Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

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Eragrostis amabilis
(Japanese lovegrass)

Duenas-Lopez M A, 2018. Eragrostis amabilis (Japanese lovegrass). Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CABI. DOI:10.1079/ISC.21632.20203483854

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Eragrostis amabilis (Japanese lovegrass)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 17 June 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Eragrostis amabilis
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Japanese lovegrass
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Monocotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Eragrostis amabilis is an annual terrestrial grass with pan-tropical distribution, naturalized elsewhere in the neo-tropics, that is used as an ornamental grass and for lawns. It is a common weed in disturbed, open areas, such as those cl...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Eragrostis amabilis (Japanese lovegrass); seedhead. Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA.  March 2015.
TitleSeedheads
CaptionEragrostis amabilis (Japanese lovegrass); seedhead. Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. March 2015.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Eragrostis amabilis (Japanese lovegrass); seedhead. Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA.  March 2015.
SeedheadsEragrostis amabilis (Japanese lovegrass); seedhead. Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. March 2015.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Eragrostis amabilis (Japanese lovegrass); seedhead. Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA.  March 2015.
TitleSeedhead
CaptionEragrostis amabilis (Japanese lovegrass); seedhead. Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. March 2015.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Eragrostis amabilis (Japanese lovegrass); seedhead. Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA.  March 2015.
SeedheadEragrostis amabilis (Japanese lovegrass); seedhead. Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. March 2015.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Eragrostis amabilis (Japanese lovegrass); habit. Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June 2008.
TitleHabit
CaptionEragrostis amabilis (Japanese lovegrass); habit. Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June 2008.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Eragrostis amabilis (Japanese lovegrass); habit. Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June 2008.
HabitEragrostis amabilis (Japanese lovegrass); habit. Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June 2008.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Eragrostis amabilis (Japanese lovegrass); habit with Laysan albatross (Phoebastria immutabilis). Runway overrun fields Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June 2008.
TitleHabit
CaptionEragrostis amabilis (Japanese lovegrass); habit with Laysan albatross (Phoebastria immutabilis). Runway overrun fields Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June 2008.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Eragrostis amabilis (Japanese lovegrass); habit with Laysan albatross (Phoebastria immutabilis). Runway overrun fields Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June 2008.
HabitEragrostis amabilis (Japanese lovegrass); habit with Laysan albatross (Phoebastria immutabilis). Runway overrun fields Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June 2008.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Eragrostis amabilis (Japanese lovegrass); habit. Runway overrun fields Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June 2008.
TitleHabit
CaptionEragrostis amabilis (Japanese lovegrass); habit. Runway overrun fields Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June 2008.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Eragrostis amabilis (Japanese lovegrass); habit. Runway overrun fields Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June 2008.
HabitEragrostis amabilis (Japanese lovegrass); habit. Runway overrun fields Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June 2008.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Eragrostis amabilis (Japanese lovegrass); seedhead and leaves- voucher specimaen. Halsey Dr housing Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June 2008.
TitleSeedhead
CaptionEragrostis amabilis (Japanese lovegrass); seedhead and leaves- voucher specimaen. Halsey Dr housing Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June 2008.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Eragrostis amabilis (Japanese lovegrass); seedhead and leaves- voucher specimaen. Halsey Dr housing Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June 2008.
SeedheadEragrostis amabilis (Japanese lovegrass); seedhead and leaves- voucher specimaen. Halsey Dr housing Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June 2008.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Eragrostis amabilis (L.) Wight & Arn.

Preferred Common Name

  • Japanese lovegrass

Other Scientific Names

  • Cynodon amabilis (P.Beauv.) Raspail
  • Eragrostis breviculmis (Stapf) H.Lév.
  • Eragrostis caudata Nees ex Steud.
  • Eragrostis despiciens (Link) Schult.
  • Eragrostis elytroblephara Steud.
  • Eragrostis laxa Baker
  • Eragrostis mauritii Steud.
  • Eragrostis plumosa (L.) Link
  • Eragrostis plumosa (Retz.)
  • Eragrostis tenella (L.) P.Beauv. ex Roem. & Schult.
  • Eragrostis tenella (L.) Roem. & Schult.
  • Megastachya amabilis (L.) P.Beauv.
  • Megastachya tenella (L.) Bojer
  • Poa amabilis L.
  • Poa despiciens Link
  • Poa plumosa Retz.
  • Poa tenella L.

International Common Names

  • English: bug’s eggs grass; delicate lovegrass; feathery lovegrass; female grass; love grass; lovegrass
  • Spanish: yerba de amor
  • Chinese: ji yu cao

Local Common Names

  • Bangladesh: shada fulka
  • India: bharbhusi; budi; rejhra; shada fulka
  • Indonesia: jukut karukuan
  • Mexico: saksuuk

EPPO code

  • ERAAM (Eragrostis amabilis)

Summary of Invasiveness

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Eragrostis amabilis is an annual terrestrial grass with pan-tropical distribution, naturalized elsewhere in the neo-tropics, that is used as an ornamental grass and for lawns. It is a common weed in disturbed, open areas, such as those close to forest margins and along roadsides, and often grows as a weed in upland rice crops in South Asia and Southeast Asia. It is listed as invasive in the Pacific Islands, Central America and Cuba, but no further information is available about its impacts or invasiveness in natural or semi-natural habitats in its non-native range.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  •                     Order: Cyperales
  •                         Family: Poaceae
  •                             Genus: Eragrostis
  •                                 Species: Eragrostis amabilis

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Eragrostis is the largest genus in the subfamily Chloridoideae (Poaceae) with approximately 350 species (Clayton et al., 2016). Members of Eragrostis  are generally characterized by paniculate inflorescences, multi-floreted spikelets, glabrous three-nerved lemmas and ciliate ligules. Although the genus is morphologically and anatomically diverse, and exhibits a wide range of variation in many characteristics, it is considered a monophyletic genus (Ingram and Doyle, 2007).

Although the synonym Eragrostis tenella is sometimes used in the literature and in some databases, Eragrostis amabilis (L.) Wight & Arn. is the accepted name (Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; The Plant List, 2013; World Flora Online, 2020).

Description

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The following description is adapted from Efloras (2008):

Eragrostis amabilis is an annual or perennial grass, terrestrial, annual, caespitose. Culm weak, usually geniculate, 3-4-noded; ligule, a ring of short hairs. Inflorescence, an oblong panicle, 5-10 cm long, ciliated at axils of branches, glandular. Spikelets 4-8-flowered, ovate, to elliptic-ovate, about 2 mm long; rachilla, falling off successively downwards from top to the base; glumes, broadly ovate, membranous, 1-nerved, subequal; lower glume slightly smaller, about 2/3 as long as the upper, falling off when mature; lemmas keeled, broadly ovate, about 1 mm long, 3-nerved; palea persistent, or tardily deciduous, long ciliate on the keels, the hairs rigidly spreading at maturity; anthers 3, about 0.3 mm long. Caryopsis ovoid, about 0.5 mm long.

For a description of this species in Australia see Mallet (2005). Further descriptions can be found in Barkworth et al. (2003) and Clayton et al. (2016).

Plant Type

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Annual
Grass / sedge
Herbaceous
Seed propagated
Vegetatively propagated

Distribution

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Eragrostis amabilis is native to China, the Indian subcontinent, Papuasia, Malesia and the Philippines in tropical Asia, and New Guinea, Guam, Nauru and Palau in Oceania (Clayton et al., 2016). It is introduced and now widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions (Davidse et al., 1994; Wagner et al., 1999) of the Americas: the southeastern United States (Barkworth et al., 2003; USDA-NRCS, 2018), Central America, South America (Peterson and Vega, 2007; Giraldo Cañas et al., 2012) and the Caribbean region (Broome et al., 2007; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012). It is naturalized throughout tropical Africa (Galinato et al., 1999), and is particularly common in West Africa from Senegal to Cameroon (Burkill, 2000). It is introduced to nearly all Pacific Ocean Islands (PIER, 2018); Australia (Mallet, 2005) and New Zealand (Cameron, 2005).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 25 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

Burkina FasoPresentIntroducedInvasive
Côte d'IvoirePresentIntroducedInvasive
GhanaPresentIntroducedInvasive
MaliPresentIntroducedInvasive
MauritiusPresentNative
NigeriaPresentIntroducedInvasive
SenegalPresentIntroducedInvasive
SeychellesPresentIntroduced

Asia

British Indian Ocean TerritoryPresentIntroducedInvasiveDiego Garcia Island
ChinaPresentNative
-AnhuiPresentNative
-FujianPresentNative
-GuangdongPresentNative
-GuangxiPresentNative
-HainanPresentNative
-HebeiPresentNative
-ShandongPresentNative
-XinjiangPresentNative
-YunnanPresentNative
Cocos IslandsPresentNative
Hong KongPresentNative
IndiaPresentNative
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresentNative
-AssamPresentNative
-GujaratPresent
-MeghalayaPresentNative
IndonesiaPresent
-JavaPresent
JapanPresentIntroduced
MalaysiaPresentNative
PakistanPresentNativeSind, Punjab and Kashmir
SingaporePresentInvasiveUncertain if it is a native or introduced species in the country
TaiwanPresentNativeInvasive

North America

Antigua and BarbudaPresentIntroduced
BahamasPresentIntroduced
BarbadosPresentIntroduced
Cayman IslandsPresentIntroduced
CubaPresentIntroducedInvasive
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroduced
El SalvadorPresentIntroducedInvasive
GrenadaPresentIntroduced
GuadeloupePresentIntroduced
GuatemalaPresentIntroducedInvasive
HaitiPresentIntroduced
HondurasPresentIntroducedInvasive
JamaicaPresentIntroduced
MartiniquePresentIntroduced
MexicoPresentIntroduced
MontserratPresentIntroduced
NicaraguaPresentIntroducedInvasive
PanamaPresentIntroducedInvasive
Puerto RicoPresentIntroduced
Saint Kitts and NevisPresentIntroduced
Saint LuciaPresentIntroduced
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentIntroduced
United StatesPresentIntroduced
-AlabamaPresentIntroduced
-FloridaPresentIntroduced
-GeorgiaPresentIntroduced
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedInvasive
-MississippiPresentIntroduced
-South CarolinaPresentIntroduced
-TexasPresentIntroduced

Oceania

American SamoaPresentIntroducedManu'a Islands
AustraliaPresentIntroducedIntroduced on mainland and Coral Sea Islands
-Northern TerritoryPresentIntroduced
-QueenslandPresentIntroduced
-Western AustraliaPresentIntroduced
Christmas IslandPresentNative
Cook IslandsPresentIntroduced
Federated States of MicronesiaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-ChuukPresentIntroducedInvasive
-KosraePresentIntroducedInvasive
-PohnpeiPresentIntroducedInvasive
FijiPresentIntroducedInvasiveMinor weed of cultivation
French PolynesiaPresentIntroducedInvasive
GuamPresentNative
KiribatiPresentIntroducedInvasive
Marshall IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasive
NauruPresentNative
New CaledoniaPresentIntroducedInvasive
New ZealandPresentIntroducedAuckland, Rotorua and the Chatham Islands
NiuePresentIntroducedInvasive
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasiveAlamagan Island; Anatahan Island; Pagan Island; Sarigan Island
PalauPresentNative
Solomon IslandsPresentIntroduced
United States Minor Outlying Islands
-Johnston AtollPresentIntroducedInvasive
-Wake IslandPresentIntroducedInvasive

South America

BoliviaPresentIntroduced
BrazilPresentIntroduced
ColombiaPresentIntroduced
EcuadorPresentIntroduced
-Galapagos IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasiveIsabella, Cristobal Islands
ParaguayPresentIntroduced
PeruPresentIntroducedNorthwest of the country
VenezuelaPresentIntroduced

History of Introduction and Spread

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Eragrostis amabilis has been introduced outside its native range to tropical and subtropical regions of Africa, America and Oceania. This species was first recorded in Hawaii in 1895 and is now found throughout the Pacific (Whistler 1995). Its first recorded collection in Australia was in Western Australia in 1888 (Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, 2020). It was first reported in Florida (USA) in 1913 (Gann et al., 2018), and has since spread thorough the continent to Central and South America and the Caribbean. Introductions in Africa and the Oceanic Pacific are not possible to track due to a lack of information. One recent introduction occurred in 2002 in New Zealand from Sri Lanka (Cameron 2005).

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Hawaii 1895 No No Whistler (1995)
Western Australia 1888 No No Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (2020)
Florida 1913 No No Gann et al. (2018)
New Zealand Sri Lanka 2002 Seed trade (pathway cause) No No Cameron (2005)

Risk of Introduction

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Eragrostis amabilis is used as ornamental grass (Pink, 2004) and a lawn turf (Quattrocchi, 2006), therefore its introduction is highly likely to be intentional. Unintentional introduction is also possible by seed contamination in trade (Popay et al., 2008). In view of its current distribution, the introduction of this species in new countries in tropical regions is highly likely.

Habitat

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This species grows in open areas such as close to cultivated fields, forest margins, and along roadsides (Pope and Pope, 1998; Wagner et al., 1999; Barkworth et al., 2003; Peterson and Vega, 2007); sandy beaches, woodland clearings (Mallet, 2005), city pavements, dry forests (Giraldo Cañas et al., 2012) and on roadways (Burkill, 2000). It is common in disturbed areas (Whistler, 1988; Gann et al., 2018) and damp places (Smith, 1979). It is found on river banks, lake-shores and coastal dunes in Africa (Pope and Pope, 1998). In New Caledonia, it is common in turf grass (Whistler, 1988).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Principal habitat Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRocky areas / lava flows Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
LittoralCoastal areas Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)

Hosts/Species Affected

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Eragrostis amabilis is included in the list of weeds affecting irrigated, rain-fed lowland and irrigated-lowland rice (PlantNet, 2018).  It is a common species in upland rice crops in India, Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam, and is present but considered of minor agricultural importance in Bangladesh, Laos and Myanmar (Galinato et al., 1999).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Oryza sativa (rice)PoaceaeMain

    Growth Stages

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    Vegetative growing stage

    Biology and Ecology

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    Genetics

    The chromosome number of Eragrostis amabilis is unknown, but for those species in the genus that have been the subject of cytological studies, Eragostris shows a wide range of ploidy levels (Ingram and Doyle, 2007), from 2n= 20 (Barkworth et al., 2003; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018) to 2n=60 (Wagner et al., 2018).

    Reproductive Biology

    Reproduction and propagation mainly by seeds (caryopsis) (Burkill, 2000; PIER, 2018). E. amabilis produces a high number of seeds, one single plant can produce up to 140,000 seeds.

    Physiology and Phenology

    Flowering and fruiting from April to August in China (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018); March to September in Pakistan (Flora of Pakistan, 2018); Jan to July-Oct in Australia (Mallet, 2005) and from October through May in Peru (Peterson and Vega, 2007). E. amabilis uses the C4 pathway in photosynthesis (Galinato et al., 1999).

    Activity Patterns

    Eragrostis amabilis is a very competitive species, with a rapid growth rate and fast production of erect tillers and leaves (Galinato et al., 1999).

    Environmental Requirements

    This species is found from sea level to about 470 m in the Pacific Islands (Smith, 1979; Wagner et al., 1999), up to 1,160m in Africa (Pope and Pope, 1998), and up to 1,600 m in South America (Giraldo Cañas et al., 2012). It is found in wet, black, sandy (Quattrocchi, 2006) and limestone soils (Stone, 1970). In Hawai‘i it is found growing on well-drained sandy soils on lava (Wagner et al., 1999) and in Australia in sandy soils and shallow soils over laterite (Mallet, 2005). The plants can withstand long periods of drought (Stone, 1970).

    Climate

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    ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
    Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
    Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
    As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
    Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
    BS - Steppe climate Tolerated > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
    Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers

    Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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    Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
    35 35

    Rainfall Regime

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    Bimodal
    Winter

    Soil Tolerances

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    Soil drainage

    • free
    • impeded

    Soil texture

    • light

    Natural enemies

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    Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
    Meloidogyne chitwoodi Parasite Plants|Roots not specific
    Nephotettix virescens Predator Adults not specific
    Rice tungro bacilliform virus Parasite Adults not specific
    Rice tungro spherical virus Parasite Adults not specific

    Notes on Natural Enemies

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    Eragrostis. amabilis is a host to the nematode Meloidogyne chitwoodi, the rice tungro virus and the insect Nephotettix virescens (Galinato et al., 1999).

    Means of Movement and Dispersal

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    Natural Dispersal

    Eragrostis amabilis spreads by seeds (Burkill, 2000; PIER, 2018) which can be dispersed by wind, water and contaminated machinery, mowers, soil and stock feed (Whistler, 1995).

    Vector Transmission (Biotic)

    The seeds of Eragrostis spp. may be dispersed by birds (Holm et al. 1997).

    Accidental Introduction

    This species is reported to have been unintentionally introduced as a seed contaminant in New Zealand. The seeds have been found in imported coco-peat-based potting mix from Sri Lanka (Popay et al., 2008).

    Another likely pathway of introduction could be by seed contamination through traded grain crops, as this species is included in the list of weeds affecting rice crops throughout the world (PlantNet, 2018).

    Intentional Introduction

    This species is used in gardens as a drought tolerant ornamental grass (Pink, 2004) and it is sometimes grown as a lawn turf (Burkill, 2000; Quattrocchi, 2006). It is highly likely to have escaped from gardens and become naturalized in human disturbed habitats after introduction as an ornamental.

    Pathway Causes

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    CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
    Escape from confinement or garden escapeAccidental escape Yes Pink (2004)
    Garden waste disposalAccidental escape Yes Whistler (1995)
    Ornamental purposesDeliberate introduction Yes Quattrocchi (2006)
    Seed tradeDeliberate introduction Yes PlantNet (2018)

    Pathway Vectors

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    Impact Summary

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    CategoryImpact
    Cultural/amenity Positive and negative
    Economic/livelihood Negative

    Environmental Impact

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    It is cited as invasive in the Oceanic and Hawaiian Islands, Central America (PIER, 2018) and Cuba (Oviedo-Prieto et al., 2012), but no further information is available about its impact in natural or semi-natural habitats in its non-native range.

    Social Impact

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    Eragrostis amabilis is a common grassy weed in turf grass areas, garden lawns and roadsides in Taiwan (Efloras, 2008), Australia (Mallet, 2005) and New Caledonia (Whistler, 1988). It is considered a common weed in African crop lands (Burkill, 2000), and a minor weed in cultivated areas in Fiji ((Smith, 1979).

    Risk and Impact Factors

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    Invasiveness
    • Invasive in its native range
    • Proved invasive outside its native range
    • Has a broad native range
    • Abundant in its native range
    • Highly adaptable to different environments
    • Is a habitat generalist
    • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
    • Pioneering in disturbed areas
    • Tolerant of shade
    • Highly mobile locally
    • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
    • Fast growing
    • Has high reproductive potential
    • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
    • Reproduces asexually
    Impact outcomes
    • Negatively impacts agriculture
    • Reduced amenity values
    Likelihood of entry/control
    • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
    • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
    • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant

    Uses

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    Economic Value

    Eragrostis amabilis is used as a forage grass and fodder for cattle and water buffalo (Galinato et al., 1999; Burkill, 2000; Flora of Pakistan, 2018).

    Social Benefit

    The plant is sometimes harvested from the wild and consumed as a cereal (Burkill, 2000). It is also used as ornamental grass and as a turf grass.

    Uses List

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    Animal feed, fodder, forage

    • Fodder/animal feed
    • Forage

    Environmental

    • Amenity

    Human food and beverage

    • Cereal

    Ornamental

    • garden plant

    Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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    Eragrostis amabilis can be distinguished from other Eragrostis species because it has characteristic palea hairs 0.1–0.3mm, less than the width of the floret (Clayton et al., 2016).

    Prevention and Control

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    Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

    Mechanical control

    Eragrostis amabilis can be controlled by cultivation, especially when followed by dry conditions, which promote desiccation of uprooted plants (Galinato et al., 1999).

    Chemical Control

    Post-emergence herbicides such as 2,4-D or pre-emergence herbicides such as butachlor anilofos and pretilachlor, can control this species effectively.

    References

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    Acevedo-Rodríguez, P., Strong, M. T., 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies, Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution.1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

    AusGrass2, 2015. Grasses of Australia. Online Resources. In: Grasses of Australia. Online Resources . http://ausgrass2.myspecies.info/

    Barkworth, M. E., Capels, K. M., Long, S., Piep, M. B., 2003. Flora of North America, Vol. 25. Magnoliophyta: Commelinidae (in part): Poaceae, part 2, i-xxv + 783 pp.

    Broome, R., Sabir, K., Carrington, S., 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. In: Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database , Barbados: University of the West Indies.http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

    Burkill, H. M., 2000. The Useful Plants of West Tropical Africa, Kew, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens.

    Cameron, EK, 2005. BioBlitz and a new exotic grass in Auckland: Eragrostis amabilis. Auckland Botanical Society Journal, 60(1), 52-53.

    Clayton, W. D., Vorontsova, M. S., Harman, K. T., Williamson, H., 2016. GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora. In: GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora . Richmond, London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.http://www.kew.org/data/grasses-db/genindex.htm

    Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, 2020. Australia's virtual herbarium. In: Australia's virtual herbarium , Australia: Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria.http://avh.ala.org.au

    Davidse G, Sánchez MS, Chater AO, 1994. Flora Mesoamericana. Volume 6. Alismataceae to Cyperaceae. (Flora Mesoamericana. Volumen 6. Alismataceae a Cyperaceae). In: Flora Mesoamericana. Volumen 6. Alismataceae a Cyperaceae . Mexico City, Mexico: Instituto de Biologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM).xvi + 543 pp.

    Efloras, 2008. Gramineae. In: Flora of Taiwan : Efloras.http://www.efloras.org

    EPPO, 2018. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database Paris, France: EPPO.https://gd.eppo.int/

    Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018. Flora of China. In: Flora of China St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

    Flora of Pakistan, 2018. Flora of Pakistan/Pakistan Plant Database (PPD). Tropicos website. In: Flora of Pakistan/Pakistan Plant Database (PPD). Tropicos website St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Pakistan

    Fosberg, F. R., Sachet, M. H., Oliver, R., 1987. A geographical checklist of the Micronesian monocotyledonae. Micronesia, 20, 1-2, 19-129.

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    Distribution References

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    Giraldo Cañas D, Peterson PM, Sánchez Vega I, 2012. The genus Eragrostis (Poaceae: Chloridoideae) in northwestern South America (Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru): morphological and taxonomic studies., Bogotá, Colombia: Biblioteca José Jerónimo Triana No. 24. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Facultad de Ciencias, Instituto de Ciencias Naturales. 194 pp.

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    PIER, 2018. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. In: Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

    PlantNet, 2018. Riceweeds. PlantNet. http://publish.plantnet-project.org/project/riceweeds_en

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    13/07/18 Original text by:

    Manuel Angel Duenas-Lopez, Universidad de Cordoba, Cordoba, Spain

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