Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Eragrostis pilosa
(India lovegrass)

Duenas-Lopez M A, 2018. Eragrostis pilosa (India lovegrass). Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CABI. DOI:10.1079/ISC.21631.20203483522

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Datasheet

Eragrostis pilosa (India lovegrass)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 03 July 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Eragrostis pilosa
  • Preferred Common Name
  • India lovegrass
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Monocotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Eragrostis pilosa is an annual grass native to Eurasia and Africa that has become naturalized in many other tropical and temperate regions of the world. It is a common weed in disturbed areas such as roadsides and crop fields. It is invas...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Eragrostis pilosa (India lovegrass); uprooted plant, showing typical habit. Australia. March 2013.
TitlePlant
CaptionEragrostis pilosa (India lovegrass); uprooted plant, showing typical habit. Australia. March 2013.
Copyright©Harry Rose/Macleay Grass Man/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Eragrostis pilosa (India lovegrass); uprooted plant, showing typical habit. Australia. March 2013.
PlantEragrostis pilosa (India lovegrass); uprooted plant, showing typical habit. Australia. March 2013.©Harry Rose/Macleay Grass Man/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Eragrostis pilosa (India lovegrass); flowerheads are contracted panicles at first, becoming open at maturity (8-24 cm long). Lower branches are whorled, with sparse, rigid, 1-4 mm long hairs in the axils. Spikelets are 1-1.5 mm wide, usually 6-8 flowered, flattened, unawned, with lemmas 1-2 mm long. Australia. March 2013.
TitleFlowerheads
CaptionEragrostis pilosa (India lovegrass); flowerheads are contracted panicles at first, becoming open at maturity (8-24 cm long). Lower branches are whorled, with sparse, rigid, 1-4 mm long hairs in the axils. Spikelets are 1-1.5 mm wide, usually 6-8 flowered, flattened, unawned, with lemmas 1-2 mm long. Australia. March 2013.
Copyright©Harry Rose/Macleay Grass Man/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Eragrostis pilosa (India lovegrass); flowerheads are contracted panicles at first, becoming open at maturity (8-24 cm long). Lower branches are whorled, with sparse, rigid, 1-4 mm long hairs in the axils. Spikelets are 1-1.5 mm wide, usually 6-8 flowered, flattened, unawned, with lemmas 1-2 mm long. Australia. March 2013.
FlowerheadsEragrostis pilosa (India lovegrass); flowerheads are contracted panicles at first, becoming open at maturity (8-24 cm long). Lower branches are whorled, with sparse, rigid, 1-4 mm long hairs in the axils. Spikelets are 1-1.5 mm wide, usually 6-8 flowered, flattened, unawned, with lemmas 1-2 mm long. Australia. March 2013.©Harry Rose/Macleay Grass Man/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Eragrostis pilosa (India lovegrass); flowerhead. Lower branches are whorled, with sparse, rigid, 1-4 mm long hairs in the axils. Australia. March 2013.
TitleFlowerhead
CaptionEragrostis pilosa (India lovegrass); flowerhead. Lower branches are whorled, with sparse, rigid, 1-4 mm long hairs in the axils. Australia. March 2013.
Copyright©Harry Rose/Macleay Grass Man/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Eragrostis pilosa (India lovegrass); flowerhead. Lower branches are whorled, with sparse, rigid, 1-4 mm long hairs in the axils. Australia. March 2013.
FlowerheadEragrostis pilosa (India lovegrass); flowerhead. Lower branches are whorled, with sparse, rigid, 1-4 mm long hairs in the axils. Australia. March 2013.©Harry Rose/Macleay Grass Man/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Eragrostis pilosa (India lovegrass); spikelets are often tinged purplish, 1-1.5 mm wide, usually 6-8 flowered, flattened, unawned and with lemmas 1-2 mm long.. Australia. March 2013.
TitleSpikelets
CaptionEragrostis pilosa (India lovegrass); spikelets are often tinged purplish, 1-1.5 mm wide, usually 6-8 flowered, flattened, unawned and with lemmas 1-2 mm long.. Australia. March 2013.
Copyright©Harry Rose/Macleay Grass Man/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Eragrostis pilosa (India lovegrass); spikelets are often tinged purplish, 1-1.5 mm wide, usually 6-8 flowered, flattened, unawned and with lemmas 1-2 mm long.. Australia. March 2013.
SpikeletsEragrostis pilosa (India lovegrass); spikelets are often tinged purplish, 1-1.5 mm wide, usually 6-8 flowered, flattened, unawned and with lemmas 1-2 mm long.. Australia. March 2013.©Harry Rose/Macleay Grass Man/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Eragrostis pilosa (India lovegrass); ligule, a ciliate rim with hairs to 0.5 mm long. Australia. March 2013.
TitleLigule
CaptionEragrostis pilosa (India lovegrass); ligule, a ciliate rim with hairs to 0.5 mm long. Australia. March 2013.
Copyright©Harry Rose/Macleay Grass Man/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Eragrostis pilosa (India lovegrass); ligule, a ciliate rim with hairs to 0.5 mm long. Australia. March 2013.
LiguleEragrostis pilosa (India lovegrass); ligule, a ciliate rim with hairs to 0.5 mm long. Australia. March 2013.©Harry Rose/Macleay Grass Man/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Eragrostis pilosa (India lovegrass); nodes are usually purplish. Australia. March 2013.
TitleNode
CaptionEragrostis pilosa (India lovegrass); nodes are usually purplish. Australia. March 2013.
Copyright©Harry Rose/Macleay Grass Man/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Eragrostis pilosa (India lovegrass); nodes are usually purplish. Australia. March 2013.
NodeEragrostis pilosa (India lovegrass); nodes are usually purplish. Australia. March 2013.©Harry Rose/Macleay Grass Man/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Eragrostis pilosa (India lovegrass); flowerhead. Lower branches are whorled, with sparse, rigid, 1-4 mm long hairs in the axils. Australia. March 2013.
TitleFlowerhead
CaptionEragrostis pilosa (India lovegrass); flowerhead. Lower branches are whorled, with sparse, rigid, 1-4 mm long hairs in the axils. Australia. March 2013.
Copyright©Harry Rose/Macleay Grass Man/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Eragrostis pilosa (India lovegrass); flowerhead. Lower branches are whorled, with sparse, rigid, 1-4 mm long hairs in the axils. Australia. March 2013.
FlowerheadEragrostis pilosa (India lovegrass); flowerhead. Lower branches are whorled, with sparse, rigid, 1-4 mm long hairs in the axils. Australia. March 2013.©Harry Rose/Macleay Grass Man/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Eragrostis pilosa (India lovegrass); stem bases are usually purplish. Australia. March 2013.
TitleStem base
CaptionEragrostis pilosa (India lovegrass); stem bases are usually purplish. Australia. March 2013.
Copyright©Harry Rose/Macleay Grass Man/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Eragrostis pilosa (India lovegrass); stem bases are usually purplish. Australia. March 2013.
Stem baseEragrostis pilosa (India lovegrass); stem bases are usually purplish. Australia. March 2013.©Harry Rose/Macleay Grass Man/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Eragrostis pilosa (India lovegrass); habit.
TitleHabit
CaptionEragrostis pilosa (India lovegrass); habit.
Copyright©Luigi Rignanese-2006 - CC BY- NC 3.0
Eragrostis pilosa (India lovegrass); habit.
HabitEragrostis pilosa (India lovegrass); habit.©Luigi Rignanese-2006 - CC BY- NC 3.0
Eragrostis pilosa (India lovegrass); lower part of plant, showing roots.
TitleLower part of plant
CaptionEragrostis pilosa (India lovegrass); lower part of plant, showing roots.
Copyright©Luigi Rignanese-2006 - CC BY-NC 3.0
Eragrostis pilosa (India lovegrass); lower part of plant, showing roots.
Lower part of plantEragrostis pilosa (India lovegrass); lower part of plant, showing roots.©Luigi Rignanese-2006 - CC BY-NC 3.0
Eragrostis pilosa (India lovegrass); habit.
TitleHabit
CaptionEragrostis pilosa (India lovegrass); habit.
Copyright©Luigi Rignanese-2006 - CC BY-NC 3.0
Eragrostis pilosa (India lovegrass); habit.
HabitEragrostis pilosa (India lovegrass); habit.©Luigi Rignanese-2006 - CC BY-NC 3.0
Eragrostis pilosa (India lovegrass); fruits, close-up of caryopses.
TitleFruits
CaptionEragrostis pilosa (India lovegrass); fruits, close-up of caryopses.
Copyright©D. Walters & C. Southwick/CPHST/Bugwood.org - C BY-NC 3.0 US
Eragrostis pilosa (India lovegrass); fruits, close-up of caryopses.
FruitsEragrostis pilosa (India lovegrass); fruits, close-up of caryopses.©D. Walters & C. Southwick/CPHST/Bugwood.org - C BY-NC 3.0 US
Eragrostis pilosa (India lovegrass); intact spikelet. Photographed in laboratory at CPHST, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA.
TitleIntact spikelet
CaptionEragrostis pilosa (India lovegrass); intact spikelet. Photographed in laboratory at CPHST, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA.
Copyright©D. Walters & C. Southwick/CPHST/Bugwood.org - C BY-NC 3.0 US
Eragrostis pilosa (India lovegrass); intact spikelet. Photographed in laboratory at CPHST, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA.
Intact spikeletEragrostis pilosa (India lovegrass); intact spikelet. Photographed in laboratory at CPHST, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA.©D. Walters & C. Southwick/CPHST/Bugwood.org - C BY-NC 3.0 US

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Eragrostis pilosa (L.) P. Beauv.

Preferred Common Name

  • India lovegrass

Other Scientific Names

  • Catabrosa verticillata (Cav.) P.Beauv.
  • Eragrostis afghanica Gand.
  • Eragrostis amurensis Prob.
  • Eragrostis bagdadensis Boiss.
  • Eragrostis baguirmiensis A.Chev.
  • Eragrostis collocarpa K.Schum.
  • Eragrostis filiformis Link
  • Eragrostis gracilis Schrad.
  • Eragrostis gracillima Hack.
  • Eragrostis imberbis (Franch.) Prob.
  • Eragrostis indica (J.Koenig ex Rottler) Willd. ex Steud.
  • Eragrostis jeholensis Honda
  • Eragrostis linkii (Kunth) Steud.
  • Eragrostis multispicula Kitag.
  • Eragrostis petersii Trin.
  • Eragrostis punctata (L.) Link ex Steud.
  • Eragrostis tenuiflora Rupr. ex Steud.
  • Eragrostis verticillata (Cav.) P. Beauv.,
  • Eragrostis verticillata (Cav.) Roem. & Schult.
  • Poa bohemica J.C.Mayer ex Mert. & W.D.J.Koch
  • Poa delicatior Steud.
  • Poa indica J.Koenig ex Rottler
  • Poa linkii Kunth
  • Poa pilosa L.
  • Poa pilosa L.
  • Poa poiretii Roem. & Schult.
  • Poa punctata L.f.
  • Poa senegalensis Desv.
  • Poa verticillata Cav.

International Common Names

  • English: hairy love grass; Jersey love-grass; small-tufted lovegrass; soft lovegrass
  • Spanish: barba de Indio; pasto ilusión; pasto pelillo; sereno
  • French: eragrostide à manchettes; éragrostide à plusieurs tiges; éragrostide poilue; pâturin poilu
  • Chinese: hua mei cao
  • Portuguese: capim-barbicha-de-Alemao; capim-orvelho; capim-peludo

Local Common Names

  • Brazil: barbicha de alemao; capin atana; capin panasco
  • Germany: behaartes Liebesgras; Haarliebesgras; vielstängliges Liebesgras
  • Italy: eragrostide a fusti numerosi; eragrostide pelosa; panicella pelosa
  • Japan: ooniwahokori
  • Netherlands: harig liefdegras; straatliefdegras
  • Norway: slørfriargras
  • Poland: miłka owłosiona
  • Saudi Arabia: heelaagoog
  • Turkey: kıllı yulaf
  • Venezuela: grama de fidoeos

EPPO code

  • ERAPI (Eragrostis pilosa)

Summary of Invasiveness

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Eragrostis pilosa is an annual grass native to Eurasia and Africa that has become naturalized in many other tropical and temperate regions of the world. It is a common weed in disturbed areas such as roadsides and crop fields. It is invasive in a number of Pacific Islands, the Philippines, Australia, and North America but no further information is available about its impacts or invasiveness in natural or semi-natural habitats in its non-native range.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  •                     Order: Cyperales
  •                         Family: Poaceae
  •                             Genus: Eragrostis
  •                                 Species: Eragrostis pilosa

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Eragrostis Wolf is the largest genus in the subfamily Chloridoideae, with approximately 350 species (Clayton et al., 2018). Members of Eragrostis are generally characterized by paniculate inflorescences, multi-floreted spikelets, glabrous three-nerved lemmas and ciliate ligules. The genus is considered monophyletic but is morphologically and anatomically diverse, and exhibits a wide range of variation in many characteristics (Ingram and Doyle, 2007). Several infraspecific taxa have been described (Scholz, 1988). E. pilosa and E. aethiopica are regarded as putative ancestors of tef (t'ef), a native Ethiopian cereal crop.

Description

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The following description is from Clayton et al. (2018):

Eragrostis pilosa is an annual; caespitose. Culms erect, or geniculately ascending; 8–70 cm long. Ligule a fringe of hairs. Leaf-blades 2–20 cm long; 1–4 mm wide. Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle open; elliptic, or ovate; 4–25 cm long. Primary panicle branches whorled at lower nodes. Panicle branches eglandular; bearded in axils. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels eglandular. Spikelets comprising 4–14 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets linear; laterally compressed; 3–7 mm long; 0.7–1.2 mm wide; breaking up at maturity; rhachilla persistent; shedding paleas or retaining paleas (in temperate regions). Glumes deciduous; dissimilar; shorter than spikelet. Lower glume ovate; 0.5–0.7 mm long; 0.5–0.7 length of upper glume; hyaline; without keels; 0 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume ovate; 1 mm long; 0.6–1 length of adjacent fertile lemma; hyaline; 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Upper glume lateral veins absent. Upper glume apex acute. Fertile florets appressed to rhachilla. Fertile lemma ovate; 1–1.6 mm long; membranous; keeled; 3 -veined. Lemma apex obtuse, or acute. Palea keels scaberulous. Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped. Anthers 3; 0.2–0.3 mm long. Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; ellipsoid; laterally compressed; plano-convex; 0.6–1 mm long.

Plant Type

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Annual
Grass / sedge
Herbaceous
Seed propagated
Vegetatively propagated

Distribution

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Eragrostis pilosa is distributed in tropical and warm temperate regions of the Old World and is introduced in the New World (Clayton et al., 1974; Clayton et al., 2018). In its native range it is found in the tropical and subtropical regions of Africa through to East Asia (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018; Flora of Pakistan) and temperate regions of Europe (Walsh, 1994). E. pilosa is mostly found in coastal countries worldwide, but not in cooler northern temperate areas. It is naturalized in North America (USDA-NRCS, 2018), Central, and South America, and in Caribbean regions (Giraldo Cañas et al., 2012). It is introduced in some Pacific islands (PIER, 2018), Australia (Simon and Alfonso, 2011), New Zealand (NZPCN, 2018) and some European countries (Nobis and Nobis, 2009).

In Europe it has been reported as a weed in Albania, Austria, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Spain, Switzerland, Ukraine and Yugoslavia (Holm et al., 1997).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 25 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresentNative
AngolaPresentNative
BeninPresentNative
BotswanaPresentNative
Burkina FasoPresentNative
BurundiPresentNative
Cabo VerdePresentNative
CameroonPresentNative
Central African RepublicPresentNative
ChadPresentNative
ComorosPresentNative
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresentNative
Congo, Republic of thePresentNative
Côte d'IvoirePresentNative
DjiboutiPresentNative
EgyptPresentNative
Equatorial GuineaPresentNative
EritreaPresentNative
EswatiniPresentNative
EthiopiaPresentNative
GambiaPresentNative
GhanaPresentNative
GuineaPresentNative
Guinea-BissauPresentNative
KenyaPresentNative
LesothoPresentNative
LiberiaPresentNative
LibyaPresentNative
MadagascarPresentNative
MalawiPresentNative
MaliPresentNative
MauritaniaPresentNative
MoroccoPresentNative
MozambiquePresentNative
NamibiaPresentNative
NigerPresentNative
NigeriaPresentNative
SenegalPresentNative
Sierra LeonePresentNative
SomaliaPresentNative
South AfricaPresentNative
South SudanPresentNative
SudanPresentNative
TanzaniaPresentNative
TogoPresentNative
UgandaPresentNative
ZambiaPresentNative
ZimbabwePresentNative

Antarctica

French Southern Territories
-Crozet IslandsPresentNative

Asia

AfghanistanPresentNative
BangladeshPresentNative
BhutanPresentNativePunakha (Chuzomsa to Wangdue, Punakha Dzong)
ChinaPresentNative
-AnhuiPresentNative
-BeijingPresentNative
-FujianPresentNative
-GuizhouPresentNative
-HainanPresentNative
-HeilongjiangPresentNative
-HenanPresentNative
-HubeiPresentNative
-Inner MongoliaPresentNative
-NingxiaPresentNative
-ShaanxiPresentNative
-ShandongPresentNative
-XinjiangPresentNative
-YunnanPresentNative
-ZhejiangPresentNative
Hong KongPresentNative
IndiaPresentNative
-AssamPresentNative
-BiharPresentNative
-KarnatakaPresent
-MaharashtraPresentNative
IranPresentNative
IraqPresentNative
IsraelPresentNative
JapanPresentNative
-Bonin IslandsPresentIntroduced
MalaysiaPresent
MongoliaPresentNative
MyanmarPresentNative
NepalPresentNative
North KoreaPresentNative
OmanPresentNative
PakistanPresentNativeSind, Baluchistan, Punjab
PalestinePresentNative
PhilippinesPresentIntroducedInvasive
South KoreaPresentNative
Sri LankaPresentNative
TaiwanPresentNative
TajikistanPresentNative
TurkeyPresentNative
TurkmenistanPresentNative
UzbekistanPresentNative
VietnamPresentNative
YemenPresentNative

Europe

AlbaniaPresentNative
AustriaPresentNative
BelarusPresentNative
BelgiumPresentIntroduced
Bosnia and HerzegovinaPresentNative
BulgariaPresentNative
CroatiaPresentNative
CzechiaPresentNative
CzechoslovakiaPresentNative
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresentNative
FrancePresentNative
GermanyPresentNative
GreecePresentNative
HungaryPresentNative
ItalyPresentNative
MontenegroPresentNative
NetherlandsPresentIntroduced
North MacedoniaPresentNative
PolandPresentIntroduced
PortugalPresentNative
RomaniaPresent
RussiaPresentNative
SerbiaPresentNative
Serbia and MontenegroPresentNative
SlovakiaPresentNative
SloveniaPresentNative
SpainPresentNative
SwitzerlandPresentNative
UkrainePresentNative
United KingdomPresentNative

North America

ArubaPresentIntroduced
BahamasPresentIntroduced
BermudaPresentIntroduced
CanadaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-British ColumbiaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-OntarioPresentIntroducedInvasive
Costa RicaPresentIntroduced
CubaPresentIntroduced
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroduced
El SalvadorPresentIntroduced
HaitiPresentIntroduced
HondurasPresentIntroduced
JamaicaPresentIntroduced
MexicoPresentIntroduced
NicaraguaPresentIntroduced
Puerto RicoPresentIntroduced
Trinidad and TobagoPresentIntroduced
United StatesPresentIntroducedInvasive
-AlabamaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-ArizonaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-ArkansasPresentIntroducedInvasive
-CaliforniaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-ColoradoPresentIntroducedInvasive
-ConnecticutPresentIntroducedInvasive
-DelawarePresentIntroducedInvasive
-District of ColumbiaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-FloridaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-GeorgiaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedInvasive
-IdahoPresentIntroducedInvasive
-IllinoisPresentIntroducedInvasive
-IndianaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-IowaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-KansasPresentIntroducedInvasive
-KentuckyPresentIntroducedInvasive
-LouisianaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-MainePresentIntroducedInvasive
-MarylandPresentIntroducedInvasive
-MassachusettsPresentIntroducedInvasive
-MichiganPresentIntroducedInvasive
-MinnesotaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-MississippiPresentIntroducedInvasive
-MissouriPresentIntroducedInvasive
-NebraskaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-NevadaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-New HampshirePresentIntroducedInvasive
-New JerseyPresentIntroducedInvasive
-New MexicoPresentIntroducedInvasive
-New YorkPresentIntroducedInvasive
-North CarolinaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-North DakotaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-OhioPresentIntroducedInvasive
-OklahomaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-OregonPresentIntroducedInvasive
-PennsylvaniaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-Rhode IslandPresentIntroducedInvasive
-South CarolinaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-South DakotaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-TennesseePresentIntroducedInvasive
-TexasPresentIntroducedInvasive
-VermontPresentIntroducedInvasive
-VirginiaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-WashingtonPresentIntroducedInvasive
-West VirginiaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-WisconsinPresentIntroducedInvasive
-WyomingPresentIntroducedInvasive

Oceania

American SamoaPresentIntroduced
AustraliaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-Northern TerritoryPresentIntroducedInvasive
-QueenslandPresentIntroducedInvasive
-South AustraliaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-VictoriaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-Western AustraliaPresentIntroducedInvasive
Christmas IslandPresentIntroducedInvasive
Federated States of MicronesiaPresentIntroducedInvasive
FijiPresentIntroducedInvasive
GuamPresentIntroducedInvasive
KiribatiPresentIntroducedInvasive
New CaledoniaPresentIntroducedInvasive
New ZealandPresentIntroduced
PalauPresentIntroduced
Papua New GuineaPresentIntroduced
SamoaPresentIntroduced
Solomon IslandsPresentIntroduced

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroduced
BoliviaPresentIntroduced
BrazilPresentIntroduced
ChilePresentIntroduced
ColombiaPresentIntroduced
EcuadorPresentIntroduced
French GuianaPresentIntroduced
GuyanaPresentIntroduced
ParaguayPresentIntroduced
PeruPresentIntroduced
UruguayPresentIntroduced
VenezuelaPresentIntroduced

History of Introduction and Spread

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Eragrostis pilosa has been introduced in America, Oceania and in some European countries. It was first reported in the USA in Michigan in 1924 (Reznicek et al., 2011). In Belgium it was first recorded in 1877 and is now found across the country (Alien plants of Belgium, 2018). It was first recorded in the Netherlands in 1958, and has since spread throughout the country, predominantly in the south (NDFF, 2018). It was introduced to Poland from Ukraine in 2005 and has since spread to other locations (Nobis and Nobis, 2009).

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Michigan Europe 1924 Yes No Reznicek et al. (2011)
Belgium 1877 Yes No Alien plants of Belgium (2018)
Netherlands 1958 Yes No NDFF (2018)
Poland Ukraine 2005 Yes No Nobis and Nobis (2009)

Risk of Introduction

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Eragrostis pilosa has a moderate to high likelihood of being further introduced unintentionally outside its natural range by seed contamination via traded grain commodities (Alien plants of Belgium, 2018). Recently, in some European countries, it has been introduced by vehicles such as trains or cars (Nobis and Nobis, 2009).

Habitat

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This species grows in varied habitats. It grows in both waterlogged areas (India Biodiversity Portal, 2018) and in dry places. It prefers moist pastures and open, disturbed ground; it also frequently grows in roadsides and waste areas (Holm et al., 1997), and grows around rice paddies (Srivastava and Saxena, 1967). In its native range (Africa), it is found in floodplain grassland, on river sand banks and in alluvium woodland (Flora Zambesiaca, 2018). It is also commonly found as a weed in croplands and on fallow land (Clayton et al., 1974).

It is a garden weed in Bhutan (Bhutan Biodiversity Portal, 2018). In Australia, it is found in irrigated crops, urban areas, gardens and nurseries (Walsh, 1994; Simon and Alfonso, 2011). In the Pacific Islands, it is found in disturbed sites, on cultivated land, and along roadsides (Smith, 1979; Wagner et al., 1999). In Europe, it is considered a ruderal species, found almost exclusively in urban habitats (street, sidewalk, gutter, car parks), and along railways and roadsides (Nobis and Nobis, 2009; NDFF, 2018.)

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Principal habitat Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalWetlands Principal habitat Natural

Hosts/Species Affected

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This species is a significant weed in cotton crops (Brazil), in barley and wheat (Korea), in sugarcane (Taiwan), in dryland crops (India), in rice (India, Indonesia and Dominican Republic) and in vineyards (Ukraine) (Srivastava and Saxena, 1967; Holm et al.,1997). It is also considered a crop weed in Pakistan (Ashraf et al., 2012). E. pilosa is a host of the root lesion nematode pathogen in rice crops (Ravichandra, 2013), and promotes the rice pest Leptocorisa varicornis in rice crops (Srivastava and Saxena, 1967).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Gossypium hirsutum (Bourbon cotton)MalvaceaeOther
    Hordeum vulgare (barley)PoaceaeOther
      Oryza sativa (rice)PoaceaeMain
        Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane)PoaceaeOther
          Triticum aestivum (wheat)PoaceaeOther

            Growth Stages

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            Vegetative growing stage

            Biology and Ecology

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            Genetics

            The majority of Eragrostis species show a range of ploidy levels (Ingram and Doyle, 2007). Thje chromosome number reported for E. pilosa varies from 2n= 20, 36, 40, 60 (Giraldo Cañas et al., 2012; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018).

            Reproductive Biology

            Reproduction and propagation is mainly by seeds. It can create a long-lasting soil seed bank (Li et al., 2006).

            Physiology and Phenology

            Flowering and fruiting is from May to August in India (India Biodiversity Portal, 2018), from July to October in Pakistan (Flora of Pakistan, 2018), and from August to November in China (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018). In Australia, it flowers and fruits all year round (Simon and Alfonso, 2011), and in the Netherlands from July to the autumn (NDFF, 2018). E. pilosa uses the C4 pathway in photosynthesis (Ingram and Doyle, 2007).

            Environmental Requirements

            Eragrostis pilosa is found at elevations of 300 to 2000 m in Africa (Clayton et al., 1974; Flora Zambesiaca, 2018), 1,00-1200 m. in Bhutan (Bhutan Biodiversity Portal, 2018), from sea level to 1700m in South America (Giraldo Cañas et al., 2012), and from sea level to about 800 m in Fiji (Smith, 1979). In Australia, it is found in sandy alluvium, loams, and lateritic soils (Simon and Alfonso, 2011); in South America, in wet sandy soils (Giraldo Cañas et al., 2012), in black basaltic soil and clayey soils in Africa (Clayton et al., 1974; Flora Zambesiaca, 2018) and mostly in sandy ground in the Netherlands (NDFF, 2018)

            Climate

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            ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
            Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
            Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
            As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
            Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
            BS - Steppe climate Tolerated > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
            BW - Desert climate Tolerated < 430mm annual precipitation
            C - Temperate/Mesothermal climate Preferred Average temp. of coldest month > 0°C and < 18°C, mean warmest month > 10°C
            Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
            Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
            Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
            Ds - Continental climate with dry summer Preferred Continental climate with dry summer (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry summers)
            Dw - Continental climate with dry winter Preferred Continental climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry winters)
            Df - Continental climate, wet all year Preferred Continental climate, wet all year (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, wet all year)

            Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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            Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
            75 55

            Rainfall Regime

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            Bimodal
            Summer
            Uniform
            Winter

            Soil Tolerances

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            Soil drainage

            • seasonally waterlogged

            Soil texture

            • light
            • medium

            Natural enemies

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            Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
            Striga hermonthica Parasite Plants|Roots not specific

            Notes on Natural Enemies

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            Eragrostis pilosa can be infested with the obligate root-hemiparasitic plant Striga hermonthica (Watling and Press, 1998).

            Means of Movement and Dispersal

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            Natural Dispersal

            Eragrostis pilosa spreads by seeds, which can be transported by water, wind and soil. It also spreads with the movement of hay, via machinery, road and rail traffic (Holm et al., 1997; Nobis and Nobis, 2009) and possibly in car tires (NDFF, 2018).

            Accidental Introduction

            Eragrostis pilosa is likely to be introduced unintentionally via trade as a seed contaminant (Alien plants of Belgium, 2018).

            Impact Summary

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            CategoryImpact
            Cultural/amenity Negative
            Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
            Human health Positive

            Impact

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            According to Holm et al. (1997), this weed is found in more than 30 crops in over 50 countries. It is most important in Brazil (cotton), Indonesia (rice), Korea (barley and wheat), Dominican Republic (rice), Taiwan (sugarcane), India (dryland crops) and the Ukraine (vineyards).

            Environmental Impact

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            Eragrostis pilosa is cited as invasive in a number of Pacific Islands, the Philippines (PIER, 2018), Australia (Simon and Alfonso, 2011) and North America (PIER, 2018USDA-NRCS, 2018) but no further information is available about its impacts or invasiveness in natural or semi-natural habitats in its non-native range.

            Social Impact

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            Eragrostis pilosa is a grassy weed in gardens and nurseries (Walsh, 1994; Simon and Alfonso, 2011).

            Risk and Impact Factors

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            Invasiveness
            • Proved invasive outside its native range
            • Has a broad native range
            • Abundant in its native range
            • Highly adaptable to different environments
            • Is a habitat generalist
            • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
            • Pioneering in disturbed areas
            • Tolerant of shade
            • Highly mobile locally
            • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
            • Fast growing
            • Has high reproductive potential
            • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
            • Reproduces asexually
            Impact outcomes
            • Negatively impacts agriculture
            • Reduced amenity values
            Likelihood of entry/control
            • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
            • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant

            Uses

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            Eragrostis pilosa is used as forage grass and fodder for animals (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018; Flora of Pakistan, 2018). Amongst other wild African grasses, E. pilosa is harvested in East Africa for its edible seed (Kunkel, 1984; USA, National Research Council, 1996). It is generally seen as a famine food, but is used regularly in some areas (Useful Tropical Plants, 2018). The seed contains around 16% protein (Burkill, 2000).

            Uses List

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            Animal feed, fodder, forage

            • Fodder/animal feed
            • Forage

            Genetic importance

            • Progenitor of

            Human food and beverage

            • Cereal
            • Emergency (famine) food

            Medicinal, pharmaceutical

            • Traditional/folklore

            Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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            Eragrostis pilosa can be distinguished from other Eragrostis species by its lowermost inflorescence branches, which are always verticillate (vs. single), and by its periligular zone, which always bears some hairs (vs. glabrous). The inflorescence branches are long and remain erect (inflorescence long and slender) (Alien plants of Belgium, 2018). Eragrostis pilosa tends to have a more open, spreading panicle than E. pectinacea, with less persistent paleas (Reznicek et al., 2011). For information on distinguishing it from E. albensis, see Nobis and Nobis (2009). For further information on the characteristics that distinguish it from other Eragrostis species, see Walters (2011).

            Prevention and Control

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            Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

            Mechanical control

            Tillage, digging or pulling by hand before seed production are 95% effective as means of control Eragrostis spp (DiTomaso et al., 2013).

            Chemical Control

            Herbicides such as Clethodim, Fluazifop, Glyphosate, Imazapyr and Sethoxydim can control E. pilosa effectively (DiTomaso et al., 2013).

            Bibliography

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            Holm LG, Doll J, Holm E, Pancho JV, Herberger JP, 1997. World Weeds: Natural Histories and Distribution. New York, USA: John Wiley & Sons Inc.

            References

            Top of page

            Alien plants of Belgium, 2018. Manual of the alien plants of Belgium. In: Manual of the alien plants of Belgium , Belgium: National Botanic Garden of Belgium.http://alienplantsbelgium.be/

            Ashraf M, Öztürk M, Ahmad MSA, Aksoy A, 2012. Crop production for agricultural improvement, Springer Science & Business Media.

            Bhutan Biodiversity Portal, 2018. Bhutan Biodiversity Portal. Thimphu, Bhutan: National Biodiversity Centre.https://biodiversity.bt/

            Burkill, H. M., 2000. The Useful Plants of West Tropical Africa, Kew, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens.

            Clayton, W. D., Phillips, S. M., Renvoize, S. A., 1974. Flora of Tropical East Africa. Gramineae (Part 2). In: Flora of Tropical East Africa. Gramineae (Part 2) . London, UK: Crown Agents for Oversea Governments and Administrations.274pp.

            Clayton, WD, Govaerts, R, Harman, KT, Williamson, H, Vorontsova, M, 2018. World Checklist of Poaceae. Richmond, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/

            DiTomaso JM, Kyser GB, Oneto SR, Wilson RG, Orloff SB, Anderson LW, Ransom C, 2013. Weed control in natural areas in the western United States, USA: Weed Research and Information Center, University of California.544 pp.

            EPPO, 2018. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database Paris, France: EPPO.https://gd.eppo.int/

            Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018. Flora of China. In: Flora of China St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

            Flora of Pakistan, 2018. Flora of Pakistan/Pakistan Plant Database (PPD). Tropicos website. In: Flora of Pakistan/Pakistan Plant Database (PPD). Tropicos website St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Pakistan

            Flora Zambesiaca, 2018. Flora Zambesiaca (eFloras). Richmond, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.http://apps.kew.org/efloras/search.do

            Giraldo Cañas, D, Peterson, PM, Sánchez Vega, I, 2012. The genus Eragrostis (Poaceae: Chloridoideae) in northwestern South America (Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru): morphological and taxonomic studies. Bogotá, Colombia: Biblioteca José Jerónimo Triana No. 24. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Facultad de Ciencias, Instituto de Ciencias Naturales.194 pp.

            Holm, L., Doll, J., Holm, E., Pancho, J., Herberger, J., 1997. World weeds: natural histories and distribution, New York, USA: John Wiley and Sons.xv + 1129 pp.

            India Biodiversity Portal, 2018. Online Portal of India Biodiversity. In: Online Portal of India Biodiversity . http://indiabiodiversity.org/species/list

            Ingram AL, Doyle JJ, 2007. Eragrostis (Poaceae): Monophyly and infrageneric classification. Aliso: A Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany, 23(1), 595-604.

            Koch, S. D., 1974. The Eragrostis pectinacea-pilosa complex in North and Central America (Gramineae: Eragrostoideae). In: Illinois Biological Monographs , (No.48) . 75pp.

            Kumar V, Malik RK, Gopal R, Gupta RK, Singh K, 2018. Weed Flora of Rice. International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) Rice Knowledge Bank.http://www.knowledgebank.irri.org/csisa/images/FactsheetsAndReferences/powerpoints/weedflora.pdf

            Kunkel G, 1984. Plants for human consumption, Oberreifenberg, Germany: Koeltz Scientific Books.

            Li X, Li X, Jiang D, Liu Z, 2006. Germination strategy and ecological adaptability of Eragrostis pilosa. Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, 17(4), 607-610.

            Liogier, H. A., Martorell, L. F., 2000. Flora of Puerto Rico and adjacent islands: a systematic synopsis, (Edn 2 (revised)) . San Juan, Puerto Rico: La Editorial, University of Puerto Rico.382 pp.

            NDFF, 2018. (Nationale Databank Flora en Fauna: FLORON Verspreidingsatlas planten). http://verspreidingsatlas.nl

            Nobis, M., Nobis, A., 2009. Eragrostis pilosa (L.) P. Beauv. (Poaceae) in Poland. Biodiversity: Research and Conservation, 13, 13-16. doi: 10.2478/v10119-009-0003-5

            NZPCN, 2018. New Zealand Plant Conservation Network. In: New Zealand Plant Conservation Network Wellington, New Zealand: New Zealand Plant Conservation Network.http://www.nzpcn.org.nz/

            PIER, 2018. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. In: Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii.http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

            Ravichandra NG, 2013. Plant nematology, New Delhi, India: IK International Pvt Ltd.

            Reznicek AA, Voss EG, Walters BS, 2011. Michigan Flora Online. USA: University of Michigan.https://michiganflora.net/

            Scholz H, 1988. (Zwei neue Taxa des Eragrostis pilosa-Komplexes (Poaceae)). Willdenowia, 18, 217-222.

            Simon, BK, Alfonso, Y, 2011. AusGrass2. In: Grasses of Australia , Australia: CSIRO Publishing.http://ausgrass2.myspecies.info/

            Smith, A. C., 1979. Flora vitiensis nova, Kauai, Hawaii, Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden.495 pp.

            Srivastava, A. S., Saxena, H. P., 1967. Rice bug Leptocorisa varicornis Fabricius and allied species. In: The major insect pests of the rice plant. Proceedings of a symposium at the IRRI, Sept., 1964 [The major insect pests of the rice plant. Proceedings of a symposium at the IRRI, Sept., 1964], Baltimore, Maryland, USA: Johns Hopkins Press. 525-548.

            The Plant List, 2013. The Plant List: a working list of all plant species. Version 1.1. In: The Plant List: a working list of all plant species. Version 1.1 Richmond, London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.http://www.theplantlist.org

            USA, National Research Council, 1996. Lost crops of Africa. Volume 1: Grains, Washington, DC, USA: National Academy Press.xix + 383 pp.

            USDA-NRCS, 2018. The PLANTS Database. In: The PLANTS Database Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team.https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov

            Useful Tropical Plants, 2018. Useful tropical plants database. In: Useful tropical plants database : K Fern.http://tropical.theferns.info/

            Wagner, W. L., Herbst, D. R., Sohmer, S. H., 1999. Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i, Hawaii, USA: University of Hawai'i Press.1948 pp.

            Walsh NG, 1994. Flora of Victoria. Volume 2: ferns and allied plants, conifers and monocotyledons, Chatswood, Australia: Inkata Press Pty Ltd.ix + 946 pp.

            Walters DS, 2011. Identification Tool to Weed Disseminules of California Central Valley Table Grape Production Areas. Fort Collins, Colorado, USDA APHIS PPQ CPHST Identification Technology Program.http://idtools.org/id/table_grape/weed-tool/

            Watling, J. R., Press, M. C., 1998. How does the C4 grass Eragrostis pilosa respond to elevated carbon dioxide and infection with the parasitic angiosperm Striga hermonthica?. New Phytologist, 140(4), 667-675. doi: 10.1046/j.1469-8137.1998.00303.x

            Whistler, W. A., 1988. Checklist of the weed flora of Western Polynesia. An annotated list of the weed species of Samoa, Tonga, Niue, and Wallis and Futuna, along with the earliest dates of collection and the local names. In: Technical Paper, South Pacific Commission , (No. 194) . 69 pp.

            Distribution References

            Alien plants of Belgium, 2018. Manual of the alien plants of Belgium. In: Manual of the alien plants of Belgium. Belgium: National Botanic Garden of Belgium. http://alienplantsbelgium.be/

            Bhutan Biodiversity Portal, 2018. Bhutan Biodiversity Portal. Thimphu, Bhutan: National Biodiversity Centre. https://biodiversity.bt/

            CABI Data Mining, Undated. CAB Abstracts Data Mining.,

            Clayton WD, Govaerts R, Harman KT, Williamson H, Vorontsova M, 2018. World Checklist of Poaceae., Richmond, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/

            Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018. Flora of China. In: Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

            Flora of Pakistan, 2018. Flora of Pakistan/Pakistan Plant Database (PPD). Tropicos website. In: Flora of Pakistan/Pakistan Plant Database (PPD). Tropicos website. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Pakistan

            Giraldo Cañas D, Peterson PM, Sánchez Vega I, 2012. The genus Eragrostis (Poaceae: Chloridoideae) in northwestern South America (Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru): morphological and taxonomic studies., Bogotá, Colombia: Biblioteca José Jerónimo Triana No. 24. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Facultad de Ciencias, Instituto de Ciencias Naturales. 194 pp.

            Ihsan Ullah, Wazir S M, Ayesha Farooq, Khan S U, Zahid Hussain, 2011. Identification of common weeds and its distribution pattern in wheat fields of FR Bannu, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research. 17 (4), 407-416. http://www.wssp.org.pk/174-12.pdf

            India Biodiversity Portal, 2018. Online Portal of India Biodiversity. In: Online Portal of India Biodiversity. http://indiabiodiversity.org/species/list

            Liogier H A, Martorell L F, 2000. Flora of Puerto Rico and adjacent islands: a systematic synopsis. San Juan, Puerto Rico: La Editorial, University of Puerto Rico. 382 pp.

            Manole T, Chireceanu C, Teodoru A, 2017. Current status of Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, 1868 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Romania. Acta Zoologica Bulgarica. 143-148. http://www.acta-zoologica-bulgarica.eu/downloads/acta-zoologica-bulgarica/2017/supplement-9-143-148.pdf

            NDFF, 2018. (Nationale Databank Flora en Fauna: FLORON Verspreidingsatlas planten). http://verspreidingsatlas.nl

            Nobis M, Nobis A, 2009. Eragrostis pilosa (L.) P. Beauv. (Poaceae) in Poland. Biodiversity: Research and Conservation. 13-16. DOI:10.2478/v10119-009-0003-5

            NZPCN, 2018. New Zealand Plant Conservation Network. In: New Zealand Plant Conservation Network. Wellington, New Zealand: New Zealand Plant Conservation Network. http://www.nzpcn.org.nz/

            PIER, 2018. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. In: Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

            Simon BK, Alfonso Y, 2011. AusGrass2. In: Grasses of Australia, Australia: CSIRO Publishing. http://ausgrass2.myspecies.info/

            USDA-NRCS, 2018. The PLANTS Database. In: The PLANTS Database. Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team. https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov

            Links to Websites

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            WebsiteURLComment
            GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
            Global register of Introduced and Invasive species (GRIIS)http://griis.org/Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

            Contributors

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            10/08/18 Original text by:

            Manuel Angel Duenas-Lopez, Universidad de Cordoba, Cordoba, Spain

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