Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Acacia auriculiformis
(northern black wattle)

Toolbox

Datasheet

Acacia auriculiformis (northern black wattle)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 14 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Acacia auriculiformis
  • Preferred Common Name
  • northern black wattle
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • A. auriculiformis is a tree from the legume family that has been introduced into tropical and subtropical areas as an ornamental, for reforestation, soil improvement and for its wood and pulp (

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Acacia auriculiformis (northern black wattle); habit, forest tree form. Bensbach River, Balamuk, Western Provenance, Papua New
Guinea.
TitleHabit
CaptionAcacia auriculiformis (northern black wattle); habit, forest tree form. Bensbach River, Balamuk, Western Provenance, Papua New Guinea.
Copyright©Brian Gunn/CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products
Acacia auriculiformis (northern black wattle); habit, forest tree form. Bensbach River, Balamuk, Western Provenance, Papua New
Guinea.
HabitAcacia auriculiformis (northern black wattle); habit, forest tree form. Bensbach River, Balamuk, Western Provenance, Papua New Guinea.©Brian Gunn/CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products
Acacia auriculiformis (northern black wattle) ; habit, open grown form. Smith Point, Cobourg Peninsula, Northern Territory,
Australia.
TitleHabit
CaptionAcacia auriculiformis (northern black wattle) ; habit, open grown form. Smith Point, Cobourg Peninsula, Northern Territory, Australia.
Copyright©Maurice McDonald/CSIRO Forestry & Forest Products
Acacia auriculiformis (northern black wattle) ; habit, open grown form. Smith Point, Cobourg Peninsula, Northern Territory,
Australia.
HabitAcacia auriculiformis (northern black wattle) ; habit, open grown form. Smith Point, Cobourg Peninsula, Northern Territory, Australia.©Maurice McDonald/CSIRO Forestry & Forest Products
Acacia auriculiformis (northern black wattle); bark.
TitleBark
CaptionAcacia auriculiformis (northern black wattle); bark.
Copyright©CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products
Acacia auriculiformis (northern black wattle); bark.
BarkAcacia auriculiformis (northern black wattle); bark.©CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products
Acacia auriculiformis (northern black wattle); cross-section of bole.
TitleBole
CaptionAcacia auriculiformis (northern black wattle); cross-section of bole.
Copyright©CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products
Acacia auriculiformis (northern black wattle); cross-section of bole.
BoleAcacia auriculiformis (northern black wattle); cross-section of bole.©CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products
Acacia auriculiformis (northern black wattle); open seed pod.
TitleSeed pod
CaptionAcacia auriculiformis (northern black wattle); open seed pod.
Copyright©Maurice McDonald/CSIRO Forestry & Forest Products
Acacia auriculiformis (northern black wattle); open seed pod.
Seed podAcacia auriculiformis (northern black wattle); open seed pod.©Maurice McDonald/CSIRO Forestry & Forest Products
Acacia auriculiformis (northern black wattle); flowering twig.
TitleFlowering twig
CaptionAcacia auriculiformis (northern black wattle); flowering twig.
Copyright©CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products
Acacia auriculiformis (northern black wattle); flowering twig.
Flowering twigAcacia auriculiformis (northern black wattle); flowering twig.©CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products
Acacia auriculiformis (northern black wattle); seed pod
TitleSeed pod
CaptionAcacia auriculiformis (northern black wattle); seed pod
Copyright©CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products
Acacia auriculiformis (northern black wattle); seed pod
Seed podAcacia auriculiformis (northern black wattle); seed pod©CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products
Acacia auriculiformis (northern black wattle); seed.
TitleSeed
CaptionAcacia auriculiformis (northern black wattle); seed.
Copyright©CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products
Acacia auriculiformis (northern black wattle); seed.
SeedAcacia auriculiformis (northern black wattle); seed.©CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn. ex Benth.

Preferred Common Name

  • northern black wattle

Other Scientific Names

  • Acacia auriculaeformis A. Cunn. ex Benth., orth. var.
  • Acacia moniliformis Griseb.
  • Racosperma auriculiforme (A. Cunn. ex Benth.) Pedley

International Common Names

  • English: Australian babul; Australian wattle; coast wattle; ear leaf acacia; earpod black wattle; Papua wattle; Papuan wattle
  • French: acacia auriculé
  • Chinese: da ye xiang si

Local Common Names

  • Australia: black wattle; Darwin black wattle; ear-pod wattle; tan wattle
  • Cambodia: smach’té:hs
  • Cook Islands: akasia
  • India: akashmoni; Australian babul; kasia; sonajhuri
  • Indonesia: ki hia
  • Malaysia: akasia kuning
  • Micronesia, Federated states of: tuhkehn pwelmwahu
  • Papua New Guinea: ngarai; unar
  • Philippines: auri; Japanese acacia
  • Thailand: krathin-narong
  • USA: earleaf acacoa

EPPO code

  • ACAAF (Acacia auriculaeformis)

Trade name

  • northern black wattle

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page

A. auriculiformis is a tree from the legume family that has been introduced into tropical and subtropical areas as an ornamental, for reforestation, soil improvement and for its wood and pulp (PROTA, 2016). ). In Florida, USA, A. auriculiformis is a category 1 alien plant (Langeland and Burks, 1998), and it is prohibited in Miami-Dade County (PROTA, 2016). It is listed as invasive in Asia (Bangladesh, Singapore), Africa (Comoros, Mayotte, Tanzania), North America (Florida, USA), the Caribbean (Bahamas) and Oceania (Cook Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Guam) (Islam, 2002; SE-EEPC, 2002; Tan and Tan, 2002; Kotiluoto et al., 2009; PIER, 2016. Space and Flynn (2000) list it among species that are invasive elsewhere and are invasive or potentially invasive on the Pacific island of Chuuk. A. auriculiformis is presently rare or uncommon in American Samoa but was listed among those naturalized species considered invasive elsewhere and classed as common or weedy (Space and Flynn, 2000). The species is also listed as a category 2 invasive plant species in the Bahamas (BEST Commission, 2003). Islam (2002) reports that following recent introduction of this species to Bangladesh, A. auriculiformis germinates naturally in plantation forests and prevents the germination of native species. It is one of 17 plant species named on a preliminary list of invasive alien species for Singapore (Tan and Tan, 2002). Starr et al. (2003) recommended the eradication of the species in Hawaii, USA, to prevent its invasion.

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Fabales
  •                         Family: Fabaceae
  •                             Subfamily: Mimosoideae
  •                                 Genus: Acacia
  •                                     Species: Acacia auriculiformis

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page

As historically defined, Acacia (family Fabaceae, subfamily Mimosoideae) represented a cosmopolitan genus of 1200-1300 species contained in three subgenera: Acacia, Aculeiferum and Phyllodineae (Maslin, 1995). A. auriculiformis was in subgenus Phyllodineae, a group containing in excess of 900 species (Maslin and McDonald, 1996). Some authors used Heterophyllum instead of Phyllodineae as the name for the last subgenus (Mabberley, 1997). In its most recent circumscription, the genus Acacia contains seven subgenera, and A. auriculiformis is part of the subgenus Juliflorae (Benth.) Maiden & Betche.

Pedley (1986) proposed a classification in which Acacia was formally subdivided into three genera, namely Acacia, Senegalia and Racosperma. Most botanists did not adopt Pedley's 1986 classification, principally because of insufficient evidence to support these changes (Chappill and Maslin, 1995). However, the proposed nomenclature has occasionally been used by authors and there are citations in the references to Racosperma auriculiforme (syn. A. auriculiformis). More recently, molecular evidence supports the polyphyletic nature of “Acacia”, recognizing five lineages: Acacia, Acaciella, Mariosousa, Senegalia and Vachellia (Maslin et al., 2003, Kyalangalilwa et al., 2013). The Australian species (including A. auriculiformis) retain the genus name Acacia, while African species in this classification were renamed as Vachellia in 2005.

Acacia auriculiformis was published in Hooker's London J. Bot. 1: 377 (1842). The species epithet is derived from the Latin `auricula', meaning external ear of animals, and `forma', meaning form, figure or shape, in allusion to the shape of the legume.

Description

Top of page

On favourable sites in its natural habitat A. auriculiformis grows 25-35 m tall with a straight bole dominant for a greater part of tree height. More commonly it is 8-20 m tall and rarely a shrub 3-5 m, heavily branched and with a short bole. The bark is grey or brown, sometimes blackened at the base, smooth in young trees, becoming rough and longitudinally fissured with age (Doran and Turnbull, 1997; Turnbull and Awang, 1997). The phyllodes are falcate, 8-20 cm long and 1.0-4.5 cm wide, glabrous, greyish-green and thinly textured. There are three prominent longitudinal veins running together towards the lower margin or in the middle near the base, with many fine, crowded secondary veins, and a distinct gland at the base of the phyllode (Pedley, 1975, 1978; Maslin and McDonald, 1996). The inflorescence is an axillary, somewhat interrupted spike to 8.5 cm long in pairs in the upper axils. Flowers are light-golden in colour, 5-merous, bisexual, tiny, sessile, fragrant; calyx tubular, up to 0.1 cm long, shortly lobed, glabrous; corolla to 0.2 cm long; stamens many, about 0.3 cm long; ovary densely pubescent. The pods are strongly curved to form an open coil, flat, flexible but hard, rather woody, glaucous, transversely veined with undulate margins and are about 6.5 cm long by 1.5 cm wide. They are initially straight or curved, but on maturity become twisted and irregularly coiled. The shiny black seeds, held transversely in the pod, are broadly ovate to elliptical, 0.4-0.6 cm long by 0.3-0.4 cm wide, and each is encircled by a long red, yellow or orange funicle; areole large, almost enclosed.

Plant Type

Top of page Broadleaved
Perennial
Seed propagated
Tree
Vegetatively propagated
Woody

Distribution

Top of page

Natural stands of A. auriculiformis are found in Australia, Papua New Guinea and Indonesia (PROTA, 2016). In Australia it occurs on Cape York Peninsula and in Torres Strait, Queensland, and in the north of the Northern Territory including several off-shore islands (Boland et al., 1990). In Papua New Guinea it occurs in the Central and Western Provinces, and extends into Irian Jaya (Papua Barat) and the Kai Islands of Indonesia. It is naturalised in Asia, Africa, North America, Central America, the Caribbean, South America and Oceania; see Distribution Table for details (World Agroforestry Centre, 2002; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; PIER, 2016; PROTA, 2016; USDA-ARS, 2016; WorldWideWattle, 2016).

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasivePlantedReferenceNotes

Asia

BangladeshPresentIntroduced Invasive Planted Islam, 2002
Brunei DarussalamPresentIntroduced Planted WorldWideWattle, 2016
CambodiaPresentIntroduced Planted World Agroforestry Centre, 2002
ChinaPresentIntroducedWorld Agroforestry Centre, 2002
-FujianPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced Not invasive PIER, 2016
-GuangdongPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced Not invasive PIER, 2016
-GuangxiPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced Not invasive PIER, 2016
-HainanPresentIntroduced Planted
-MacauPresentIntroducedWorldWideWattle, 2016
-ZhejiangPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced Not invasive PIER, 2016
Christmas Island (Indian Ocean)Present only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced Not invasive PIER, 2016
IndiaPresentIntroducedWorld Agroforestry Centre, 2002; India Biodiversity, 2016
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresentIntroducedWorldWideWattle, 2016
-Andhra PradeshPresentIntroducedWorldWideWattle, 2016
-Arunachal PradeshPresentIntroducedWorldWideWattle, 2016
-AssamPresentIntroducedWorldWideWattle, 2016
-BiharPresentIntroducedWorldWideWattle, 2016
-DelhiPresentIntroducedWorldWideWattle, 2016
-GoaPresentIntroducedWorldWideWattle, 2016
-GujaratPresentIntroducedWorldWideWattle, 2016
-HaryanaPresentIntroducedWorldWideWattle, 2016
-Indian PunjabPresentIntroducedWorldWideWattle, 2016
-Jammu and KashmirPresentIntroducedWorldWideWattle, 2016
-KarnatakaPresentIntroducedWorldWideWattle, 2016
-KeralaPresentIntroducedWorldWideWattle, 2016
-Madhya PradeshPresentIntroduced Planted
-MaharashtraPresentIntroduced Planted
-OdishaPresentIntroduced Planted
-RajasthanPresentIntroducedWorldWideWattle, 2016
-SikkimPresentIntroducedWorldWideWattle, 2016
-Tamil NaduPresentIntroducedWorldWideWattle, 2016
-TripuraPresentIntroducedWorldWideWattle, 2016
-Uttar PradeshPresentIntroducedWorldWideWattle, 2016
-West BengalPresentIntroducedWorldWideWattle, 2016
IndonesiaPresent, few occurrencesNativeWorld Agroforestry Centre, 2002
-Irian JayaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2016
-JavaPresentIntroduced Planted
-KalimantanPresentIntroduced Planted
-MoluccasPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016
-SulawesiPresentIntroduced Planted
-SumatraPresentIntroduced Planted
JapanPresentIntroducedWorld Agroforestry Centre, 2002
LaosPresentIntroducedWorldWideWattle, 2016
MalaysiaPresentIntroducedWorld Agroforestry Centre, 2002
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentIntroduced Planted Yap, 1987
-SabahPresentIntroduced Invasive Planted
-SarawakPresentIntroduced Planted
MyanmarPresentIntroducedPROTA, 2016
NepalPresentIntroducedWorldWideWattle, 2016
PakistanPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016
PhilippinesPresentIntroduced Planted World Agroforestry Centre, 2002; Combalicer et al., 2012
SingaporePresentIntroduced Invasive Planted Tan and Tan, 2002
Sri LankaPresentIntroducedWorldWideWattle, 2016
TaiwanPresentIntroduced Planted
ThailandPresentIntroduced1935Marcar et al., 1991a; Booth and Turnbull, 1994; World Agroforestry Centre, 2002
VietnamPresentIntroduced Planted USDA-ARS, 2016

Africa

BeninPresentIntroduced Planted
BurundiPresentIntroduced Planted
CameroonPresentIntroducedWorld Agroforestry Centre, 2002
ComorosPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2016Also cultivated
Congo Democratic RepublicPresentIntroduced Planted World Agroforestry Centre, 2002
Côte d'IvoirePresentIntroduced Planted
GhanaPresentIntroduced Planted Missouri Botanical Garden, 2016
KenyaPresentIntroduced Planted World Agroforestry Centre, 2002
LiberiaPresentIntroduced Planted
MadagascarPresentIntroduced Planted
MalawiPresentIntroduced Planted World Agroforestry Centre, 2002
MauritiusPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016
MayottePresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2016Also cultivated
NigeriaPresentIntroduced Planted World Agroforestry Centre, 2002
RéunionPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016
Rodriguez IslandPresentIntroduced Not invasive PIER, 2016Cultivated
RwandaPresentIntroduced Planted
SenegalPresentIntroduced Planted
Sierra LeonePresentIntroduced Planted
SudanPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedEncyclopedia of Life, 2016Cultivated for fuelwood
TanzaniaPresentIntroduced Planted World Agroforestry Centre, 2002; Kotiluoto et al., 2009
-ZanzibarPresentIntroduced Planted World Agroforestry Centre, 2002
UgandaPresentIntroduced Planted World Agroforestry Centre, 2002
ZimbabwePresentIntroducedMitchell et al., 1987; World Agroforestry Centre, 2002

North America

USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-FloridaPresentIntroduced Invasive SE-EPPC, 2002
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced Planted Starr et al., 2003; PIER, 2016

Central America and Caribbean

BahamasPresentIntroduced Invasive BEST Commission, 2003
Costa RicaPresentIntroduced Planted
CubaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
Dominican RepublicPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced Not invasive UPRRP, 2016Roadside
HaitiPresentIntroduced Planted
JamaicaPresentIntroduced Planted
PanamaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016Canal Area
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentIntroduced Planted
Trinidad and TobagoPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016

South America

BrazilPresentIntroduced Invasive Zenni and Ziller, 2011Bahia coastal forests, Bahia interior forests, Serra do Mar coastal forests
ColombiaPresentIntroduced Planted
EcuadorPresentIntroduced Planted
GuyanaPresentIntroducedPROTA, 2016

Oceania

American SamoaPresentIntroducedSpace and Flynn, 2000; PIER, 2016
AustraliaPresentNativeWorld Agroforestry Centre, 2002
-Australian Northern TerritoryPresentNativePlanted, NaturalBoland et al., 1990
-New South WalesPresentIntroducedContu, 2012
-QueenslandPresentNativePlanted, NaturalBoland et al., 1990
-South AustraliaPresentIntroducedContu, 2012
-VictoriaPresentIntroducedContu, 2012
-Western AustraliaPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedWorldWideWattle, 2016Ornamental
Cook IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2016Mangaia and Rarotonga Islands. Also cultivated
GuamPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2016Also cultivated
Marshall IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2016Also cultivated
Micronesia, Federated states ofPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2016Fefan, Tol, Weno and Yap Islands. Invasive and cultivated in Kosrae and Pohnpei Islands
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2016Rota and Saipan Islands. Also cultivated
PalauPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2016Invasive and cultivated in Angaur, Babeldaob and Kayangel Islands. Introduced and cultivated on Tobi, Koror, Malakal, Ngercheu, Ngerkebesang and Peleliu Islands
Papua New GuineaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2016Also cultivated
SamoaPresentIntroduced Not invasive PIER, 2016Also cultivated
Solomon IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2016
TongaPresentIntroduced Not invasive PIER, 2016Also cultivated
VanuatuPresentIntroduced Planted

History of Introduction and Spread

Top of page

A. auriculiformis was introduced about 50 years ago in Africa (PROTA, 2016). It has been present since 1932 in Florida, USA, where it was introduced to be used as an ornamental. It was introduced to Singapore from Australia in 1890, also as an ornamental. It was introduced to India from Australia for forestry to be grown in monoculture energy plantations (India Biodiversity, 2016).

Introductions

Top of page
Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
USA 1932 Ornamental purposes (pathway cause) Yes No Gordon (1998) In Florida
Singapore Australia 1890 Ornamental purposes (pathway cause) Yes No Nghiem et al. (2015) Dispersed by birds

Risk of Introduction

Top of page

A. auriculiformis is a  tree that has been extensively introduced across the tropics. Several countries state that it is being monitored in anticipation that it may become invasive following news of its invasiveness in Florida, USA. Its desirability as a wood/pulp tree, and its use for reforestation and as an ornamental make it a tree with a high risk of introduction. Although is reported as not invading closed canopy forest, its rapid growth in open areas can hinder native revegetation (Encyclopedia of Life, 2016).

Habitat

Top of page

A. auriculiformis occurs in the lowland tropics, growing naturally in narrow belts along river banks, where it may be dominant or one of the principal species. It also occurs in small pockets in depressions and in open-forest dominated by various eucalypts and acacias. It is also found in littoral rain forest behind either mangroves or coastal dunes. On the Oriomo Plateau of Papua New Guinea this species is common on the floodplains and levees of Bensbach and Morehead Rivers. Elsewhere it occurs as scattered trees in the riparian habitats, tall savannah woodland and in tall open-forest (monsoon forest). It is a component of swamp forest dominated by Melaleuca species, usually on the better drained sites. It is also common in littoral forest. Regular associates in these forests include Acacia mangium, A. aulacocarpa and Melaleuca cajuputi (Paijmans et al., 1971; Skelton, 1987; Boland et al., 1990). It is also planted for its pulp and wood, and as an ornamental, from where it has escaped into nearby areas, being also found in disturbed sites and roadsides (Encyclopedia of Life, 2016; PIER, 2016). In Florida, it invades pinelands, hammocks and scrub habitats.

Habitat List

Top of page
CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Littoral
Coastal areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Coastal areas Present, no further details Natural
Coastal dunes Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Coastal dunes Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial-managed
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Natural
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial-natural/semi-natural
Natural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural forests Present, no further details Natural
Riverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Riverbanks Present, no further details Natural
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Natural

Biology and Ecology

Top of page

Genetics

A. auriculiformis is predominantly outcrossing (Moran et al., 1989; Ibrahim, 1991; Khasa et al., 1993) and exhibits marked genetic variation. Isoenzyme studies revealed three distinct clusters of populations corresponding to the geographic distribution of the species in the Northern Territory, Queensland and Papua New Guinea; Queensland populations are more closely related to populations from Papua New Guinea than populations from the Northern Territory. These studies showed about 73% of the isoenzyme variation was among progenies within populations and indicated that weight should be given to both intra- and inter-population genetic variability in initial selections in domestication programmes of this species (Wickneswari and Norwati, 1991, 1993). These regional groupings were also apparent in differences in seedling morphology (Pinyopusarerk et al., 1991).

Variation was examined at 12 months for 28 provenances of A. auriculiformis in a trial in Malaysia. All provenances had a survival rate of greater than 92%, but differed significantly in their growth performance (Nor Aini et al., 1994a, b). At 5 years from planting in Sabah, eight provenances including three from Papua New Guinea and five from Queensland were identified as superior for height and diameter growth (Bernard, 1996). Provenance trials on four low fertility test sites in the Democratic Republic of Congo (Khasa et al., 1995) showed variation in growth and morphological characters when assessed at ages 3, 9, 15 and 21 months. The provenances with the greatest volume production were from Papua New Guinea.

International provenance trials were established in 1989 to examine the extent of genotype/environment interactions. Results from Australia and Thailand showed that provenances from Queensland have a higher proportion of straight stems (Awang et al., 1994; Puangchit et al., 1996; Turnbull and Awang, 1997). In a trial on an Imperata grassland site in South Kalimantan, variation in growth and form at 69 months after planting showed that the most highly productive A. auriculiformis provenances in this environment were from Papua New Guinea (MAI up to 35.6 m³/ha), Queensland (MAI up to 30.3 m³/ha) and Northern Territory (MAI up to 30.2 m³/ha) (Otsamo et al., 1996). There were also differences in tree quality with Queensland sources generally having the lowest occurrence of multi-stemmed trees. Similar results were obtained 8 months after the planting of a seedling seed orchard of A. auriculiformis in south Sumatra, where the best height and diameter growth, and lowest occurrence of multi-stemmed trees were shown by the Wenlock River provenance from the far north of Queensland (Susanto, 1996). The relative performance of provenances of A. auriculiformis in provenance trials on several sites in Vietnam has been reported by Nguyen Hoang Nghia and Le Dinh Kha (1996). Provenance variation in tolerance to salt and waterlogging has been noted in pot trials (Marcar et al., 1991b).

Several countries have genetic improvement programmes that aim to produce better quality seed for future planting programmes. Seed orchards established on Melville Island in the Northern Territory of Australia (Harwood et al., 1994) have failed to produce worthwhile amounts of seed (Harwood, 1996). The best clones are being relocated to environments where better seed production can be obtained.

The use of A. auriculiformis as a parent of hybrids, particularly in combination with A. mangium, is of great potential. Many hybrids show desirable commercial characteristics such as fast growth, fine branching and straight boles. Sedgley et al. (1992) found that the A. auriculiformis x A. mangium hybrid was more successful than the reciprocal, but fertile seeds were produced following interspecific pollination in both directions. Vacuum drying of pollen and storage in a deep freeze is recommended for the medium length storage (3 years) of pollen used in crossing programmes of these species (Harbard et al., 1994). Experimental A. mangium x A. auriculiformis hybrid seed orchards have been established in Indonesia to build up a base for a clonal forestry programme (Arisman et al., 1994). Outstanding hybrid clones have been selected and mass propagated for clonal forestry in Vietnam (Le Dinh Kha, 1996).

The Australian Tree Seed Centre of CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products, Canberra, Australia maintains seed stocks of representative provenances from throughout the native range of the species.

DNA barcode information for the species is available at the Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS, 2016). Germplasm is stored at various institutions (Kew Royal Botanic Gardens, 2016; USDA-ARS, 2016). The chromosome number reported for A. auriculiformis is 2n=26 (PROTA, 2016).

Reproductive Biology

A. auriculiformis reproduces by seeds and vegetatively by cuttings (PROTA, 2016). Pollination is by insects (PROTA, 2016). A. auriculiformis produces large quantities of seed at an early age. Germination is rapid after suitable treatment and typically exceeds 70%. There is an average of 71,600 viable seeds/kg (Doran and Turnbull, 1997). Seedlings grow quickly and reach a height of 25-30 cm in 3-4 months, 6 m in 2 years, and 6-12 m in 3 years under favourable conditions (Turnbull and Awang, 1997). Young seedlings produce 2-3 bipinnate leaves, soon followed by phyllodes. Phyllodes are retained during the dry season; their average life is about 1 year in west Java, Indonesia.

Although A. auriculiformis has the ability to coppice, it is not a vigorous or prolific sprouter and careful management is required to obtain good results from coppicing.

Physiology and Phenology

Flowering usually starts within 2 years after sowing (Pinyopusarerk, 1990). The yellow flower spikes can be found on individual trees throughout the year but there is usually a distinct peak flowering season that may vary considerably with location. In the Northern Territory of Australia, flowering occurs from April to July with ripe seed available some 4-5 months later in August to October (Brock, 1988). Sedgley et al. (1992) found that peak flowering occurred in February to May at Atherton in Queensland, near Kuala Lumpur in Peninsular Malaysia, and Tawau in Sabah, with ripe seed pods available between October and April. In Java, peak flowering occurs in March to June (Turnbull and Awang, 1997). Mature seed can be collected between August and February in Thailand (Pukittayacamee et al., 1993).

It is fire adapted (EDDMapS, 2016). Profuse natural regeneration may appear after fire or on disturbed sites in the absence of severe weed competition

Associations

A. auriculiformis can fix nitrogen after nodulating with a range of Rhizobium and Bradyrhizobium strains in many tropical soils. In the Philippines, 52-66% of nitrogen uptake was shown to be derived from nitrogen fixation (Dart et al., 1991). This nitrogen-fixing potential may only be realized in many soils if adequate fertilizer, especially phosphorus, is applied. A. auriculiformis has associations with both ecto- and endo-mycorrhizal fungi. The ecto-mycorrhizal fungus, Thelephora spp., forms a beneficial association, and several species of vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizas, including Glomus etunicatum and Gigaspora margarita, are effective (Dart et al., 1991; de la Cruz and Umali-Garcia, 1992).

Environmental Requirements

A. auriculiformis occurs naturally in hot humid and hot subhumid climatic zones. The data in the climate table pertain to the native range, whereas Nguyen Hoang Nghia (1996) provides a climatic profile of the species combining information from both native and planted ranges. For the natural distribution of this species, the mean maximum temperature of the hottest month (November-December) is within the range 32-34°C, and the mean minimum temperature of the coolest month (May-September) is 17-22°C. Outside the natural distribution, a wider range of temperatures is tolerated, indicating the adaptability of A. auriculiformis. Frost does not occur in its natural range, but elsewhere, light frosts are tolerated. Mean annual rainfall ranges from 760 mm in the Northern Territory of Australia to 3400 mm in Papua New Guinea (Doran and Turnbull, 1997). However, for most of the planted and natural distribution, rainfall is generally much lower (up to 2500 mm), with a summer monsoonal pattern and most rain falling from December to March.

In Australia, A. auriculiformis grows on dissected lateritic lowlands and alluvial coastal plains. Occurrences in the Northern Territory are along drainage channels just above the tidal range, on the edges of sand dunes, behind mangrove swamps, and along river levees. In Queensland it is mainly restricted to river banks and drainage lines. The soils are frequently yellow earths, but vary from dune sands and sandy loams to alluvial soils with a high clay and humus content. The pH usually ranges from 4.5-6.5, but in the Northern Territory it grows on alkaline beach sands with a pH of 8-9. In West Timor it is one of the best species for cultivation on highly alkaline soils (McKinnell and Harisetijono, 1991). A. auriculiformis is also highly tolerant of acidic conditions. In Australia, Malaysia and the Philippines it has grown on acid mine spoils of pH 3 (NAS, 1983), while A. auriculiformis is one of the few tree species to become widely planted on the acid sulphate soils (pH 3) of the Mekong Delta of Vietnam (Nguyen Hoang Nghia, 1996). It can also tolerate saline soils. In an experiment in Thailand, it continued growing under saline conditions ranging from 0.15 to 7.25 dS/m, in both wet and dry soils (Turnbull and Awang, 1997). A. auriculiformis was also amongst the best performing Acacia spp. on slightly to moderately saline seasonally waterlogged soils in south-eastern Queensland (Marcar et al., 1991a).

The natural occurrences in western Papua New Guinea and Irian Jaya are mainly on the relict alluvial plain known as the Oriomo Plateau. They are on shallow well-drained sandy loam overlying heavy clay or imperfectly drained soils subject to temporary or prolonged flooding in the wet season. These soils are strongly acid and of poor fertility with low values for nitrogen, exchangeable potassium and available phosphorus (Bleeker, 1983). It is generally a lowland species though has been found up to 1000 m altitude.

Climate

Top of page
ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

Top of page
Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
-5 -17 0 1000

Air Temperature

Top of page
Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) 0 6
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 20 30
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 25 37
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 6 22

Rainfall

Top of page
ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration07number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall8002500mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

Top of page Summer
Winter

Soil Tolerances

Top of page

Soil drainage

  • free
  • impeded
  • seasonally waterlogged

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • alkaline
  • neutral
  • very acid

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • infertile
  • saline
  • shallow

Natural enemies

Top of page
Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Endoraecium digitatum Pathogen Leaves not specific
Erythricium salmonicolor Pathogen Stems not specific
Ganoderma lucidum Pathogen Roots not specific
Lasiodiplodia theobromae Pathogen Stems not specific
Oidium Pathogen Seedlings not specific
Xystrocera festiva Herbivore Stems not specific

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page

There are several diseases and insect pests of A. auriculiformis, but none are limiting to establishment on appropriate sites at present (Day et al., 1994). During a recent workshop on diseases of tropical acacias (Old et al., 1997), a number of diseases were identified as potential threats to the future productivity of industrial plantations. These included stem cankers caused by a range of pathogens (Botryodiplodia theobromae [Lasiodiplodia theobromae], Botryosphaeria spp. and Hendersonula sp.) and most often associated with stem borer damage, pink disease (Erythricium salmonicolor) which is most prevalent in high rainfall areas, and phyllode rust (Endoraecium digitatum) which has impaired the growth of A. auriculiformis in Australia and Indonesia. It is not susceptible to heart rot which affects A. mangium (Ito and Nanis, 1997). A root rot fungus, Ganoderma sp., was observed to cause crown dieback and defoliation in A. auriculiformis plantations in parts of West Bengal, India (Barari, 1993). Ganoderma lucidum causes root rot in India (World Agroforestry Centre, 2002) and a species of Cuscuta (Convolvulaceae) has also been recorded as a parasite of A. auriculiformis in West Bengal (Banerjee et al., 1993). Seedlings in the nursery can be infected by powdery mildew (Oidium) especially where there is heavy shading (Harsh et al., 1992).

Stressed trees are particularly susceptible to attacks by insect pests. A beetle, Sinoxylon sp., can girdle small stems or branches. In Australia, the wood is attacked by borers and termites, and scale insects are prevalent on young trees (Hearne, 1975). Experimental results suggest that A. auriculiformis shows some resistance to termites (Turnbull and Awang, 1997). A. auriculiformis was recorded as host to Xystrocera festiva at two locations in south Sumatra, Indonesia (Suharti et al., 1994).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page

Vector Transmission (Biotic)

In Florida, USA, the seeds of A. auriculiformis are dispersed by birds including the introduced European starling (Langeland and Burks, 1998). It is also dispersed by birds in India, and can become invasive in high rainfall areas (India Biodiversity, 2016).

Intentional Introduction

A. auriculiformis has been widely cultivated in Asia, Africa and South America, partly due to its ability to grow in poor soils and for its use as an ornamental (PROTA, 2016). It has been planted in various countries for pulp and wood production (Logan, 1987). Reports of this species becoming invasive relate to locations where A. auriculiformis was first introduced deliberately, after which the tree escaped cultivation.

Pathway Causes

Top of page
CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Crop productionUsed for intercropping Yes Yes Turnbull and Awang, 1997
Digestion and excretionSeeds are dispersed by birds Yes ,
DisturbanceA fast grower in open areas Yes Encyclopedia of Life, 2016
Escape from confinement or garden escapeUsed as an ornamental tree from where it can escape into nearby areas Yes PIER, 2016
ForageTrees are browsed by cattle Yes Yes Banerjee, 1973
Habitat restoration and improvementRecommended for erosion control and soil improvement Yes Yes Hanelt and IPK, 2016
HorticulturePlanted as an ornamental tree Yes Yes PROTA, 2016
Medicinal useUsed in ethnobotany in Australia. Yes Contu, 2012
Ornamental purposes Yes Yes PROTA, 2016
Timber tradeIntroduced in various countries for its wood and pulp. Yes Yes PROTA, 2016

Impact Summary

Top of page
CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Positive and negative
Human health Positive

Economic Impact

Top of page

The economic impact of A. auriculiformis is predominantly positive, as a valuable fast-growing plantation tree species for fuel, timber and agrorestry benefits. A. auriculiformis is reported as a dangerous tree in Florida due to its inability to withstand hurricane winds; possibly causing damage to nearby structures (Encyclopedia of Life, 2016).

Environmental Impact

Top of page

Invasion of A. auriculiformis is associated with changes in biodiversity. The species has invaded disturbed areas, pinelands, scrub and hammocks in south Florida, USA and altered plant communities by displacing native plants.

Impact on Habitats

The leaf litter is reported to be allelopathic (EDDMapS, 2016). It had been shown to affect the germination and growth of herbaceous plants, including wheat (Ismail and Metali, 2014). Being a nitrogen fixing tree it affects the local nitrogen cycling (Gordon, 1998).

Impact on Biodiversity

A. auriculiformis shades out native plants and is noted as a particular threat to certain rare species and habitats in Florida, USA, and is posing a threat to plants such as scrub pinweed Lechea cernua, which is listed as threatened in the Preservation of Native Flora of Florida Act (Langeland and Burks, 1998; Wunderlin and Hansen, 2016; NatureServe, 2016). It is a threat in the pine rockland, which is considered as a very rare ecosystem at Miami, Florida (USA) (NatureServe, 2016).

Threatened Species

Top of page
Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Lechea cernua (nodding pinweed)National list(s) National list(s)FloridaAllelopathic; Competition - monopolizing resources; Competition - shadingWunderlin and Hansen, 2016

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
  • Reproduces asexually
  • Has high genetic variability
Impact outcomes
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Infrastructure damage
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Monoculture formation
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of endangered species
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Allelopathic
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - shading
  • Competition - smothering
  • Hybridization
  • Rapid growth
  • Rooting
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

Top of page

Economic Value

The economic impact of A. auriculiformis is predominantly positive, as a valuable fast-growing plantation tree species for fuel, timber and agrorestry benefits. However, its invasive potential has been noted, mainly in Florida, USA.

Though not widely used in agroforestry systems because of its spreading and competitive surface rooting habit, intercropping A. auriculiformis with groundnuts, rice, mung beans (Vigna radiata) and kenaf has proved to be successful (Turnbull and Awang, 1997). Pruning of A. auriculiformis is recommended to improve light availability to crop plants (Miah et al., 1995). It has been used satisfactorily as a nurse tree in tea plantations. A. auriculiformis is sometimes planted in mixture with eucalypts and other trees which do not fix nitrogen to maintain or improve soil fertility. Its leaves (phyllodes) are good for soil mulching. A. auriculiformis is used for shade and ornamental purposes in cities where its hardiness, dense foliage and bright-yellow flowers are desirable attributes. A. auriculiformis can be used as a host tree in the nursery propagation of sandalwood (Santalum album) (Nasi and Ehrhart, 1996) and is also used as a secondary or tertiary host when sandalwood is established in the field (Fox and Barrett, 1995).

A. auriculiformis wood has a high basic density and a calorific value of 4700-4900 kcal/kg, which make it ideal for firewood and charcoal. The charcoal is not very heavy, burns well and does not smoke or spark (Wiersum and Ramlan, 1982) with physical properties, calorific value and burning properties described by Yantasath et al. (1993). In Asia and Africa, it is planted for fuelwood, and is an outstanding fuelwood species for acid soils (Ryan et al., 1994). The annual fall of leaves, twigs, and branches can amount to 4-6 t/ha which is useful as household fuel (NAS, 1983). The sapwood is yellow and the heartwood light brown to dark red; the timber is fine-grained, often attractively figured and finishes well (Keating and Bolza, 1982). The wood of A. auriculiformis makes attractive furniture and veneers (PROTA, 2016). It is also suitable for construction work (e.g. framing, flooring), wood turning and carving. Boards may sometimes split when sawn. The crooked and multiple stems which are a common feature of the species largely restrict its use as poles or other forms of timber that require reasonable length. The heartwood is typically hard and durable, but the sapwood is highly susceptible to termite and borer attack and requires preservative treatment when in contact with the soil.

Plantation-grown trees are very promising for the production of unbleached kraft pulp (for bags, wrapping paper, linerboard) and high quality neutral sulphite semichemical pulp (for corrugating, medium and higher-grade packaging-type products) (Logan, 1987). It is less suitable for high-yield mechanical type pulps (Phillips et al., 1979) although there is significant variation in pulp-making properties between provenances (Logan, 1987). Large-scale plantations have already been established in Karnataka, India for the production of paper pulp.


The bark has sufficient tannins (about 13%) for possible commercial exploitation (Abdul Razak et al., 1981). A natural dye, used in the batik textile industry in India and Indonesia is also extracted from the bark (Encyclopedia of Life, 2016; PROTA, 2016). Lac insect culture using the species as a host plant is possible. Edible mushrooms occur in plantations in Thailand and Vietnam. A. auriculiformis flowers are a source of bee forage and contribute to honey production (Moncur et al., 1991). The gum from the tree is sold commercially (Encyclopedia of Life, 2016).

Social Benefit

Extracts of A. auriculiformis are used by aborigines of Australia as analgesics, to treat pains and sore eyes, and to treat rheumatism (Contu, 2012; Encyclopedia of Life, 2016). Ethanolic extracts from the leaves showed memory enhancing potential at studies by Sharma et al. (2014), which might help treat dementia and other cognitive problems.

Although A. auriculiformis is not recognized as a fodder species, trees are browsed by cattle in India and Fiji (Banerjee, 1973; L Thomson, CSIRO, Canberra, Australia, personal communication, 1997; PROTA, 2016). A preliminary study of fodder values has shown that A. auriculiformis meets the minimum requirements for certain nutrients and warrants further investigation (Vercoe, 1989).

Flowers are sold in Burma to be used as altar flowers (PROTA, 2016).

Environmental Services

The species is planted to provide shelter along shorelines and for revegetating mining spoil heaps. The spreading, densely-matted root system can stabilize eroding land. It has been used widely in revegetating degraded land and rehabilitating grasslands in India, Indonesia and Vietnam. Extracts of the heartwood are reported as inhibiting fungi that attack wood (Encyclopedia of Life, 2016).

Uses List

Top of page

Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Invertebrate food for lac/wax insects

Environmental

  • Agroforestry
  • Erosion control or dune stabilization
  • Revegetation
  • Shade and shelter
  • Soil improvement

Fuels

  • Charcoal
  • Fuelwood

Human food and beverage

  • Honey/honey flora

Materials

  • Bark products
  • Carved material
  • Dye/tanning
  • Fibre
  • Gums
  • Miscellaneous materials
  • Mulches
  • Wood/timber

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Ornamental

  • Christmas tree
  • Cut flower
  • garden plant
  • Potted plant
  • Propagation material
  • Seed trade

Wood Products

Top of page

Charcoal

Furniture

Roundwood

  • Building poles
  • Posts
  • Roundwood structures
  • Stakes

Sawn or hewn building timbers

  • Flooring
  • For light construction

Veneers

Wood-based materials

  • Composite boards
  • Wood cement

Woodware

  • Industrial and domestic woodware
  • Tool handles
  • Toys
  • Turnery
  • Wood carvings

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page

A. auriculiformis is related to A. polystachya , A. cincinnata. and A. spirorbis subsp. solandri and more distantly to A. aulacocarpa and A. crassicarpa (Pedley, 1975). It hybridizes readily with A. leptocarpa and A. mangium in nature and in cultivation (Pinyopusarerk, 1993). The hybrids with A. mangium are intermediate between the two parents in morphology and wood properties. They inherit the straighter stem form of A. mangium and the self-pruning ability and the stem circularity of A. auriculiformis (Turnbull and Awang, 1997). Hybrids tend to have more vigorous growth and are more resistant to heart rot. There is much interest in the domestication of this hybrid as a result of this combination of commercially desirable characteristics. Aspects of seed production and vegetative propagation of the hybrids are covered in Carron and Aken (1992).

Prevention and Control

Top of page

Prevention

Public awareness

A. auriculiformis is listed as invasive in Florida, USA and its planting is prohibited in some counties (Langeland and Burks, 1998; PROTA, 2016). It is also listed as invasive in the Bahamas (BEST Commission, 2003).

Eradication

Starr et al. (2003) advised that plantings should be discontinued in Hawaii, USA due to its invasive characteristics.

Control

Physical/mechanical control

Hand pulling of the seedlings and tree girdling are recommended control measurements (PIER. 2016), but might disturb soils and increase other non-natives (NatureServe, 2016).

Biological control

No known biological control has been attempted.

Chemical control

The use of triclopyr herbicide mixed with oil is recommended (PIER, 2016). In Florida, triclopyr applications to basal bark and cut stumps are listed as permitted treatments (Langeland et al., 2011).

References

Top of page

Abdul Razak MA, Low CK, Abu Said A, 1981. Determination of relative tannin contents of the barks of some Malaysian plants. Malaysian Forester, 44(1):87-92; 10 ref

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Ajitha Sharma, Manjunath Shetty, Amrita Parida, Shalini Adiga, Shobha Kamath, Sowjanya, 2014. Effect of ethanolic extract of Acacia auriculiformis leaves on learning and memory in rats. Effect of ethanolic extract of Acacia auriculiformis leaves on learning and memory in rats, 6(3), 246-250. http://phcogres.com/article.asp?issn=0974-8490;year=2014;volume=6;issue=3;spage=246;epage=250;aulast=Sharma

Arisman H, Havmoller P, 1994. Seed supply strategy for a pulpwood plantation project in southern Sumatra. In: Drysdale RM, John SET, Yapa AC, eds. Proceedings: International Symposium on Genetic Conservation and Production of Tropical Forest Tree Seed, 14-16 June 1993, Chiang Mai, Thailand, pp 225-228

Awang K, Venkateswarlu P, Nor Aini AS, Adjers G, Bhumibhamon S, Kietvuttinon B, Pan FJ, Pitpreecha K, Simsiri A, Awang K, 1994. Three year performance of international provenance trials of Acacia auriculiformis. Forest Ecology and Management, 70(1-3):147-158; 31 ref

Banerjee AK, 1973. Plantations of Acacia auriculaeformis (Benth.) A. Cunn. in West Bengal. Indian Forester, 99(9):533-540 + 1 pl

Banerjee K, Khatua DC, Mukherjee N, 1993. Some new hosts of Cuscuta sp. Indian Forester, 119(9):760-761

Barari S, 1993. Attack of Ganoderma on Acacia auriculiformis and Acacia mangium. Indian Forester, 119(9):765

BEST Commission, 2003. Invasive plant species. Bahamas Environment, Science and Technology (BEST) Commission. http://www.best.bs/Invasive_plant_species.htm

Binggeli P, 1999. Invasive woody plants. http://members.lycos.co.uk/WoodyPlantEcology/invasive/index.html

Bleeker P, 1983. Soils of Papua New Guinea. Canberra, Australia: CSIRO and Australian National University Press

Boland DJ, 1989. Trees for the tropics. Growing Australian multipurpose trees and shrubs in Developing Countries. ACIAR Monograph, No. 10, ii + 247 pp.; 11 pp. of ref

Boland DJ, Pinyopusarerk K, McDonald MW, Jovanovic T, Booth TH, 1990. The habitat of Acacia auriculiformis and probable factors associated with its distribution. Journal of Tropical Forest Science, 3(2):159-180; 32 ref

BOLDS, 2016. Kingdoms of Life being barcoded. BOLD Systems. In: Kingdoms of Life being barcoded. BOLD Systems, http://www.boldsystems.org/index.php/TaxBrowser_Home

Booth TH, Turnbull JW, 1994. Domestication of lesser-known tropical tree species: The Australian experience. In: Leakey RRB, Newton AC, eds. Tropical trees: The Potential for Domestication and Rebuilding of Forest Resources. ITE Symposium No. 29, ECTF Symposium No. 1. London, UK: HMSO, 189-194

Brock J, 1988. Top end native plants. Winnellie, Darwin: John Brock

Carron LT, Aken KM eds, 1992. Breeding technologies for tropical acacias. Proceedings of an International Workshop held in Tawau, Sabah, Malaysia, 1-4 July 1991. ACIAR Proceedings Series, No. 37

Chappill JA, Maslin BR, 1995. A phylogenetic assessment of Tribe Acacieae. In: Crisp M, Doyle JJ, eds, Advances in Legume Systematics 7: Phylogeny. Kew, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, 77-99

Combalicer, M. S., Lee DonKoo, Woo SuYoung, Hyun JungOh, Park YeongDae, Lee YongKwon, Combalicer, E. A., Tolentino, E. L., 2012. Physiological characteristics of Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn. ex Benth., Acacia mangium Willd. and Pterocarpus indicus Willd. in the La Mesa Watershed and Mt. Makiling, Philippines. Physiological characteristics of Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn. ex Benth., Acacia mangium Willd. and Pterocarpus indicus Willd. in the La Mesa Watershed and Mt. Makiling, Philippines, 15(Special Issue 1), 14-28. http://journals.uplb.edu.ph/index.php/JESAM/article/viewFile/701/641

Contu S, 2012. Acacia auriculiformis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T19891902A19997222. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T19891902A19997222.en

Dart P, Umali-Garcia M, Almendras A, 1991. Role of symbiotic associations in nutrition of tropical acacias. ACIAR Proceedings Series Canberra, Australia; Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, No. 35:13-19

Day RK, Rudgard SA, Nair KSS, 1994. Asian tree pests: An overview. FORSPA Publication 12. Bangkok, Thailand: FAO

dela Cruz RE, Umali-Garcia M, 1992. Nitrogen fixation and mycorrhizae in acacias on degraded grasslands. In: Awang K, Taylor DA, eds. Tropical Acacias in East Asia and the Pacific. Proceedings of a First meeting of COGREDA held in Phuket, Thailand. Bangkok, Thailand: Winrock International Institute for Agricultural Research, 59-71

Doran JC, Gunn BV, 1987. Treatments to promote seed germination in Australian acacias. In: Turnbull JW, ed. Australian Acacias in Developing Countries. Proceedings of an International Workshop, Gympie, Qld., Australia, 4-7 August 1986. ACIAR Proceedings No 16:57-63

Doran JC, Turnbull JW, 1997. Australian trees and shrubs: species for land rehabilitation and farm planting in the tropics. Australian trees and shrubs: species for land rehabilitation and farm planting in the tropics., viii + 384 pp.; [refs]

EDDMapS, 2016. Early Detection and Distribution Mapping System. Georgia, USA: University of Georgia-Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health. http://www.eddmaps.org/

Encyclopedia of Life, 2016. Encyclopedia of Life. In: Encyclopedia of Life, http://www.eol.org

Faridah Hanum I, Maesen LJG van der, eds. , 1997. Plant resources of southeast Asia. No. 11. Auxillary plants. Leiden, Netherlands: Backhuys

Fox JED, Barrett DR, 1995. Silvicultural characteristics associated with the ecology and parasitic habit of sandalwood. In: Gjerum L, Fox JED, Erhardt Y, eds. Sandal Wood Seed, Nursery and Plantation Technology. Proceedings of a regional workshop for Pacific Island countries, 1-11 August 1994, Noumea, New Caledonia. RAS/92/361 Field Document No. 8, 119-140

Gordon, D. R., 1998. Effects of invasive, non-indigenous plant species on ecosystem processes: lessons from Florida. Effects of invasive, non-indigenous plant species on ecosystem processes: lessons from Florida, 8(4), 975-989. doi: 10.1890/1051-0761(1998)008[0975:EOINIP]2.0.CO;2

Gupta RK, 1993. Multipurpose trees for agroforestry and wasteland utilisation. Multipurpose trees for agroforestry and wasteland utilisation., xv + 562 pp.; [18 pp. of ref + refs in text]

Haines MW, McKinnell FH, Marcar NE, Turnbull JW, 1991. Advances in tropical acacia research. Proceedings of an international workshop held in Bangkok, Thailand, 11-15 February 1991. ACIAR Proceedings Series, No. 35, 234 pp.; refs at ends of papers

Hanelt P, IPK, 2016. Mansfeld's World Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops. Gatersleben, Germany: Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research (IPK). http://mansfeld.ipk-gatersleben.de/apex/f?p=185:3:0::NO

Harbard J, Sedgley M, 1994. Storage of Acacia mangium and A. auriculiformis pollen. In Drysdale RM, John SET, Yapa AC, eds. Proceedings: International Symposium on Genetic Conservation and Production of Tropical Forest Tree Seed, 14-16 June 1993, Chiang Mai, Thailand, 199-204; 10 ref

Harsh NSK, Tiwari CK, Nath V, 1992. Some powdery mildews from Madhya Pradesh. Journal of Tropical Forestry, 8(2):173-178

Harwood CE, 1996. Recent developments in improvement strategy for tropical tree species. In: Rimbawanto A, Widyatmoko AYPBC, Suhaendi H, Furukoshi T, eds Tropical Plantation Establishment: Improving Productivity Through Genetic Practices. Proceedings international seminar, 19-21 December 1996, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Yogyakarta: Forest Tree Improvement Research and Development Institute, II 1-21

Harwood CE, Applegate GB, Robson KJ, Haines MW, 1994. Establishment and management of seed production areas of tropical tree species in northern Australia. In: Drysdale RM, John SET, Yapa AC, eds. Proceedings: International symposium on genetic conservation and production of tropical forest tree seed, 14 16 June 1993, Chiang Mai, Thailand, 233-239; 22 ref

Hearne DA, 1975. Trees for Darwin and northern Australia. Canberra, Australia: Australian Government Publishing Service

Huang S, Zheng H, 1993. Coppicing of Acacia auriculiformis. ACIAR Forestry Newsletter No. 16, 3

Ibrahim Z, 1991. Reproductive biology of Acacia mangium and Acacia auriculiformis. PhD Thesis, Faculty of Forestry, Universiti Pertanian Malaysia

India Biodiversity, 2016. Online Portal of India Biodiversity. In: Online Portal of India Biodiversity, http://indiabiodiversity.org/species/list

Islam M, 2002. Prevention and management of invasive alien species: forging cooperation throughout south and southeast Asia. In: The Prevention and Management of Invasive Alien Species: Forging Cooperation throughout South and Southeast Asia Proceedings of a conference held in Bangkok, Thailand 14-16 August, 2002. GISP Global Invasive Species Programme, OEPP Ministry of Science Technology and Environment, Thailand Biodiversity Center, United States Government

Ismail, N. A. N., Metali, F., 2014. Allelopathic effects of invasive Acacia mangium on germination and growth of local paddy varieties. Allelopathic effects of invasive Acacia mangium on germination and growth of local paddy varieties, 13(4), 158-168. http://scialert.net/fulltext/?doi=ja.2014.158.168&org=11

Ito S, Nanis LH, 1997. Survey of heart on Acacia mangium in Sabah, Malaysia. Japanese Agricultural Research Quarterly, 31:65-71

Keating WG, Bolza E, 1982. Characteristics, properties and uses of timbers. Volume 1. South-east Asia, Northern Australia and the Pacific. xxi + 362 pp.; 24 pl. (col.); 146 ref. Melbourne, Australia: Inkata Press

Keenan R, Lamb D, Sexton G, 1995. Experience with mixed species rainforest plantations in North Queensland. Papers from the IUFRO Tropical Silviculture Subject Group, S1 07 00, IUFRO 20th World Congress, Tampere, Finland, August 1995. Commonwealth-Forestry-Review, 74(4):315-321, 386, 388; 27 ref

Kew Royal Botanic Gardens, 2016. Millennium Seed Bank - Seed List. Richmond, UK: Kew Royal Botanic Gardens. http://apps.kew.org/seedlist/SeedlistServlet

Khasa PD, 1993. Acid scarification and hot water soaking of Racosperma auriculiforme seeds. Forestry Chronicle, 69(3):331-334; 18 ref

Khasa PD, Cheliak WM, Bousquet J, 1993. Mating system of Racosperma auriculiforme in a seed production area in Zaire. Canadian Journal of Botany, 71(6):779-785; 42 ref

Khasa PD, Li P, Vallée G, Magnussen S, Bousquet J, 1995. Early evaluation of Racosperma auriculiforme and R. mangium provenance trials on four sites in Zaire. Forest Ecology and Management, 78(1-3):99-113; 37 ref

Kotiluoto, R., Ruokolainen, K., Kettunen, M., 2009. Invasive Acacia auriculiformis Benth. in different habitats in Unguja, Zanzibar. Invasive Acacia auriculiformis Benth. in different habitats in Unguja, Zanzibar, 47(1), 77-86. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/aje doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2028.2007.00920.x

Kyalangalilwa, B., Boatwright, J. S., Daru, B. H., Maurin, O., Bank, M. van der, 2013. Phylogenetic position and revised classification of Acacia s.l. (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae) in Africa, including new combinations in Vachellia and Senegalia. Phylogenetic position and revised classification of Acacia s.l. (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae) in Africa, including new combinations in Vachellia and Senegalia, 172(4), 500-523. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1095-8339 doi: 10.1111/boj.12047

Langeland KA, Burks KC, 1998. Identification and Biology of Non-native Plants in Florida’s Natural Areas. Gainesville, Florida, USA: University of Florida, 165 pp

Langeland KA, Ferrell JA, Sellers B, MacDonald GE, Stocker RK, 2011. Integrated management of nonnative plants in natural areas of Florida. IFAS Extension note SP242. Florida, USA: University of Florida, 27 pp. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/WG/WG20900.pdf

Le Dinh Kha, 1996. Studies on natural hybrids of Acacia mangium and A. auriculiformis in Vietnam. In: Dieters MJ, Matheson AC, Nikles DG, Harwood CE, Walker SM, eds. Tree Improvement for Sustainable Tropical Forestry. Proceedings QFRI-IUFRO conference, Caloundra, Queensland, Australia, 27 October-1 November 1996. Gympie, Australia: Queensland Forestry Research Institute, 328-332

Lemmens RHMJ, Soerianegara I, Wong WC, eds. 1995. Plant resources of South-East Asia No. 5 (2). Timber trees: minor commercial timbers. 655 pp.; Prosea Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia. Leiden: Backhuys Publishers

Logan AF, 1987. Australian acacias for pulpwood. In: Turnbull JW, ed. Australian Acacias in Developing Countries. Proceedings of an International Workshop, Gympie, Qld., Australia, 4-7 August 1986. ACIAR Proceedings No. 16:89-94

Luna RK, 1996. Plantation trees. Delhi, India: International Book Distributors

Mabberley DJ, 1997. The plant-book: a portable dictionary of the vascular plants. Ed. 2: xvi + 858 pp. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press

Marcar NE, Ganesan SK, Field J, Turnbull JW, 1991. Genetic variation for salt and waterlogging tolerance of Acacia auriculiformis. Advances in tropical acacia research. Proceedings of an international workshop held in Bangkok, Thailand, 11-15 February 1991. ACIAR-Proceedings-Series, No. 35, 82-86; 6 ref

Marcar NE, Hussain RW, Arunin S, Beetson T, 1991. Trials with Australian and other Acacia species on salt-affected land in Pakistan, Thailand and Australia. In: Turnbull JW, ed. Advances in tropical acacia research. Proceedings of an international workshop held in Bangkok, Thailand, 11-15 February 1991. ACIAR-Proceedings-Series, No. 35:229-232; 3 ref

Maslin BR, 1995. Systematics and phytogeography of Australian species of Acacia: an overview. IFA Newsletter, 36(2):2-5

Maslin BR, McDonald MW, 1996. A key to useful Australian acacias for the seasonally dry tropics. 80 pp. Melbourne, Australia: CSIRO Publishing

Maslin, B. R., Miller, J. T., Seigler, D. S., 2003. Overview of the generic status of Acacia (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae). Overview of the generic status of Acacia (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae), 16(1), 1-18. doi: 10.1071/SB02008

McKinnell FH, Harisetijono, 1991. Testing Acacia species on alkaline soils in West Timor. Advances in tropical acacia research. Proceedings of an international workshop held in Bangkok, Thailand, 11-15 February 1991 [edited by Turnbull JW]. ACIAR-Proceedings-Series, No. 35, 183-188; 7 ref

Miah MG, Garrity DP, Aragon ML, Sinoquet H (ed. ), Cruz P, 1995. Light availability to the understorey annual crops in an agroforestry system. Ecophysiology of tropical intercropping. Proceedings of an international meeting held in Guadeloupe on 6-10 Dec. 1994, 99-107; 12 ref

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2016. Tropicos database. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/

Mitchell MR, Gwaze DP, Stewart HTL, 1987. Survival and early growth of Australian tree species planted at a termite-infested site in Zimbabwe. East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal, 52(4):251-259; 8 ref

Moncur MW, Kleinschmidt G, Somerville D, 1991. The role of acacia and eucalypt plantations for honey production. ACIAR Proceedings Series, No. 35:123-127; 18 ref

Moran GF, Muona O, Bell JC, 1989. Breeding systems and genetic diversity in Acacia auriculiformis and A. crassicarpa. Biotropica, 21(3):250-256; 41 ref

Nasi R, Ehrhart Y, 1996. Sandalwood, a perfume of prosperity. Part 2 - plantations. [Le santal, un parfum de prosperite. 2e partie - les plantations.] Bois et Forets des Tropiques, No. 248, 5-16; With extended English summary; 39 ref

National Academy of Sciences, 1983. Mangium and other acacias of the humid tropics. Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences

NatureServe, 2016. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. Arlington, Virginia, USA: NatureServe. http://explorer.natureserve.org/index.htm

NFTA, 1996. Acacia auriculiformis - a multipurpose tropical wattle. Waimanalo, Hawaii, USA: Nitrogen Fixing Tree Association. [NFTA 96-05.]

Nghiem, L. T. P., Tan, H. T. W., Corlett, R. T., 2015. Invasive trees in Singapore: are they a threat to native forests?. Invasive trees in Singapore: are they a threat to native forests?, 8(1), 201-214. http://tropicalconservationscience.mongabay.com/content/v8/tcs_v8i1_201-214_Nghiem.pdf

Nguyen Hoang Nghia, 1996. Climatic requirements of some main plantation tree species in Vietnam. In: Booth TH, ed, Matching Trees and Sites. ACIAR Proceedings No. 63, 43-49

Nguyen Hoang Nghia, Le Dinh Kha, 1996. Acacia species and provenance selection for large-scale planting in Vietnam. In: Dieters MJ, Matheson AC, Nikles DG, Harwood CE, Walker SM, eds. Tree Improvement for Sustainable Tropical Forestry. Proceedings QFRI-IUFRO conference, Caloundra, Queensland, Australia, 27 October-1 November 1996. Gympie: Queensland Forestry Research Institute, 443-448

Nor Aini AS, 1993. Recovery of Acacia auriculiformis from fire damage. Forest Ecology and Management, 62(1-4):99-105; 9 ref

Nor Aini AS, Kamis Awang, Mansor Mohd Rashid, Abd Latib Senin, Awang K, 1994. Provenance trial of Acacia auriculiformis in Peninsular Malaysia: 12-month performance. Journal of Tropical Forest Science, 6(3):249-256; 25 ref

Nor Aini AS, Kamis Awang, Venkateswarlu P, Abd Latib Senin, Awang K, 1994. Three-year performance of Acacia auriculiformis provenances at Serdang, Malaysia. Pertanika Journal of Tropical Agricultural Science, 17(2):95-102; 27 ref

Old KM, Lee SS, Sharma JK, eds, 1997. Diseases of tropical acacias. Proceedings of an International Workshop , Subanjeriji (South Sumatra), 28 April - 3 May 1996. Jakarta: Center for International Forestry Research

Otsamo AO, Nikles DG, Vuokko RHO, 1996. Species and provenance variation of candidate acacias for afforestation of Imperata cylindrica grasslands in South Kalimantan, Indonesia. In: Dieters MJ, Matheson AC, Nikles DG, Harwood CE, Walker SM, eds. Tree Improvement for Sustainable Tropical Forestry. Proceedings QFRI-IUFRO conference, Caloundra, Queensland, Australia, 27 October-1 November 1996. Gympie, Australia: Queensland Forestry Research Institute, 46-50

Padma V, Reddy BM, Satyanarayana G, 1993. Breaking dormancy in certain Acacia spp. by pre-sowing seed treatments. Seed Research, publ. 1995, 21(1):26-30; 4 ref

Paijmans K, Blake DJ, Bleeker P, McAlpine JR, 1971. Land resources of the Morehead-Kiunga area, Territory of Papua and New Guinea. CSIRO Land Research Series No. 29, 19-45

Pedley L, 1975. Revision of extra-Australian species of Acacia - subg. Heterophyllum. Contrib. Qd. Herb. No. 18:1-24

Pedley L, 1978. A revision of Acacia Mill. in Queensland. Austrobaileya, 1(2):75-234

Pedley L, 1986. Derivation and dispersal of Acacia (Leguminosae), with particular reference to Australia, and the recognition of Senegalia and Racosperma. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 92(3):219-254; 143 ref

Phillips FH, Logan A, Balodis V, 1979. Suitability of tropical forests for pulpwood: mixed hardwoods, residues and reforestation species. Tappi, 62:77-81

PIER, 2001. Report on invasive plant species in Tonga. Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER). Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry. http://www.hear.org/pier_v3.3/tongareport.htm

PIER, 2003. Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER). Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

PIER, 2016. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.htm

Pinyopusarerk K, 1990. Acacia auriculiformis: an annotated bibliography. Winrock International and Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research

Pinyopusarerk K, 1993. Genetic resources of fifteen tropical acacias. In: Awang K, Taylor DA, eds. Acacias for rural, industrial and environmental development. Proceedings of the second meeting of consultative Group for Research and Development of Acacias (COGREDA). Udorn Thani, Thailand: Winrock International and FAO:94-112

Pinyopusarerk K, Williams ER, Boland DJ, Turnbull JW, 1991. Variation in seedling morphology of Acacia auriculiformis. Advances in tropical acacia research. Proceedings of an international workshop held in Bangkok, Thailand, 11-15 February 1991. ACIAR-Proceedings-Series, No. 35, 67-72; 5 ref

PROTA, 2016. PROTA4U web database. Wageningen, Netherlands: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. http://www.prota4u.org/search.asp

Puangchit L, Woo KC, Montagu K, 1996. Physiology of Acacia auriculiformis: Implications for genetic improvement. In: Dieters MJ, Matheson AC, Nikles DG, Harwood CE, Walker SM, eds. Tree Improvement for Sustainable Tropical Forestry. Proceedings QFRI-IUFRO conference, Caloundra, Queensland, Australia, 27 October-1 November 1996. Gympie: Queensland Forestry Research Institute, 384-385

Pukittayacamee P, Saelim S, Bhodthipuks J, 1993. Seed collection period for selected tree species in Thailand. Leaflet. Muak-Lek: ASEAN-Canada Forest Tree Seed Centre Project, 2 pp

Ryan PA, 1994. The use of tree legumes for fuelwood production. Forage tree legumes in tropical agriculture., 257-266; 28 ref

Sedgley M, Harbard J, Smith RMM, Wickneswari R, Griffin AR, 1992. Reproductive biology and interspecific hybridisation of Acacia mangium and Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn. ex Benth. (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae). Australian Journal of Botany, 40(1):37-48; 32 ref

SE-EPPC, 2002. Southeast Exotic Pest Plant Council, Nashville, USA. http://www.se-eppc.org/

Skelton DJ, 1987. Distribution and ecology of Papua New Guinea acacias. In: Turnbull JW, ed. Australian Acacias in Developing Countries. Proceedings of an International Workshop, Gympie, Qld., Australia, 4-7 August 1986. ACIAR Proceedings No. 16: 38-44

Space JC, Flynn T, 2000. Observations on invasive plant species in American Samoa. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu, 51

Space JC, Waterhouse B, Denslow JS, Nelson D, Mazawa TR, 2000. Invasive plant species in Chuuk, Federated States of Micronesia. USDA Forest Service, Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry, Honolulu, Hawai'i, USA

Starr F, Starr K, Loope L, 2003. Acacia auriculiformis. Plants of Hawaii Reports. http://www.hear.org/starr/hiplants/reports/html/acacia_auriculiformis.htm

Suharti M, Irianto RSB, Santosa S, 1994. Behaviour of the stem borer Xystrocera festiva Pascoe on Paraserianthes falcataria and integrated control. Buletin Penelitian Hutan, No. 558:39-53; [With English tables and figures]; 5 ref

Susanto M, 1996. Early evaluation of seedling seed orchard of Acacia auriculiformis at 8 months after planting at South Sumatra Province in Indonesia. In: Rimbawanto A, Widyatmoko AYPBC, Suhaendi H, Furukoshi T, eds Tropical Plantation Establishment: Improving Productivity Through Genetic Practices. Proceedings international seminar, 19-21 December 1996, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Yogyakarta: Forest Tree Improvement Research and Development Institute, 9-15

Tan BC, Tan KS, 2002. Invasive alien species in Singapore: a review. In: The Prevention and Management of Invasive Alien Species: Forging Cooperation throughout South and Southeast Asia Proceedings of a conference held in Bangkok, Thailand 14-16 August, 2002. GISP Global Invasive Species Programme, OEPP Ministry of Science Technology and Environment, Thailand Biodiversity Center, United States Government

The Plant List, 2013. The Plant List: a working list of all plant species. Version 1.1. London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://www.theplantlist.org

Toda T, Tajima M, Brini PB, 1995. Tissue culture of Acacia mangium, Acacia auriculiformis and Acacia hybrid. Bulletin of the National Forest Tree Breeding Center, No. 13, 81-94; 10 ref

Turnbull JW, Awang K, 1997. Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn. ex Benth. In: Faridah Hanum I, van der Maesen LJG, eds. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No 11. Auxiliary plants. Leiden, the Netherlands: Backhuys Publishers, 52-56

UPRRP, 2016. UPRRP Herbarium. University of Puerto Rico. http://herbariodb.uprrp.edu/Bol/uprrp/Search

USDA-ARS, 2016. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, USA. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl

Vercoe TK, 1989. Fodder value of selected Australian tree and shrub species. ACIAR Monograph, No. 10:187-192; [refs. at end of book]

Wickneswari R, Norwati M, 1993. Genetic diversity of natural populations of Acacia auriculiformis. Australian Journal of Botany, 41(1):65-77; 53 ref

Wickneswari R, Norwati M, Turnbull JW, 1991. Genetic structure of natural populations of Acacia auriculiformis in Australia and Papua New Guinea. Advances in tropical acacia research. Proceedings of an international workshop held in Bangkok, Thailand, 11-15 February 1991. ACIAR-Proceedings-Series, No. 35, 94-95; 1 ref

Wiersum KF, Ramlan A, 1982. Cultivation of Acacia auriculiformis on Java, Indonesia. Commonwealth Forestry Review, 61(2):135-144; 36 ref

World Agroforestry Centre, 2002. Agroforestree Database. Nairobi, Kenya: ICRAF. http://www.worldagroforestrycentre.org/Sites/TreeDBS/AFT/AFT.htm

WorldWideWattle, 2016. WorldWideWattle ver. 2. In: WorldWideWattle ver. 2, http://worldwidewattle.com

Wunderlin RP, Hansen BF, 2016. Atlas of Florida vascular plants. Tampa, Florida, USA: Institute for Systematic Botany, University of South Florida. http://www.florida.plantatlas.usf.edu/

Yantasath K, Anusontpornperm S, Utistham T, Soontornrangson W, Watanatham S, 1993. Acacias for fuelwood and charcoal In: Awang K, Taylor DA, eds. Acacias for Rural, Industrial and Environmental Development. Proceedings of the Second meeting of Consultative Group for Research and Development of Acacias (COGREDA). Udorn Thani, Thailand: Winrock International and FAO, 144-152

Yap SK, 1987. Introduction of Acacia species to Peninsular Malaysia. ACIAR Proceedings, Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, No. 16, 151-153; In Australian acacias in developing countries. Proceedings of an international workshop, Gympie, Qld., Australia, 4-7 August 1986 [edited by Turnbull, J.W.]; 8 ref

Zenni RD, Ziller SR, 2011. An overview of invasive plants in Brazil. An overview of invasive plants in Brazil, 3, 431-446.

Links to Websites

Top of page
WebsiteURLComment
Atlas of Florida Plantshttp://florida.plantatlas.usf.edu/
Early Detection & Distribution Mapping Systemhttp://www.eddmaps.org
NatureServehttp://explorer.natureserve.org
The IUCN Red List of Threatened Specieshttp://www.iucnredlist.org
World Wide Wattlehttp://worldwidewattle.com

Contributors

Top of page

25/09/2016 Updated by:

Jeanine Vélez-Gavilán, University of Puerto Rico at Mayagüez

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map