Invasive Species Compendium

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Euphorbia hirta
(garden spurge)

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Datasheet

Euphorbia hirta (garden spurge)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 28 March 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Euphorbia hirta
  • Preferred Common Name
  • garden spurge
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Euphorbia hirta (garden spurge); flowering shoot.
TitleFlowering shoot
CaptionEuphorbia hirta (garden spurge); flowering shoot.
Copyright©Chris Parker/Bristol, UK
Euphorbia hirta (garden spurge); flowering shoot.
Flowering shootEuphorbia hirta (garden spurge); flowering shoot.©Chris Parker/Bristol, UK
Euphorbia hirta (garden spurge); leaves. Bangalore, India.
TitleLeaves
CaptionEuphorbia hirta (garden spurge); leaves. Bangalore, India.
Copyright©Matthew Cock
Euphorbia hirta (garden spurge); leaves. Bangalore, India.
LeavesEuphorbia hirta (garden spurge); leaves. Bangalore, India.©Matthew Cock
Euphorbia hirta (garden spurge); habit. A dense stand, an early colonizer of bare ground, growing beside a road. Note the purple-blotched leaves, a unique feature of this weed.
TitleHabit
CaptionEuphorbia hirta (garden spurge); habit. A dense stand, an early colonizer of bare ground, growing beside a road. Note the purple-blotched leaves, a unique feature of this weed.
Copyright©Keith Moody
Euphorbia hirta (garden spurge); habit. A dense stand, an early colonizer of bare ground, growing beside a road. Note the purple-blotched leaves, a unique feature of this weed.
HabitEuphorbia hirta (garden spurge); habit. A dense stand, an early colonizer of bare ground, growing beside a road. Note the purple-blotched leaves, a unique feature of this weed.©Keith Moody
Euphorbia hirta (garden spurge); habit. A dense stand, an early colonizer of bare ground, growing beside a road.
TitleHabit
CaptionEuphorbia hirta (garden spurge); habit. A dense stand, an early colonizer of bare ground, growing beside a road.
Copyright©Keith Moody
Euphorbia hirta (garden spurge); habit. A dense stand, an early colonizer of bare ground, growing beside a road.
HabitEuphorbia hirta (garden spurge); habit. A dense stand, an early colonizer of bare ground, growing beside a road.©Keith Moody

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Euphorbia hirta L.

Preferred Common Name

  • garden spurge

Other Scientific Names

  • Chamaesyce hirta (L.) Millsp.
  • Euphorbia capitata Lam.
  • Euphorbia globulifera H.B.K.
  • Euphorbia modiflora Steud.
  • Euphorbia obliterata Jacq.
  • Euphorbia pilulifera L.
  • Euphorbia pilulifera var. hirta (L.) Thell.
  • Euphorbia verticillata Vell.

International Common Names

  • English: asthmaweed; blotched-leaf spurge; hairy spurge; milkweed; red euphorbia
  • Spanish: golondrina; hierba de la golondrina
  • French: euphorbe poilue
  • Portuguese: erva-de-Santa-Luzia

Local Common Names

  • Bangladesh: bara dudhia
  • Cambodia: tuk das khla thom
  • Colombia: pimpinela
  • Ecuador: mal casada
  • Guatemala: sabana de la virgen
  • India: baridhudi; chitakuti; dhuli; dudhani
  • Indonesia: gelang susu; gendong ancok; kukon-kakon; nanangkaan; patikan jawa; patikan kebo
  • Japan: shima-nishikiso; Taiwan-nishikiso
  • Malaysia: ara tanah
  • Mauritius: Jean Roberts
  • Myanmar: mayo
  • Nigeria: buje
  • Philippines: botobotonis; gatas-gatas; luha ng birhen; maragatas; pansi-pansi; soro-soro; tawa-tawa
  • Samoa: apulupulu; la'au fai moti
  • South Africa: rooi euphorbia
  • Suriname: mirki-tite
  • Taiwan: ru-tzu-tsau
  • Thailand: nam nom raaychasee
  • Tonga: sakisi
  • Uganda: aksasandasanda
  • USA/Hawaii: koko kahiki
  • Vietnam: co sua long

EPPO code

  • EPHHI (Euphorbia hirta)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Euphorbiales
  •                         Family: Euphorbiaceae
  •                             Genus: Euphorbia
  •                                 Species: Euphorbia hirta

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page The genus Euphorbia was named after Euphorbus, physician to King Juba of Muritania, an ancient country of northern Africa. The specific name, hirta, has reference to the peculiar hairy condition of the plant (Pope, 1968).

Description

Top of page A creeping to ascending, densely hairy, little-branched annual herb, 15-50 cm tall. Stems semi-erect, several arising from a central tap root, reddish or purplish, with yellow hairs and milky sap. A short-lived weed that germinates and flowers throughout the year and fruits in less than a month.

Leaves opposite, 1-4 cm long, 1-1.5 cm wide, oblong-lanceolate, with a pointed tip and a finely toothed margin, often reddish, often purple-blotched on the upper surface, underside hairy, base rounded and unequal; petiole very short; nerves distinct. Stipules small, linear.

Inflorescence dense, globular clusters, 5-10 mm across, of numerous, minute, greenish or pinkish, shortly-stalked flowers without petals arising from the axils of the leaves; peduncles reddish brown.

Fruit yellowish, hairy, 3-lobed capsule, 1.25-2 x 1.5 mm, splitting into three 1-seeded segments; central column persistent. Produces up to 3000 seeds per plant.

Seed very small, oblong (0.57-0.70 mm long, 0.065 mg/seed - Noda et al., 1984), reddish-brown, initially smooth, later slightly transversely wrinkled.

Seedling: hypocotyl 3.5-7 mm long, smooth, green to red; cotyledons 2; small, petiole about 0.5 mm long, smooth, reddish; blade broadly elliptical, 2.5 x 2.1-2.3 mm, smooth, lower surface purple, base obtuse, margin entire, red, apex truncate to shallowly emarginate; epicotyl, about 0.5 mm long, sparsely appressed, hairy.

First leaves opposite, in pairs; petiole about 0.5 mm long, sparsely hairy with 2 basal stipules; blade obovate, 2.5-3.8 x 1.8-2.3 mm, sparsely hairy, lower surface purple, midnerve distinct, base obtuse, margin entire, bristly, apex apiculate; main shoot grows off to one side (Soerjani et al., 1987).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

BangladeshPresentHolm et al., 1979
BhutanPresentParker, 1992
CambodiaPresentHolm et al., 1979; Waterhouse, 1993
ChinaPresentHolm et al., 1979
-FujianPresentWang et al., 1990
-GuangdongPresentWang et al., 1990
-GuangxiPresentWang et al., 1990
-JiangxiPresentWang et al., 1990
-YunnanPresentWang et al., 1990
IndiaPresentHolm et al., 1979
-BiharPresentShadiza, 1993
-GujaratPresentBarman and Mehta, 1989
-HaryanaPresentKalyan et al., 1994
-Himachal PradeshPresentGautam and Chauhan, 1984
-Indian PunjabPresentJosan et al., 1993
-KeralaPresentSulochana et al., 1982
-Madhya PradeshPresentSingh and Singh, 1988
-OdishaPresentShadiza, 1993
-Tamil NaduPresentJeyarajan et al., 1988
-Uttar PradeshPresentSingh et al., 1994
-West BengalPresentMukhopadhyay and Duary, 1995
IndonesiaPresentHolm et al., 1979; Waterhouse, 1993
-KalimantanPresentHolm et al., 1979
JapanPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-HonshuPresentOhwi, 1965
-KyushuPresentOhwi, 1965
-Ryukyu ArchipelagoPresentOhwi, 1965
-ShikokuPresentOhwi, 1965
KuwaitPresentHolm et al., 1979
LaosPresentMoody, 1989; Waterhouse, 1993
MalaysiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentHolm et al., 1979
-SabahPresentHolm et al., 1979
-SarawakPresentHolm et al., 1979
MyanmarPresentHolm et al., 1979; Waterhouse, 1993
NepalPresentMoody, 1989
OmanPresentHolm et al., 1979
PakistanPresentHolm et al., 1979
PhilippinesPresentHolm et al., 1979; Waterhouse, 1993
QatarPresentHolm et al., 1979
Saudi ArabiaPresentHolm et al., 1979
SingaporePresentWaterhouse, 1993
Sri LankaPresentHolm et al., 1979
TaiwanPresentHolm et al., 1979
ThailandPresentHolm et al., 1979; Waterhouse, 1993
United Arab EmiratesPresentHolm et al., 1979
VietnamPresentHolm et al., 1979; Waterhouse, 1993
YemenPresentHolm et al., 1979

Africa

AngolaPresentHolm et al., 1979
CameroonPresentHutchinson & Dalziel, 1958
Côte d'IvoirePresentHolm et al., 1979
EgyptPresentHolm et al., 1979
EthiopiaPresentHolm et al., 1979
GhanaPresentHolm et al., 1979
GuineaPresentHutchinson & Dalziel, 1958
KenyaPresentHolm et al., 1979
LiberiaPresentHutchinson & Dalziel, 1958
MadagascarPresentRandriamampianina, 1984
MaliPresentHutchinson & Dalziel, 1958
MauritiusPresentHolm et al., 1979
MozambiquePresentHolm et al., 1979
NigeriaPresentHolm et al., 1979
SenegalPresentDeuse, 1976
Sierra LeonePresentHutchinson & Dalziel, 1958
South AfricaPresentHolm et al., 1979
SudanPresentHolm et al., 1979
TanzaniaPresentHolm et al., 1979
TogoPresentHutchinson & Dalziel, 1958
UgandaPresentHolm et al., 1979
ZambiaPresentVernon, 1983
ZimbabwePresentHolm et al., 1979

North America

MexicoPresentHolm et al., 1979
USAPresentHolm et al., 1979
-FloridaPresentLocascio and Stall, 1983
-HawaiiPresentHolm et al., 1979
-LouisianaPresentHolcomb et al., 1989

Central America and Caribbean

Dominican RepublicPresentHolm et al., 1979
El SalvadorPresentHolm et al., 1979
GuatemalaPresentHolm et al., 1979
HondurasPresentHolm et al., 1979
JamaicaPresentHolm et al., 1979
Lesser AntillesPresentHolm et al., 1979
Trinidad and TobagoPresentHolm et al., 1979

South America

ArgentinaPresentHolm et al., 1979
BrazilPresentHolm et al., 1979
-AlagoasPresent
-AmazonasPresent
-BahiaPresent
-CearaPresent
-Espirito SantoPresent
-Fernando de NoronhaPresent
-GoiasPresent
-MaranhaoPresent
-Mato Grosso do SulPresent
-Minas GeraisPresent
-ParaPresent
-ParaibaPresent
-ParanaPresent
-PernambucoPresent
-PiauiPresent
-Rio de JaneiroPresent
-Rio Grande do NortePresent
-Rio Grande do SulPresent
-Santa CatarinaPresent
-Sao PauloPresent
-SergipePresent
ColombiaPresentHolm et al., 1979
EcuadorPresentHolm et al., 1979
PeruPresentHolm et al., 1979
SurinamePresentHolm et al., 1979
VenezuelaPresentHolm et al., 1979

Europe

Russian FederationPresentHolm et al., 1979

Oceania

AustraliaPresentHolm et al., 1979
-Australian Northern TerritoryPresentCowie and Werner, 1993
FijiPresentHolm et al., 1979
French PolynesiaPresentFlorence et al., 1983
Papua New GuineaPresentHolm et al., 1979
SamoaPresentSauerborn and Sauerborn, 1984

Habitat

Top of page E. hirta is a native of tropical America, now widespread at low altitudes throughout the tropics and subtropics. It is the most common and ubiquitous of the Euphorbiaceae (Merrill, 1981). It prefers sunny to lightly shaded dry conditions, and is an early colonizer of bare ground. E. hirta is a weed of cultivated fields, perennial crops, grasslands, roadsides, gardens, lawns, fallow lands, ditch banks and waste places.

Biology and Ecology

Top of page E. hirta is propagated by seed, and is a C4 species.

The lower temperature limit required for germination of E. hirta is 10-20°C. The maximum temperature is 40°C. Optimum germination temperature is 15-40°C. It requires light for germination, and is unable to germinate when buried below the soil surface. Germination decreases with decreasing osmotic potential. Seeds of E. hirta are unable to germinate at -10.3 bar (Sauerborn et al., 1988).

Veeranjaneyulu and Das (1984) observed purple pigmentation in dicotyledonous weed species, including E. hirta, subjected to high solar radiation and water stress; these pigments were anthocyanins and betalains. The intensity of purple pigmentation was higher in C4 than in C3 species. Pigment intensity and soil moisture content were inversely related.

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Haplothrips euphorbiae Herbivore

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page Jeritta and David (1986) reported that Haplothrips euphorbiae was specific to E. hirta.

E. hirta is an alternative host of the root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne incognita (Valdez, 1968), M. graminicola (Rao et al., 1970) and M. javanica (Dahiya et al., 1988); Hoplolaimus indicus; Tylenchorhynchus claytoni (Satyanarayana Prasad et al., 1980); the reniform nematode Rotylenchulus reniformis (Linford and Yap, 1940); the burrowing nematode Radopholus similis (Martin et al., 1969); and the root-lesion nematode Pratylenchus indicus [P. zeae] (Prasad and Rao, 1986). It is a host of two vectors of groundnut rosette disease (Adams, 1967) and of the rust Aecidium tithymali (Puckdeedindan, 1966).

It is an alternative host of the lygaeid Spilostethus hospes which feeds on the seeds of aubergines and tomatoes (Sanjayan, 1993); painted bug Bagrada cruciferaum [B. hilaris], an insect pest of rape and Indian mustard (Singh and Malik, 1993); Aphis craccivora, the vector of rosette disease of groundnuts in Uganda (Davies, 1972) and Nigeria (Ofuya, 1988); the grasshopper Chrotogonus trachypterus which feeds mainly on grasses but damages a wide variety of plants (Chandra et al., 1983); the taro planthopper Tarophagus proserpina (Duatin and Pedro, 1986); and Aphis gossypii and the pseudococcid Ferrisia virgata, a pest of fruit trees (Jeritta and David, 1986).

It is also an alternative host of the girdle beetle Oberea [Obereopsis] brevis (Shrivastava et al., 1989) and of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, a polyphagous insect, which transmits a number of plant viruses including tomato yellow leaf curl bigeminivirus, tapioca mosaic, urd bean yellow mosaic and hibiscus yellow mosaic tobamovirus (Jeyarajan et al., 1988). It is a food plant for larvae of Amsacta moorei which feed on newly emerged sorghum and castor bean plants (Agarwal et al., 1989).

According to Chen et al. (1972), temporary survival of fourth- and fifth-instar nymphs of the leafhopper Matsumuratettix hiroglyphicus is possible on E. hirta. It can complete its development only on sugarcane or Saccharum spontaneum.

Amphobotrys ricini was isolated from blighted leaves of cultivated poinsettia and E. hirta in Louisiana, USA (Holcomb et al., 1989). It is an alternative host of Cylindrocladium quinqueseptatum [Calonectria quinqueseptata] (Sulochana et al., 1982). It is also partially susceptible to Phytophthora palmivora which causes foot rot of black pepper (Department of Agriculture Sarawak, 1979). It is a collateral host of Erysiphe polygoni [E. betae], the causal agent of powdery mildew of mungbean (Kunkaliker et al., 1994) and a host of rice sheath blight Rhizoctonia solani [Thanatephorus cucumeris] (Kardin et al., 1977).

Impact

Top of page E. hirta is a weed of relatively minor importance because of its low stature (Soerjani et al., 1987). It is a weed of bananas in India and Taiwan; beans in USA (Florida); black gram (Vigna mungo) in India; cassava in Cambodia, Ghana, Laos, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, Venezuela and Vietnam; cacao in Ecuador; citrus in India and Trinidad; cotton in El Salvador, Kenya, Mozambique, Sudan, Thailand and Venezuela; coconuts in French Polynesia and the Philippines; coffee in Thailand; custard apples in India; date orchards in India; elephant foot yams (Amorphophallus campanulatus) in India; grapes in India; groundnuts in Ghana, India, Indonesia, Nigeria, Philippines, Trinidad, Uganda and the USA (Hawaii); guava in India; litchi in Thailand; intercrops (pigeon peas + soyabeans; groundnuts + sunflower) in India; jute in India; macadamia nuts in Thailand; lawns in Philippines, USA (Hawaii) and Zambia; maize in Cambodia, El Salvador, Ghana, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Mexico, Nigeria, Philippines, Taiwan, Thailand, USA (Hawaii) and Vietnam; mangoes in India; mungbeans in Philippines and Thailand; onions in Philippines and Western Samoa; ornamental plants/flowers in Australia, India, Philippines, Thailand and the USA (Hawaii); pawpaws in India, Indonesia and Philippines; peach in India; pears in Thailand; phalsa in India; pineapples in Philippines, Taiwan and the USA (Hawaii); pomegranates in India; potatoes in India; pulse crops in Bangladesh; rape in Taiwan; sorghum in Indonesia, Philippines and Thailand; soyabeans in India and the Philippines; sugarcane in Angola, Brazil, Cambodia, El Salvador, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Mauritius, Mexico, Peru, Philippines, South Africa, Taiwan, Thailand, Trinidad, USA (Hawaii) and Vietnam; sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea) in Bangladesh; tea in Sri Lanka and Taiwan; tobacco in Thailand; vegetables in Mexico, Thailand, Philippines and the USA (Hawaii); and wheat in India.

In South and South-East Asia, E. hirta has been reported as a weed of upland rice in India, Indonesia, Laos, Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam, of dry-seeded rice in India and the Philippines, of wet-seeded rice (sprouted seeds sown on puddled soil) in India and Vietnam, and of transplanted rice in Bangladesh, India and Indonesia (Moody, 1989). It is also a weed of rice seedling nurseries in Gujarat, India (Barman and Mehta, 1989).

Dharmaraj et al. (1988) reported that root and shoot leachates of E. hirta reduced germination and seedling vigour of sorghum cv. TNS 30.

E. hirta is also an alternative host of a number of nematode and arthropod pests (see Natural Enemies). It is an important source of food for adults of Lixophaga sphenophori, a tachinid parasite of the New Guinea sugarcane weevil Rhabdoscelus obscurus (Leeper, 1972).

Aqueous extracts of E. hirta were inhibitory to conidial germination of Sarocladium oryzae, the causal agent of sheath rot of rice (Jeeva and Ramabadran, 1993), inhibited sporulation in Helminthosporium sp. (Kazmi and Trivedi, 1981) and inhibited aflatoxin production by Aspergillus parasiticus [A. flavus] on agricultural commodities, including rice, wheat, maize and groundnuts (Sinha and Singh, 1986). A leaf extract of E. hirta inhibited infection when mixed with crude preparations of tobacco mosaic, sunn-hemp rosette [sunn-hemp mosaic tobamovirus], Gomphrena mosaic [Gomphrena nucleorhabdovirus] or tobacco ringspot nepovirus and applied to leaves of several hypersensitive hosts, evidently by increasing host resistance (Verma and Awasthi, 1979). Yadav (1970) reported that a root exudate of E. hirta inhibited the hatching of Meloidogyne incognita eggs; only 4% of the larvae emerged. An aqueous extract of E. hirta totally inhibited hatching and inhibited egg development.

This plant is often available in large quantities in native drug stores. The whole plant is used as a sedative and to assist the breathing of asthmatics (Usher, 1974). Leaves and latex are used against intestinal diseases, ulcers and bronchitis; the latex is used against conjunctivitis (Soerjani et al., 1987). It is also used for ring worm and old wounds in West Bengal, India (Mukhopadhyay and Duary, 1995). It is used as a leafy vegetable in India. Shadiza (1993) observed significant differences in the mineral content of healthy leaves and leaves infected with unspecified pathogens.

Detection and Inspection

Top of page E. hirta is usually easy to recognize (Vernon, 1983). The peculiarly blotched leaves are interesting and unusual among weeds (Pope, 1968). It can be distinguished by its hairy stems, opposite leaves, tiny inconspicuous cyathia (a type of inflorescence) arranged in globose cymes and tiny three-lobed splitting fruits (Whistler, 1994).

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page E. heterophylla is larger than E. hirta and the flowers are at the top of the stem at the centre of a cluster of leaves (Vernon, 1983).

E. hirta is similar to E. hypericifolia (E. indica), which differs in being glabrous and having more conspicuous, mostly white or pink flowers (Whistler, 1994). Also, the internodes of E. hypericifolia are longer making the leaves further apart than in E. hirta (Cardenas et al., 1972).

E. hyssopifolia is a more erect-growing species with smooth, dehiscent fruits more than 1.6 mm long (Kranz et al., 1977).

E. prostrata, with blue-green leaves and stems, is common in fields and lawns but unimportant as an arable weed (Vernon, 1983). It is a creeping plant with very small leaves and dehiscent fruits 1-1.4 mm in diameter, with hairs along the edge of the fruit (Burch, 1966).

E. thymifolia is a smaller and more slender prostrate plant than E. hirta with many diverging branches. The leaves are small (much smaller than those of E. hirta), opposite and dark green in colour.

Prevention and Control

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Physical Control

It is easily controlled by hand or hoe (Parker, 1992) and by cultivation (Pope, 1968).

Soil solarization for 30 or 45 days using four thicknesses of polyethylene sheets (2.0, 2.5, 3.0 and 4.0 mm) gave 100% control of E. hirta (Nasr Esfahani, 1993).

Chemical Control

E. hirta is susceptible to oxadiazon (Nishimoto et al., 1980), oryzalin + fluometuron + metolachlor (Quinones, 1982), ethalfluralin + EPTC (Locascio and Stall, 1983), atrazine (Gautam and Chauhan, 1984), diuron, fluchloralin (Challa, 1984), ametryn, cyanazine, metribuzin, prometryn, simazine (Soerjani et al., 1987), moderately resistant to propanil, trifluralin (Madrid et al., 1972) and pendimethalin (Terry, 1983), and resistant to asulam (Terry, 1983). Contradictory results have been reported concerning its level of susceptibility to 2,4-D, metolachlor and atrazine, its level of resistance to trifluralin, and its control with paraquat (Madrid et al., 1972; Locascio and Stall, 1983; Terry, 1983) and glyphosate (Abad and San Juan, 1981; Terry, 1983). Ampong-Nyarko and de Datta (1991) indicate susceptibility to butralin and oxyfluorfen, only moderate susceptibility to 2,4-D, and relative resistance to fenoxaprop, thiobencarb and pendimethalin.

Other herbicides that have been reported to give effective control of weeds including E. hirta are butachlor (Barman and Mehta, 1989), oxyfluorfen (Rajamani et al., 1992), fluazifop-butyl (Singh et al., 1994), chlorimuron (Karmakar et al., 1994) and isoproturon + 2,4-D (Deshmukh et al., 1995).

References

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1979. Annual Report of the Research Branch, Department of Agriculture, Sarawak, for the year 1977. Annual Report of the Research Branch, Department of Agriculture, Sarawak, for the year 1977. Ministry of Agriculture and Community Development. Kuching Sarawak, 257 pp.

Abad RC; San Juan NC, 1981. Effect of different rates of glyphosate followed by paraquat on the weed population in coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) nurseries. Philippine Journal of Weed Science, 8:5-14

Adams A, 1967. The vectors and alternate hosts of groundnuts resette virus in Central Province, Malawi. Rhodesian, Zambian, Malawian Journal of Agricultural Research, 5(2):145-151.

Anon., 1992. Important crops of the world and their weeds, 2nd ed. Leverkusen, Germany: Bayer.

Barman J; Mehta HM, 1989. Herbicidal weed management in irrigated rice (Oryza sativa L. CV. GR-4) nursery. Gujarat Agricultural University Research Journal, 15(1):81-83

Barnes DE; Chandapillai MM, 1972. Common Malaysian Weeds and their Control. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Ansul (Malaysia) Sdn. Berhad.

Bhaumik SK; Sen H; Bhattacharya SP, 1988. Effect of herbicides and planting methods on the yield of elephant foot yam (Amorphophallus campanulatus Blume). Journal of Root Crops, 14(1):23-26

Bina Shadiza, 1993. Mineral content of certain non-cultivated leafy vegetables. Plant Physiology & Biochemistry (New Delhi), 20(2):93-95

Biswas DK, 1990. Performance of various herbicides with and without hoeing in controlling weeds in jute (Corchorus olitorius L.). Indian Journal of Weed Science, 22(1-2):15-19

Burch D, 1966. Two new species of Chamaesyce (Euphorbiaceae), new combinations and key to the Caribbean members of the genus. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 53:375-376.

Cardenas J; Reyes CE; Doll JD, 1972. Tropical weeds Vol. 1. Bogota, Colombia: Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario.

Challa P, 1984. Chemical weed control in mango root stock nursery. Tropical Pest Management, 30(4):466-467.

Chandra R; Mital VP, 1983. Consumption and utilization of different food plants by Chrotogonus trachypterus Blanch. (Orthoptera: Acrididae). In: Goel SC, ed. Insect ecology and resource management Sanatan Dharm College Muzaffarnagar India, 226-231

Chen CT; Lee CS; Lee SM, 1972. Beneficial effects of white leaf infected plants on the leafhopper, Matsumuratettix hiroglyphicus Matsumura. In: Henderson MT, ed. Proceedings of the International Society of Sugar Cane Technologists. Fourteenth Congress, New Orleans, Louisiana, October 22-November 5, 1971. Executive Committee of the International Society of Sugar Cane Technologists. New Orleans USA, 434-438

Cowie ID; Werner PA, 1993. Alien plant species invasive in Kakadu National Park, tropical northern Australia. Biological Conservation, 63(2):127-135

Davies JC, 1972. Studies on the ecology of Aphis craccivora Koch (Aphididae), the vector of rosette disease of groundnuts, in Uganda. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 62:169-181.

Deshmukh SV; Kale HB; Atale SB, 1995. Effect of 2,4-diphenoxy acetic acid, isoproturon and Isoguard Plus on weed control in irrigated, late-sown wheat (Triticum aestivum). Indian Journal of Agronomy, 40(2):296-297; 2 ref.

Deuse JPL, 1977. Adaptation of semi-desert species to irrigation conditions in Senegal. Comptes Rendus du Ve Colloque International sur l'Ecologie et la Biologie des Mauvaises Herbes, Dijon, 1976., 359-365

Dharmaraj G; Chandra Babu R; Natarajaratnam N; Subramaniam S, 1988. Allelopathy of certain weed species. Madras Agricultural Journal, 75(3-4):147-148

Duatin CJY; Pedro LBde, 1986. Biology and host range of the taro planthopper, Tarophagus proserpina Kirk. Annals of Tropical Research, 8(2):72-80; [4 fig.].

Florence J; Guerin M; Reboul JL, 1983. Weeds of French Polynesia (Les mauvaises herbes de la Polynesie Francaise). Compte Rendu de la 12e Conference du COLUMA. Tome I. Paris, France: Comite Francais de Lutte contre les Mauvaises Herbes, 427-432.

Gautam DR; Chauhan JS, 1984. Possibilities of reducing the soil cultivation by using herbicides in peach nursery production. Journal of Tree Sciences, 3(1/2):99-104.

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