction

    • acid
    • neutral

    Soil texture

    • light

    Means of Movement and Dispersal

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    E. japonica spreads by seeds, which can be dispersed by wind, water, as a contaminant and adhered to livestock and motor vehicles (Barkworth et al., 2004; Flora of Pakistan, 2016; PROTA, 2016).

    Pathway Causes

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    CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
    DisturbanceGrows along roadsides and disturbed sites Yes Yes Barkworth et al. (2004)
    ForageUse for pasture, forage, fodder Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2016)

    Pathway Vectors

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    VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
    Debris and waste associated with human activitiesSeeds spread readily into disturbed areas from cultivated areas Yes Yes PROTA (2016)
    WindSeeds dispersed by wind Yes Yes PIER (2016)

    Impact Summary

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    CategoryImpact
    Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
    Environment (generally) Positive and negative

    Environmental Impact

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    E. japonica is a weedy grass impacting principally agricultural lands and disturbed sites. It is also a weed in natural grasslands and riparian areas (Barkworth et al., 2004; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016; PIER, 2016; PROTA, 2016). Once naturalized, this species has the capability to outcompete native vegetation and alter successional patterns (Barkworth et al., 2004; Flora of Pakistan, 2016).

    Risk and Impact Factors

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    Invasiveness
    • Proved invasive outside its native range
    • Has a broad native range
    • Abundant in its native range
    • Highly adaptable to different environments
    • Is a habitat generalist
    • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
    • Pioneering in disturbed areas
    • Highly mobile locally
    • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
    • Fast growing
    • Gregarious
    Impact outcomes
    • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
    • Modification of successional patterns
    • Monoculture formation
    • Negatively impacts agriculture
    • Reduced native biodiversity
    • Threat to/ loss of native species
    Impact mechanisms
    • Competition - monopolizing resources
    • Herbivory/grazing/browsing
    • Rapid growth
    Likelihood of entry/control
    • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
    • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
    • Difficult to identify/detect in the field

    Uses

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    E. japonica is a fodder grass and mostly grazed by cattle (Kabeer and Nair, 2009). It is also used as a lactation stimulant in animals. It is considered to be a good fodder for buffaloes in parts of India and Pakistan (Flora of Pakistan, 2016).

    Uses List

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    Animal feed, fodder, forage

    • Fodder/animal feed
    • Forage

    Environmental

    • Agroforestry

    Prevention and Control

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    Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

    The herbicides recommended for chemical control of E. japonica include post-emergence applications of 2, 4-D and pre-emergence applications of herbicides such as butachlor, anilophos and pretilachlor (Radanachaless and Maxwell, 1994).

    References

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    Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

    Barkworth ME, Capels KM, Long S, Piep MB, 2004. Eragrostis. Flora of North America, volume 25. http://herbarium.usu.edu/webmanual/

    Bir SS, Sahni M, 1988. Cytomorphological studies on members of genus Eragrostis from Punjab Plain (north India). , Journal of Cytology and Genetics, 23:118-131

    Clayton WD, Govaerts R, Harman KT, Williamson H, Vorontsova M, 2016. World Checklist of Poaceae. Richmond, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/

    DAISIE, 2016. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. European Invasive Alien Species Gateway. www.europe-aliens.org/default.do

    Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

    Flora of Pakistan, 2016. Flora of Pakistan/Pakistan Plant Database (PPD). St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Tropicos website. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Pakistan

    I3N-Brasil, 2016. National database of exotic invasive species (Base de dados nacional de especies exoticas invasora). Santa Catarina, Brazil: Instituto Horus de Dsenvolvimento e Conservacao Ambiental. http://i3n.institutohorus.org.br

    India Biodiversity Portal, 2016. Online Portal of India Biodiversity. http://indiabiodiversity.org/species/list

    Kabeer KAA, Nair VJ, 2009. Flora of Tamil Nadu - Grasses. Kolkatta, India: Botanical Survey of India.

    Kumar B, 2013. Eragrostis japonica. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T177051A7369942. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2011-1.RLTS.T177051A7369942.en

    Longhi-Wagner HM, 2016. Eragrostis in Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro. http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/jabot/floradobrasil/FB13206

    Lægaard S, Peterson PM, 2001. Gramineae (part 2) Subfamily Chloridoideae. In: Gunnar H, Anderson L, Eds. Flora of Ecuador, 68 pp.

    Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff MG, et al. , 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 6(Special Issue 1):22-96.

    PIER, 2016. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.htm

    PROTA, 2016. PROTA4U web database. Wageningen, Netherlands: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. http://www.prota4u.org/search.asp

    Radanachaless T, Maxwell JF, 1994. Weeds of soybean fields in Thailand. Thailand: Multiple Cropping Center Publications.

    Sreekumar PV, Nair VJ, 1991. Flora of Kerala - Grasses. Kolkatta, India: Botanical Survey of India.

    Stevens PF, 2012. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

    USDA-ARS, 2016. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, USA. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl

    USDA-NRCS, 2016. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov/

    Zuloaga FO, Morrone O, Belgrano MJ, 2008. Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur: (Argentina, Sur de Brasil, Chile, Paraguay y Uruguay) (Catalogue of the vascular plants of the southern cone (Argentina, southern Brazil, Chile, Paraguay and Uruguay)). USA: Missouri Botanical Garden Press. 3348 pp..

    Distribution References

    Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

    Clayton WD, Govaerts R, Harman KT, Williamson H, Vorontsova M, 2016. World Checklist of Poaceae., Richmond, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/

    DAISIE, 2016. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. http://www.europe-aliens.org/

    Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016. Flora of China. In: Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

    Hwang KiSeon, Eom MinYong, Park SuHyuk, Won OkJae, Lee InYong, Park KeeWoong, 2015. Occurrence and distribution of weed species on horticulture fields in Chungnam province of Korea. Journal of Ecology and Environment. 38 (3), 353-360. DOI:10.5141/ecoenv.2015.036

    I3N-Brasil, 2016. National database of exotic invasive species. (Base de dados nacional de especies exoticas invasora)., Santa Catarina, Brazil: Instituto Horus de Dsenvolvimento e Conservacao Ambiental. http://i3n.institutohorus.org.br

    India Biodiversity Portal, 2016. Online Portal of India Biodiversity., http://indiabiodiversity.org/species/list

    Longhi-Wagner HM, 2016. (Eragrostis in Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil)., Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro. http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/jabot/floradobrasil/FB13206

    Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff M G, et al, 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba. 6 (Special Issue No. 1), 22-96.

    USDA-NRCS, 2016. The PLANTS Database. Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team. https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov

    Zuloaga FO, Morrone O, Belgrano MJ, Garden MB, 2008. Catalogue of the vascular plants of the southern cone (Argentina, southern Brazil, Chile, Paraguay and Uruguay). (Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur: (Argentina, Sur de Brasil, Chile, Paraguay y Uruguay))., USA: Missouri Botanical Garden Press. 3348 pp.

    Links to Websites

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    WebsiteURLComment
    GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

    Contributors

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    19/05/16 Original text by:

    Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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