Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Epilachna varivestis
(bean ladybeetle)

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Datasheet

Epilachna varivestis (bean ladybeetle)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 17 November 2021
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Vector of Plant Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Epilachna varivestis
  • Preferred Common Name
  • bean ladybeetle
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Egg cluster of E. varivestis on the underside of Phaseolus sp. leaf. The eggs are dull pale yellow or orange, elliptical in shape, 1.25 mm long and 0.6 mm wide.
TitleEggs
CaptionEgg cluster of E. varivestis on the underside of Phaseolus sp. leaf. The eggs are dull pale yellow or orange, elliptical in shape, 1.25 mm long and 0.6 mm wide.
CopyrightCIAT
Egg cluster of E. varivestis on the underside of Phaseolus sp. leaf. The eggs are dull pale yellow or orange, elliptical in shape, 1.25 mm long and 0.6 mm wide.
EggsEgg cluster of E. varivestis on the underside of Phaseolus sp. leaf. The eggs are dull pale yellow or orange, elliptical in shape, 1.25 mm long and 0.6 mm wide.CIAT
The larva of E. varivestis is a typical ladybird larva, elongate elliptical with moderately long legs, well developed head and mandibles. Yellow in colour, body covered with long branched processes (scoli) bearing spines.
TitleLarva
CaptionThe larva of E. varivestis is a typical ladybird larva, elongate elliptical with moderately long legs, well developed head and mandibles. Yellow in colour, body covered with long branched processes (scoli) bearing spines.
CopyrightEnt. Soc. Am./CABI BioScience
The larva of E. varivestis is a typical ladybird larva, elongate elliptical with moderately long legs, well developed head and mandibles. Yellow in colour, body covered with long branched processes (scoli) bearing spines.
LarvaThe larva of E. varivestis is a typical ladybird larva, elongate elliptical with moderately long legs, well developed head and mandibles. Yellow in colour, body covered with long branched processes (scoli) bearing spines.Ent. Soc. Am./CABI BioScience
E. varivestis adults are 6.5-8 mm long. Typical ladybird shape, convex dorsally, flattened ventrally, head partly hidden beneath pronotum, legs and antennae relatively short.
TitleAdult
CaptionE. varivestis adults are 6.5-8 mm long. Typical ladybird shape, convex dorsally, flattened ventrally, head partly hidden beneath pronotum, legs and antennae relatively short.
CopyrightEnt. Soc. Am./CABI BioScience
E. varivestis adults are 6.5-8 mm long. Typical ladybird shape, convex dorsally, flattened ventrally, head partly hidden beneath pronotum, legs and antennae relatively short.
AdultE. varivestis adults are 6.5-8 mm long. Typical ladybird shape, convex dorsally, flattened ventrally, head partly hidden beneath pronotum, legs and antennae relatively short. Ent. Soc. Am./CABI BioScience
Adult and larva of E. varivestis on the underside of Phaseolus sp. leaf.
TitleAdult and larva
CaptionAdult and larva of E. varivestis on the underside of Phaseolus sp. leaf.
CopyrightCIAT
Adult and larva of E. varivestis on the underside of Phaseolus sp. leaf.
Adult and larvaAdult and larva of E. varivestis on the underside of Phaseolus sp. leaf.CIAT
Adult ladybird beetle of E. varivestis on the underside of Phaseolus sp. leaf.
TitleAdult
CaptionAdult ladybird beetle of E. varivestis on the underside of Phaseolus sp. leaf.
CopyrightCIAT
Adult ladybird beetle of E. varivestis on the underside of Phaseolus sp. leaf.
AdultAdult ladybird beetle of E. varivestis on the underside of Phaseolus sp. leaf.CIAT

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Epilachna varivestis Mulsant, 1850

Preferred Common Name

  • bean ladybeetle

Other Scientific Names

  • Epilachna corrupta Mulsant, 1850
  • Epilachna maculiventris Bland, 1864

International Common Names

  • English: bean ladybird; mexican bean beetle
  • Spanish: conchuela del frijol; escarabajo mexicana del frijol; tortuguilla del frijol
  • French: coccinelle mexicaine des haricots

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Käfer, Mexikanischer Bohnen-

EPPO code

  • EPILCO (Epilachna corrupta)
  • EPILVA (Epilachna varivestis)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Coleoptera
  •                         Family: Coccinellidae
  •                             Genus: Epilachna
  •                                 Species: Epilachna varivestis

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 12 May 2022
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Asia

Japan
-HonshuPresent, Localized

North America

CanadaPresent, Localized
-New BrunswickPresent, Localized
-OntarioPresent, Localized
-QuebecPresent, Localized
Costa RicaPresent, Widespread
El SalvadorPresent, Localized
GuatemalaPresent, Widespread
HondurasPresent, Localized
MexicoPresent, Widespread
NicaraguaAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)
United States
-AlabamaPresent, Widespread
-ArizonaPresent, Widespread
-ArkansasPresent, Localized
-CaliforniaAbsent, Eradicated
-ColoradoPresent, Widespread
-ConnecticutPresent, Widespread
-DelawarePresent, Widespread
-District of ColumbiaPresent
-FloridaPresent, Localized
-GeorgiaPresent, Widespread
-IdahoPresent, Localized
-IllinoisPresent, Localized
-IndianaPresent, Widespread
-IowaPresent, Few occurrences
-KentuckyPresent, Widespread
-LouisianaPresent, Localized
-MainePresent, Localized
-MarylandPresent, Widespread
-MassachusettsPresent, Localized
-MichiganPresent, Localized
-MinnesotaPresent, Few occurrences
-MississippiPresent, Localized
-MissouriPresent, Localized
-NebraskaPresent, Localized
-NevadaPresent
-New HampshirePresent, Localized
-New JerseyPresent, Localized
-New MexicoPresent, Widespread
-New YorkPresent, Widespread
-North CarolinaPresent, Widespread
-OhioPresent, Widespread
-PennsylvaniaPresent, Widespread
-Rhode IslandPresent
-South CarolinaPresent, Widespread
-South DakotaAbsent, Formerly present
-TennesseePresent, Widespread
-TexasPresent, Localized
-UtahPresent, Localized
-VermontPresent, Localized
-VirginiaPresent, Widespread
-West VirginiaPresent, Widespread
-WyomingPresent, Localized

South America

ColombiaPresent

Growth Stages

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Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / external feeding
Inflorescence / external feeding
Leaves / external feeding
Leaves / webbing

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Bacillus thuringiensis thuringiensis Pathogen
Coccipolipus epilachnae Parasite
Coleomegilla maculata Predator
Cycloneda sanguinea Predator
Geocoris punctipes Predator
Hippodamia convergens Predator Eggs
Lydinolydella metallica Parasite Arthropods|Larvae USA peas
Lydinolydella rasilis Parasite Arthropods|Larvae USA peas
Nabis americoferus Predator
Nabis capsiformis Predator
Nabis roseipennis Predator
Nosema epilachnae Pathogen
Nosema varivestis Pathogen
Oplomus severus Predator Adults; Arthropods|Larvae; Arthropods|Pupae
Orius insidiosus Predator
Pachydiplax longipennis Predator
Pediobius foveolatus Parasite Eggs Delaware; District of Columbia; Fiji; Indiana; Maryland; Mexico; USA peas; vegetables
Podisus maculiventris Predator USA; USA; Indiana Phaseolus vulgaris; soyabeans
Rickettsia-like organisms Pathogen
Stiretrus anchorago Predator

References

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APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Technical Document No. 135. Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA)

Armitage HM, 1956. Successful eradication of the Mexican bean beetle in California. Bulletin California Department of Agriculture, 45:238-248

Auclair JL, 1960. Life-history, effects of temperature and relative humidity, and distribution of the Mexican bean beetle, Epilachna varivestis Mulsant, (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in Quebec, with a review of the pertinent literature in North America. Annals of the Entomological Society of Quebec, 5:18-43

CABI, EPPO, 1998. Epilachna varivestis. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Pests , (December (1st revision)) Wallingford, UK: CAB International.Map 46.

Chittenden FH, Marsh HO, 1920. The bean ladybird. Bulletin United States Department of Agriculture no. 843

Clausen CP, 1978. Introduced Parasites and Predators of Arthropod Pests and Weeds: a World Review. Agricultural Handbook No. 480. Washington DC, USA: Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture

Crotch GR, 1874. A revision of the coleopterous family Coccinellidae. London, UK: EW Janson

Elden TC, 1982. Evaluation of systemic insecticide applications for control of Mexican bean beetle on soybeans in Maryland. Journal of the Georgia Entomological Society, 17(1):54-59

Endress, A. G., Post, S. L., 1985. Altered feeding preference of Mexican bean beetle Epilachna varivestis for ozonated soybean foliage. Environmental Pollution, A (Ecological and Biological), 39(1), 9-16.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Fan YQ, Groden E, Drummond FA, 1992. Temperature-dependent development of Mexican bean beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) under constant and variable temperatures. Journal of Economic Entomology, 85(5):1762-1770

Gordon RD, 1975. A revision of the Epilachninae of the Western Hemisphere (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Technical Bulletin, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, No. 1493:[2 +]409 pp

Gordon RD, 1985. The Coccinellidae (Coleoptera) of America north of Mexico. Journal of the New York Entomological Society, 93

Howard NF, English LL, 1924. Studies of the Mexican bean beetle in the southeast. Department Bulletin United States Department of Agriculture no. 1243

Kapur AP, 1950. The biology and external morphology of the larvae of Epilachninae (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae). Bulletin of Entomological Research, 41:161-208

Kraemer ME, Mebrahtu T, Rangappa M, 1994. Evaluation of vegetable soybean genotypes for resistance to Mexican bean beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 87(1):252-257

Maes JM, 1991. El genero Epilachna (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) en Nicaragua. Revista Nicaraguense de Entomologia 16:35-48

Nakamura, H., Shiratori, S., 2010. The progress of invasion of insect pest, the Mexican been beetle, Epilachna varivestis in Nagano Prefecture. Journal of the Faculty of Agriculture, Shinshu University, 46(1/2), 105-111.

Nong L, Bennett FD, 1994. Biological control of the Mexican bean beetle [Epilachna varivestis]. Pest management in the subtropics: biological control - a Florida perspective [edited by Rosen, D.; Bennett, F. D.; Capinera, J. L. (Editors)] Andover, UK; Intercept Limited, 115-122

Ocampo-Hernández, J. A., Tamez-Guerra, P., Pineda, S., Tamayo-Mejía, F., Guzmán-Franco, A., Figueroa de la Rosa, J. I., Martínez, A. M., 2011. Susceptibility of the Mexican bean beetle Epilachna varivestis Mulsant (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) to endemic isolates of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae). Journal of Pest Science, 84(4), 471-477. doi: 10.1007/s10340-011-0369-y

O'Neil, R. J., 1988. Predation by Podisus maculiventris (Say) on Mexican bean beetle, Epilachna varivestis Mulsant, in Indiana soyabeans. Canadian Entomologist, 120(2), 161-166.

Schpfer PW, 1983. Natural enemies and host plants of species in the Epilachninp (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) a world list. Bulletin, Agricultural Experiment Station, University of Delaware, No. 445:42 pp

Shirai, Y., Yara, K., 2001. Potential distribution area of the Mexican bean beetle, Epilachna varivestis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in Japan, estimated from its high-temperature tolerance. Applied Entomology and Zoology, 36(4), 409-417. doi: 10.1303/aez.2001.409

Turchin, P., 1988. The effect of host-plant density on the numbers of mexican bean beetles, Epilachna varivestis. American Midland Naturalist, 119(1), 15-20. doi: 10.2307/2426049

White WH, 1941. The Mexican bean beetle. Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution, 1940:343-356

Distribution References

Auclair JL, 1960. Life-history, effects of temperature and relative humidity, and distribution of the Mexican bean beetle, Epilachna varivestis Mulsant, (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in Quebec, with a review of the pertinent literature in North America. In: Annals of the Entomological Society of Quebec, 5 18-43.

CABI, EPPO, 1998. Epilachna varivestis. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Map 46. DOI:10.1079/DMPP/20066600046

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

EPPO, 2022. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO. 1 pp. https://gd.eppo.int/

Nakamura H, Shiratori S, 2010. The progress of invasion of insect pest, the Mexican been beetle, Epilachna varivestis in Nagano Prefecture. Journal of the Faculty of Agriculture, Shinshu University. 46 (1/2), 105-111.

Ocampo-Hernández J A, Tamez-Guerra P, Pineda S, Tamayo-Mejía F, Guzmán-Franco A, Figueroa de la Rosa J I, Martínez A M, 2011. Susceptibility of the Mexican bean beetle Epilachna varivestis Mulsant (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) to endemic isolates of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae). Journal of Pest Science. 84 (4), 471-477. DOI:10.1007/s10340-011-0369-y

O'Neil R J, 1988. Predation by Podisus maculiventris (Say) on Mexican bean beetle, Epilachna varivestis Mulsant, in Indiana soyabeans. Canadian Entomologist. 120 (2), 161-166.

Sanchez-Arroyo H, 2012. Mexican Bean Beetle (suggested common name), Epilachna varivestis Mulsant (Insecta: Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)., USA: University of Florida. https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/IN/IN14100.pdf

Seebens H, Blackburn T M, Dyer E E, Genovesi P, Hulme P E, Jeschke J M, Pagad S, Pyšek P, Winter M, Arianoutsou M, Bacher S, Blasius B, Brundu G, Capinha C, Celesti-Grapow L, Dawson W, Dullinger S, Fuentes N, Jäger H, Kartesz J, Kenis M, Kreft H, Kühn I, Lenzner B, Liebhold A, Mosena A (et al), 2017. No saturation in the accumulation of alien species worldwide. Nature Communications. 8 (2), 14435. http://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms14435

Shirai Y, Yara K, 2001. Potential distribution area of the Mexican bean beetle, Epilachna varivestis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in Japan, estimated from its high-temperature tolerance. Applied Entomology and Zoology. 36 (4), 409-417. DOI:10.1303/aez.2001.409

Turchin P, 1988. The effect of host-plant density on the numbers of mexican bean beetles, Epilachna varivestis. American Midland Naturalist. 119 (1), 15-20. DOI:10.2307/2426049

White W H, 1941. Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution, 1940. 343-356.

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