Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Episyrphus balteatus



Episyrphus balteatus


  • Last modified
  • 14 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Episyrphus balteatus
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Episyrphus balteatus (DeGeer)

Other Scientific Names

  • Epistrophe balteata DeGeer
  • Epistrophe balteatas DeGeer
  • Episyrphus alternans (Macquart)
  • Episyrphus alternatus (Schrank)
  • Episyrphus andalusiacus Strobl
  • Episyrphus fallaciosus Matsumura
  • Episyrphus nectareus (Fabricius)
  • Episyrphus pleuralis (Thomson)
  • Episyrphus proximus (Santos Abreu)
  • Episyrphus scitule (Harris)
  • Episyrphus scitulus (Harris)
  • Episyrphus signatus (Santos Abreu)
  • Episyrphus viridaureus (Wiedemann)
  • Musca balteata DeGeer
  • Syrphus alternans Macquart
  • Syrphus alternatus Schrank
  • Syrphus balteatus DeGeer
  • Syrphus nectareus Fabricius
  • Syrphus nectarinus Wiedemann
  • Syrphus scitule Harris
  • Syrphus scitulus Harris
  • Syrphus viridaureus Wiedemann

EPPO code

  • EPIYBA (Episyrphus balteatus)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Diptera
  •                         Family: Syrphidae
  •                             Genus: Episyrphus
  •                                 Species: Episyrphus balteatus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes


AfghanistanIndigenousSoos and Papp, 1988
ChinaIndigenousSoos and Papp, 1988
-HebeiIndigenousMa et al., 1985
-JiangsuIndigenousLu et al., 1986; He et al., 1992
-ShanxiIndigenousYang et al., 2002
Georgia (Republic of)Present
IndiaPresentKalshoven and, 1981
-Himachal PradeshIndigenousSharma et al., 1994
-Indian PunjabIndigenousKumar et al., 1989
-Jammu and KashmirIndigenousBhat and Ahmad, 1988; Bhagat et al., 1990
-ManipurIndigenousSingh et al., 1994; Devi et al., 1999
-OdishaIndigenousPatnaik et al., 1977
-Tamil NaduIndigenousRadhakrishnan and Muraleedharan, 1993
-Uttar PradeshIndigenousFaruqui et al., 1986
-West BengalIndigenousAmitava Konar, 1998
IndonesiaIndigenousKalshoven and, 1981
-JavaIndigenousVerall, 1901
-KalimantanIndigenousVerall, 1901
IranIndigenousLotfalizadeh, 2000
JapanIndigenousSoos and Papp, 1988
-Bonin IslandPresentEvenhuis, 1989
-HonshuIndigenousMorimoto and Shibao, 1993; Mizuno et al., 1997
-KyushuIndigenousKusigemati, 1983; Morimoto and Shibao, 1993
Korea, Republic ofIndigenous
LebanonIndigenousTalhouk, 1977; Greathead and Greathead, 1992
MalaysiaPresentEvenhuis, 1989
MongoliaIndigenousSoos and Papp, 1988
PakistanIndigenousHamid, 1987
SyriaIndigenousVerall, 1901; Talhouk, 1977; Greathead and Greathead, 1992
TaiwanIndigenousLee and Hsu, 1979
TajikistanIndigenousKadamshoev, 1983
ThailandIndigenousTantakom et al., 1992
TurkeyIndigenousYasarakinci and Hincal, 1997; Ulusoy et al., 1999


AlgeriaIndigenousSoos and Papp, 1988
EgyptIndigenousSoos and Papp, 1988
MoroccoIndigenousVerall, 1901
-Canary IslandsIndigenousSoos and Papp, 1988
TunisiaIndigenousBen Hamouda, 1993; Rabasse and Ben Hamouda, 1994


BelgiumIndigenousVanhaelen et al., 2001
BulgariaIndigenousNatskova, 1985; Mateeva et al., 2001
Czech RepublicIndigenousKula, 1982; Stary, 1990
Former USSRPresent
FranceIndigenousMarboutie, 1976; Hopper et al., 1995
-CorsicaIndigenousVerall, 1901
GermanyIndigenousKrause and Poehling, 1995
GreeceIndigenousVerall, 1901
HungaryIndigenousBasky, 1982; Polgar, 1984
IrelandIndigenousSpeight, 1996
ItalyIndigenousLuciano et al., 1989; Fontanari et al., 1993
MoldovaIndigenousVoicu et al., 1987
NetherlandsIndigenousAnkersmit et al., 1986
PolandIndigenousCiepielewska, 1996; Wnuk and Gospodarek, 1999; <L>abanowski and Soika, 2010
PortugalIndigenousVerall, 1901
-AzoresIndigenousGomes, 1980; Soos and Papp, 1988; Wakeham-Dawson and Warren, 1999
-MadeiraIndigenousVerall, 1901
RomaniaIndigenousVoicu et al., 1987
Russian FederationPresent
-Russian Far EastIndigenousLugovitsyna and Potemkina, 1983
SlovakiaIndigenousKráliková et al., 2000
SpainIndigenousVerall, 1901; Minarro and Dapena, 2001
SwedenIndigenousSteenis et al., 2001
SwitzerlandIndigenousSalveter, 1998; Wyss, 1999; Wyss et al., 1999
UKIndigenousStubbs and Falk, 1983; Gilbert and, 1986
UkraineIndigenousBerest and, 1981; Pashchenko et al., 1984
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)Present


AustraliaPresentSoos and Papp, 1988; Evenhuis, 1989
-QueenslandIndigenousBroadley and Rogers, 1978
New CaledoniaPresentEvenhuis, 1989

Natural enemy of

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SpeciesStages attackedCountries where known to occurReferences
Acyrthosiphon kondoiAdults/Nymphs
Acyrthosiphon pisumAdults/Nymphs
Anoecia corniAdults/Nymphs
Aphis craccivoraAdults/Nymphs
Aphis fabaeAdults/Nymphs
Aphis gossypiiAdults/Nymphs
Aphis pomiAdults/Nymphs
Aphis sambuciAdults/Nymphs
Aphis schneideriAdults/Nymphs
Aphis spiraecolaAdults/Nymphs
Brachycaudus helichrysiAdults/Nymphs
Brachycorynella asparagiAdults/Nymphs
Brevicoryne brassicaeAdults/Nymphs
Cacopsylla pyriAdults/Nymphs
Chrysomela tremula
Cryptomyzus ribisAdults/Nymphs
Diuraphis noxiaAdults/Nymphs
Dysaphis devectaAdults/Nymphs
Dysaphis plantagineaAdults/Adults/Nymphs/Nymphs
Eriosoma lanigerumAdults/Nymphs
Hyadaphis coriandri
Hyadaphis tataricaeAdults/Nymphs
Hyalopterus amygdali
Hyalopterus pruniAdults/Nymphs
Hyperomyzus lactucaeAdults/Nymphs
Lipaphis erysimiAdults/Nymphs
Macrosiphum euphorbiaeAdults/Nymphs
Macrosiphum rosaeAdults/Nymphs
Melanaphis sacchariAdults/Nymphs
Metopolophium dirhodumAdults/Nymphs
Metopolophium festucaeAdults/Nymphs
Myzus obtusirostrisAdults/Nymphs
Myzus persicaeAdults/Nymphs
Periphyllus californiensisAdults/Nymphs
Phloeomyzus passeriniiAdults/Larvae
Pieris brassicaeAdults/Nymphs
Pseudoregma bambusicola
Rhopalosiphum insertumAdults/Nymphs
Rhopalosiphum maidisAdults/Nymphs
Rhopalosiphum padiAdults/Nymphs
Sarucallis kahawaluokalaniAdults/Nymphs
Schizaphis graminumAdults/Eggs/Larvae/Nymphs/Pupae
Sipha maydisAdults/Nymphs
Sitobion avenaeAdults/Nymphs
Sitobion fragariaeAdults/Nymphs
Sitobion miscanthiAdults/Nymphs
Therioaphis trifoliiAdults/Nymphs
Toxoptera aurantiiAdults/Nymphs
Toxoptera citricidaAdults/Nymphs
Toxoptera odinaeAdults/Nymphs
Uroleucon cichoriiAdults/Nymphs


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Amitava Konar, 1998. Report of some predators of Sternorrhynchan Homoptera infesting orange in Darjeeling, West Bengal. Journal of Interacademicia, 2(3):226-229; 3 ref.

Ankersmit GW; Dijkman H; Keuning NJ; Mertens H; Sins A; Tacoma HM, 1986. Episyrphus balteatus as a predator of the aphid Sitobion avenae on winter wheat. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 42(3):271-277

Aubert J; Aubert JJ; Goeldlin P, 1976. Twelve years of systematic collecting of syrphids (Diptera) at the Bretolet pass (Alps of Valais). Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft, 49(1/2):115-142

Bargen H; Saudhof K; Poehling HM, 1998. Prey finding by larvae and adult females of Episyrphus balteatus. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 87(3):245-254; 47 ref.

Basky Z, 1982. Predators and parasites of Hyalopterus pruni and Hyalopterus amygdali populations living on peach, plum and reed. Acta Phytopathologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricp, 17(3/4):311-316

Ben Hamouda MH, 1993. Aphids in the protected crops and their natural enemies in Tunisia, Tropicultura, 11(2):50-53.

Berest ZL, 1981. Predators of cereal aphids in wheat fields in the steppe zone of the right bank region of the Ukraine. Ekologo-morfologicheskie osobennosti zhivotnykh i sreda ikh obitaniya [edited by Topchii, G.L.] Kiev, USSR; 'Naukova Dumka', 88-90

Bhagat KC; Kotwal DR; Roshan Singh, 1990. On the occurrence of wheat and barley aphid Sitobion avenae Fabricius (Homoptera: Aphididae) and its natural enemies in Jammu (Jammu and Kashmir). Journal of Advanced Zoology, 11(1):48-52

Bhat MR; Ahmad D, 1988. Observations on the biology of Episyrphus balteatus (Degeer) (Diptera: Syrphidae) in Kashmir. Bulletin of Entomology (New Delhi), 29(2):216-217

Bhatia ML, 1939. Biology, morphology and anatomy of apgidophagous syrphid larvae. Parasitology, 31:78-129.

Branquart E; Hemptinne JL; Bauffe C; Benfekih L, 1997. Cannibalism in Episyrphus balteatus (Dipt.: Syrphidae). Entomophaga, 42(1/2):145-152; 26 ref.

Broadley RH; Rogers DJ, 1978. Pests of pangola grass in north Queensland pastures. Queensland Agricultural Journal, 104(4):320-324

Budenberg WJ; Powell W, 1992. The role of honeydew as an ovipositional stimulant for two species of syrphids. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 64(1):57-61

Chambers RJ; Adams THL, 1986. Quantification of the impact of hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae) on cereal aphids in winter wheat: an analysis of field populations. Journal of Applied Ecology, 23(3):895-904

Chambers RJ; Sunderland KD, 1983. The abundance and effectiveness of natural enemies of cereal aphids on two farms in southern England. In: Cavalloro R, ed. Aphid antagonists. Proceedings of a meeting of the EC Experts' Group, Portici, Italy, 23-24 November 1982 A.A. Balkema Rotterdam Netherlands, 83-87

Chambers RJ; Sunderland KD; Stacey DL; Wyatt IJ, 1982. A survey of cereal aphids and their natural enemies in winter wheat in 1980. Annals of Applied Biology, 101(1):175-178.

Chambers RJ; Sunderland KD; Stacey DL; Wyatt IJ, 1986. Control of cereal aphids in winter wheat by natural enemies: aphid-specific predators, parasitoids and pathogenic fungi. Annals of Applied Biology, 108(2):219-231

Chambers RJ; Sunderland KD; Wyatt IJ; Vickerman GP, 1983. The effects of predator exclusion and caging on cereal aphids in winter wheat. Journal of Applied Ecology, 20(1):209-224

Chandler AEF, 1968. Some factors influencing the site and occurrence of oviposition by aphidophagous Syrphidae (Diptera). Annals of Applied Biology, 61:435-446.

Chandler AEF, 1968. The relationship between aphid infestations and oviposition by aphidophagous Syrphidae (Diptera). Annals of Applied Biology, 61:425-434.

Chandler AEF, 1969. Locomotory behaviour of first instar larvae of aphidophagous Syrphidae (Diptera) after contact with aphids. Animal Behaviour, 17:673-678.

Ciepielewska D, 1996. Occurrence of aphid predators in farm crops and along field margins in the Olsztyn macro-region. Acta Academiae Agriculturae ac Technicae Olstenensis, Agricultura, No. 62B:111 pp.; 6 pp. of ref.

Cowgill SE, 1991. The foraging ecology of hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae) and the potential for manipulating their distribution on farmland. PhD Thesis, University of Southampton, UK.

Cowgill SE; Wratten SD; Sotherton NW, 1993. The effect of weeds on the numbers of hoverfly (Diptera: Syrphidae) adults and the distribution and composition of their eggs in winter wheat. Annals of Applied Biology, 123(3):499-515

Cowgill SE; Wratten SD; Sotherton NW, 1993. The selective use of floral resources by the hoverfly Episyrphus balteatus (Diptera: Syrphidae) on farmland. Annals of Applied Biology, 122(2):223-231

Darvish T; Bayat Asadi H, 1995. Identification of the natural enemies of wheat green aphid (Sitobion avenae F.) in gorgan and Dasht. Proceedings of the 12th Iranian Plant Protection Congress, 2-7 September 1995, Karadj, 21.

Dean GJ, 1982. Phenology of aphidophagous predators. Annals of Applied Biology, 101(1):182-184

Devi PB; Singh TK; Singh HJ, 1999. Studies on the natural enemy complex of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) on knol-khol, Brassica oleracea gongylodes. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences, 7(1):37-40; 8 ref.

Entwistle JC; Dixon AFG, 1989. The effect of augmenting grain aphid (Sitobion avenae) numbers in a field of winter wheat in spring on the aphid's abundance in summer and its relevance to the forecasting of outbreaks. Annals of Applied Biology, 114(3):397-408

Evenhuis NL, 1989. Catalog of the Diptera of the Australasian and Oceanian Regions. Honolulu, USA; Bishop Museum Press, 1155 pp.

Faruqui SA; Pandey KC; Patil BD, 1986. Field population studies and natural control of spotted alfalfa aphid. Indian Journal of Ecology, 13(1):120-122

Fontanari M; Sacco M; Girolami V, 1993. Influence of ants on aphids and their predators in orchards. Informatore Fitopatologico, 43(4):47-55.

Geusen-Pfister H, 1987. Studies on the biology and reproductive capacity of Episyrphus balteatus Deg. (Dipt., Syrphidae) under greenhouse conditions. Journal of Applied Entomology, 104(3):261-270

Gilbert FS, 1981. The foraging ecology of hoverflies (Diptea: Syrphidae): Morphology of the mouthparts in relation to feeding on nectar and pollen in some common urban species. Ecological Entomology, 6:245-262.

Gilbert FS, 1986. Hoverflies. Cambridge, UK; University Press, 66pp.

Gomes A, 1980. Syrphids caught during the 2nd aphidological expedition to the Azores archipelago (Diptera, Syrphidae). Boletim da Sociedade Portuguesa de Entomologia, No. 9:1-6

Greathead DJ; Greathead AH, 1992. Biological control of insect pests by insect parasitoids and predators: the BIOCAT database. Biocontrol News and Information, 13(4):61N-68N.

Groeger U, 1993. Investigations on the regulation of cereal aphid populations under the influence of the structure of agroecosystems. Agrarokologie, No. 6:169 pp.

Hamid S, 1987. Aphid control potential of Episyrphus balteatus (DeGeer). Proceedings of the 5th Pakistan Congress of Zoology, University of Karachi, Karachi, January 8-11, 1986 Karachi, Pakistan; Zoological Society of Pakistan, 153-158

Hart AJ; Bale JS, 1997. Cold tolerance of the aphid predator Episyrphus balteatus (DeGeer) (Diptera, Syrphidae). Physiological Entomology, 22(4):332-338; 34 ref.

Hart AJ; Bale JS; Fenlon JS, 1997. Developmental threshold, day-degree requirements and voltinism of the aphid predator Episyrphus balteatus (Diptera: Syrphidae). Annals of Applied Biology, 130(3):427-437; 32 ref.

Harwood RWJ; Hickman JM; Macleod A; Sherratt TN; Wratten SD, 1994. Managing field margins for hoverflies. Field margins: integrating agriculture and conservation. Proceedings of a symposium held at the University of Warwick, Coventry, 18-20 April 1994 [Boatman, N. (Editor)] Farnham, UK; British Crop Protection Council Registered Office (BCPC), 147-152

Haslett JR, 1989. Interpreting patterns of resource utilization: randomness and selectivity in pollen feeding by adult hoverflies. Oecologia, 78(4):433-442

He JL; Sun XQ; Ye WJ; Shen LJ; Cai Y; Li ZH, 1992. Preliminary studies on the bionomics of Episyrphus balteatus (De Geer) (Diptera: Syrphidae) in Shanghai. Journal of Shanghai Agricultural College, 10(1):35-43; 9 ref.

Hickman JM; Wratten SD, 1994. Use of Phacelia tanacetifolia (Hydrophyllaceae) as a pollen resource to enhance hoverfly (Diptera: Syrphidae) populations in sweetcorn fields. Bulletin OILB/SROP, 17(4):156-167

Holloway GJ; Marriott CG; Crocker HJ, 1997. Phenotypic plasticity in hoverflies: the relationship between colour pattern and season in Episyrphus balteatus and other Syrphidae. Ecological Entomology, 22(4):425-432; 37 ref.

Holmes PR, 1984. A field study of the predators of the grain aphid, Sitobion avenae (F.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), in winter wheat in Britain. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 74(4):623-631

Hopper KR; Aidara S; Agret S; Cabal J; Coutinot D; Dabire R; Lesieux C; Kirk G; Reichert S; Tronchetti F; Vidal J, 1995. Natural enemy impact on the abundance of Diuraphis noxia (Homoptera: Aphididae) in wheat in southern France. Environmental Entomology, 24(2):402-408

Hussein Sadeghi; Gilbert F, 2000. Aphid suitability and its relationship to oviposition preference in predatory hoverflies. Journal of Animal Ecology, 69(5):771-784; 3 pp. of ref.

Kadamshoev M, 1983. The cabbage aphid (Brevicoryne brassicae L.) and its natural enemies in the western Pamir Mts. Izvestiya Akademii Nauk Tadzhikskoi SSR, 4:58-60

Kalshoven LGE; Laan PA van der (Reviser and translator), 1981. Pests of crops in Indonesia (revised). Jakarta, Indonesia: Ichtiar Baru, 701 pp.

Kan E; Sasakawa M, 1986. Assessment of the maple aphid colony by the hover fly, Episyrphus balteatus (de Geer) (Diptera: Syrphidae) I. Journal of Ethology, 4(2):121-127

Karelin VD, 1980. Conditions for the use of syrphids. Zashchita Rastenii, No. 11:40-41

Khan S; Yunus M, 1970. Biology of Syrphus balteatus DeGeer. Pakistan Journal of Zoology, 2(2):215-217

Krause U; Poehling HM, 1995. Population dynamics of hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae) in Northern Germany in relation to different habitat structure. Mitteilungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft fu^umlaut~r Allgemeine und Angewandte Entomologie, 10(1-6):509-512; 8 ref.

Krßlikovß A; Rakovskß A; Noskovic J, 2000. Syrphidocoenoses (Syrphidae, Diptera) of some non-crop habitats of Nitra district. Acta Fytotechnica et Zootechnica, 3(3):75-79; 30 ref.

Kula E, 1982. The syrphid flies (Syrphidae, Diptera) of spruce forest. Folia Facultatis Scientiarum Naturalium Universitatis Purkynianp Brunensis, Biologia, 23(7):61-64

Kumar A; Kapoor VC; Mahal MS, 1988. Population build-up and dispersion of immature stages of aphidophagous syrphids (Syrphidae; Diptera) on raya, brassicae juncea Coss. Journal of Insect Science, 1(1):39-48

Kumar A; Kapoor VC; Mahal MS, 1989. Pupal population of aphidophagous syrphids and their hyperparasitism on Brassica juncea Coss. Journal of Insect Science, 2(2):114-118

Kusigemati K, 1983. Two new species of Ethelurgus Foerster from Japan (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae). Memoirs of the Faculty of Agriculture, Kagoshima University, 19:109-114

Labanowski G; Soika G, 2010. Beneficial organisms associated with ornamental pests. (Organizmy pozyteczne zwiazane ze szkodnikami roslin ozdobnych.) Progress in Plant Protection, 50(4):2003-2007.

Lee PP; Hsu TC, 1979. Some additions to the aphid fauna of Taiwan. NTU [National Taiwan University] Phytopathologist and Entomologist, No. 6:23-37

Lotfalizadeh H, 2000. New record of aphidophagous syrphid flies parasitoids (Dip.: Syrphidae) from Iran. Applied Entomology and Phytopathology, 67(1&2):En25.

Lu ZQ; Lin GL; Chen LF; Zhu ZL; Zhu SD, 1986. A study on the natural enemies of aphids on vegetable crops and their control. Natural Enemies of Insects, 8(2):63-71; [7 fig.]; 7 ref.

Luciano P; Delrio G; Cubeddu M; Cabitza F, 1989. Preliminary notes on lettuce aphids and their control in Sardinia. Difesa delle Piante, 12(1-2):89-96

Lugovitsyna AA; Potemkina VI, 1983. Effectiveness of natural enemies of aphids in cucumber and soyabean fields in the Maritime Territory. Biotsenoticheskoe obosnovanie kriteriev effektivnosti prirodnykh entomofagov [edited by Novozhilov, K.V.] Leningrad, USSR; Vsesoyuznaya Akademiya Sel'skokhozyaistvennykh Nauk im. V.I. Lenina, 66-70

Ma ZS; Li BL; Tang YS; Yang WY, 1985. Studies on hover flies in Han Dan area (Hebei Province). Natural Enemies of Insects, 7(3):155-158

MacLeod A, 1999. Attraction and retention of Episyrphus balteatus DeGeer (Diptera: Syrphidae) at an arable field margin with rich and poor floral resources. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 73(3):237-244; 18 ref.

Marboutie G, 1976. First results of attempts at biological control in peach and apple orchards. Revue de Zoologie Agricole et de Pathologie Vegetale, 75(1):23-30

Marriott CG; Holloway GJ, 1998. Colour pattern plasticity in the hoverfly, Episyrphus balteatus: the critical immature stage and reaction norm on developmental temperature. Journal of Insect Physiology, 44(2):113-119; 31 ref.

Mateeva A; Vassileva M; Gueorguieva T, 2001. Side effects of some pesticides on aphid specific predators in winter wheat. Bulletin OILB/SROP, 24(6):139-142; 13 ref.

Minarro M; Dapena E, 2001. Predators of the rosy apple aphid, Dysaphis plantaginea (Pass.), in Asturian (NW Spain) apple orchards. Bulletin OILB/SROP, 24(5):241-245; 14 ref.

Mizuno M; Itioka T; Tatematsu Y; Itô Y, 1997. Food utilization of aphidophagous hoverfly larvae (Diptera: Syrphidae, Chamaemyiidae) on herbaceous plants in an urban habitat. Ecological Research, 12(3):239-248; 33 ref.

Morimoto M; Shibao H, 1993. Predators of the bamboo aphid Pseudoregma bambucicola (Homoptera: Pemphigidae) in Kagoshima, Southern Japan. Applied Entomology and Zoology, 28(2):246-248

Nachtigall W, 1983. Velocity, advance ratio and start acceleration in the very rapid bursts of flight of the hoverfly Epistrophe balteata between phases of hovering flight. Zoologische Jahrbucher, Abteilung fur Anatomie und Ontogenie der Tiere, 110(3):287-291

Natskova V, 1985. The effect of basic ecological factors on the feeding capacities of some predators of aphids during their larval period. Ekologiya, Bulgaria, 15:35-42

Ngamo Tinkeu LS; Hance T, 2001. Faunistic diversity of Syrphidae (Insecta Diptera) in cereals in the Brabant Wallon in Belgium. Bulletin de la Socie^acute~te^acute~ Royale Belge d'Entomologie, 137(1/6):16-19; 13 ref.

Paik JongCheol, 1994. Hymenopteran parasitoids of Korea (2) Dendrocerus (Cerophronoidea, Megaspilidae). Korean Journal of Entomology, 24(3):225-228

Pashchenko IN; Makhinya PV; Doroshchyuk EM, 1984. Integrated protection of tobacco. Zashchita Rasteni, No. 8:17-18

Patnaik NC; Satpathy JM; Bhagat KC, 1977. Note on the occurrence of aphidophagous insect predators in Puri district (Orissa) and their predation on the sorghum aphid, Longiunguis sacchari (Zhnt.). Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 47(11):585-586

Polgar L, 1984. Some new records of parasites, predators and hyperparasites of aphids and a leaf-miner fly (Cerodonta incisa Meig.) living in maize ecosystems in Hungary. Folia Entomologica Hungarica, 45(1):191-193

Rabasse JM; Ben Hamouda MH, 1994. The aphids of citrus fruits and their natural enemies in Tunisia. Tropicultura, 12(4):145-147.

Radhakrishnan B; Muraleedharan N, 1993. Bio-ecology of six species of syrphid predators of the tea aphid, Toxoptera aurantii (Boyer de Fonscolombe) in southern India. Entomon, 18(3;4):175-180

Remaudiere G; Leclant F, 1971. The complex of natural enemies of peach aphids in the Middle Rhone Valley. Entomophaga, 16(3):255-267

Rotheray GE, 1989. Aphid predators. Naturalists' Handbook 7. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Rotheray GE, 1993. Colour guide to hoverfly larvae (Diptera, Syrphidae) in Britain and Europe. Dipterists Digest, 9:1-156.

Rotheray GE; Gilbert FS, 1989. The phylogeny and systematics of European predacious Syrphidae (Diptera) based on larval and puparial stages. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 95:29-70.

Roy P; Basu SK, 1977. Bionomics of aphidophagous syrphid flies. Indian Journal of Entomology, 39(2):165-174

Sadeghi H; Gilbert F, 2000. Oviposition preferences of aphidophagous hoverflies. Ecological Entomology, 25(1):91-100; 60 ref.

Salveter R, 1998. Habitat use by adult syrphids (Diptera: Syrphidae) in a distinctly divided agricultural landscape. Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft, 71(1/2):49-71; 53 ref.

Schneider F, 1969. Bionomics and physiology of aphidophagous Syrphidae. Annual Review of Entomology, 14:103-124.

Scholz D; Poehling HM, 2000. Oviposition site selection of Episyrphus balteatus. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 94(2):149-158; 34 ref.

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