Euphorbia hirta (garden spurge)
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Distribution Table
- Habitat List
- Host Plants and Other Plants Affected
- Biology and Ecology
- Natural enemies
- Notes on Natural Enemies
- Detection and Inspection
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Links to Websites
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Euphorbia hirta L.
Preferred Common Name
- garden spurge
Other Scientific Names
- Chamaesyce hirta (L.) Millsp.
- Euphorbia capitata Lam.
- Euphorbia globulifera H.B.K.
- Euphorbia modiflora Steud.
- Euphorbia obliterata Jacq.
- Euphorbia pilulifera L.
- Euphorbia pilulifera var. hirta (L.) Thell.
- Euphorbia verticillata Vell.
International Common Names
- English: asthmaweed; blotched-leaf spurge; hairy spurge; milkweed; red euphorbia
- Spanish: golondrina; hierba de la golondrina
- French: euphorbe poilue
- Portuguese: erva-de-Santa-Luzia
Local Common Names
- Bangladesh: bara dudhia
- Cambodia: tuk das khla thom
- Colombia: pimpinela
- Ecuador: mal casada
- Guatemala: sabana de la virgen
- India: baridhudi; chitakuti; dhuli; dudhani
- Indonesia: gelang susu; gendong ancok; kukon-kakon; nanangkaan; patikan jawa; patikan kebo
- Japan: shima-nishikiso; Taiwan-nishikiso
- Malaysia: ara tanah
- Mauritius: Jean Roberts
- Myanmar: mayo
- Nigeria: buje
- Philippines: botobotonis; gatas-gatas; luha ng birhen; maragatas; pansi-pansi; soro-soro; tawa-tawa
- Samoa: apulupulu; la'au fai moti
- South Africa: rooi euphorbia
- Suriname: mirki-tite
- Taiwan: ru-tzu-tsau
- Thailand: nam nom raaychasee
- Tonga: sakisi
- Uganda: aksasandasanda
- USA/Hawaii: koko kahiki
- Vietnam: co sua long
- EPHHI (Euphorbia hirta)
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Plantae
- Phylum: Spermatophyta
- Subphylum: Angiospermae
- Class: Dicotyledonae
- Order: Euphorbiales
- Family: Euphorbiaceae
- Genus: Euphorbia
- Species: Euphorbia hirta
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page The genus Euphorbia was named after Euphorbus, physician to King Juba of Muritania, an ancient country of northern Africa. The specific name, hirta, has reference to the peculiar hairy condition of the plant (Pope, 1968).
DescriptionTop of page A creeping to ascending, densely hairy, little-branched annual herb, 15-50 cm tall. Stems semi-erect, several arising from a central tap root, reddish or purplish, with yellow hairs and milky sap. A short-lived weed that germinates and flowers throughout the year and fruits in less than a month.
Leaves opposite, 1-4 cm long, 1-1.5 cm wide, oblong-lanceolate, with a pointed tip and a finely toothed margin, often reddish, often purple-blotched on the upper surface, underside hairy, base rounded and unequal; petiole very short; nerves distinct. Stipules small, linear.
Inflorescence dense, globular clusters, 5-10 mm across, of numerous, minute, greenish or pinkish, shortly-stalked flowers without petals arising from the axils of the leaves; peduncles reddish brown.
Fruit yellowish, hairy, 3-lobed capsule, 1.25-2 x 1.5 mm, splitting into three 1-seeded segments; central column persistent. Produces up to 3000 seeds per plant.
Seed very small, oblong (0.57-0.70 mm long, 0.065 mg/seed - Noda et al., 1984), reddish-brown, initially smooth, later slightly transversely wrinkled.
Seedling: hypocotyl 3.5-7 mm long, smooth, green to red; cotyledons 2; small, petiole about 0.5 mm long, smooth, reddish; blade broadly elliptical, 2.5 x 2.1-2.3 mm, smooth, lower surface purple, base obtuse, margin entire, red, apex truncate to shallowly emarginate; epicotyl, about 0.5 mm long, sparsely appressed, hairy.
First leaves opposite, in pairs; petiole about 0.5 mm long, sparsely hairy with 2 basal stipules; blade obovate, 2.5-3.8 x 1.8-2.3 mm, sparsely hairy, lower surface purple, midnerve distinct, base obtuse, margin entire, bristly, apex apiculate; main shoot grows off to one side (Soerjani et al., 1987).
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|Angola||Present||Holm et al. (1979)|
|Cameroon||Present||CABI (Undated)||Original citation: Hutchinson & Dalziel, 1958|
|Côte d'Ivoire||Present||Holm et al. (1979)|
|Egypt||Present||Holm et al. (1979)|
|Ethiopia||Present||Holm et al. (1979)|
|Ghana||Present||Holm et al. (1979)|
|Guinea||Present||CABI (Undated)||Original citation: Hutchinson & Dalziel, 1958|
|Kenya||Present||Holm et al. (1979)|
|Liberia||Present||CABI (Undated)||Original citation: Hutchinson & Dalziel, 1958|
|Mali||Present||CABI (Undated)||Original citation: Hutchinson & Dalziel, 1958|
|Mauritius||Present||Holm et al. (1979)|
|Mozambique||Present||Holm et al. (1979)|
|Nigeria||Present||Holm et al. (1979)|
|Senegal||Present||CABI (Undated)||Original citation: Deuse (1976)|
|Sierra Leone||Present||CABI (Undated)||Original citation: Hutchinson & Dalziel, 1958|
|South Africa||Present||Holm et al. (1979)|
|Sudan||Present||Holm et al. (1979)|
|Tanzania||Present||Holm et al. (1979)|
|Togo||Present||CABI (Undated)||Original citation: Hutchinson & Dalziel, 1958|
|Uganda||Present||Holm et al. (1979)|
|Zambia||Present||CABI (Undated)||Original citation: Vernon (1983)|
|Zimbabwe||Present||Holm et al. (1979)|
|Bangladesh||Present||Holm et al. (1979)|
|Cambodia||Present||Holm et al. (1979); Waterhouse (1993)|
|China||Present||Holm et al. (1979)|
|-Fujian||Present||CABI (Undated)||Original citation: Wang et al., 1990|
|-Guangdong||Present||CABI (Undated)||Original citation: Wang et al., 1990|
|-Guangxi||Present||CABI (Undated)||Original citation: Wang et al., 1990|
|-Jiangxi||Present||CABI (Undated)||Original citation: Wang et al., 1990|
|-Yunnan||Present||CABI (Undated)||Original citation: Wang et al., 1990|
|India||Present||Holm et al. (1979)|
|-Bihar||Present||Bina Shadiza (1993)|
|-Gujarat||Present||Barman and Mehta (1989)|
|-Haryana||Present||Kalyan et al. (1994)|
|-Himachal Pradesh||Present||Gautam and Chauhan (1984)|
|-Kerala||Present||Sulochana et al. (1982)|
|-Madhya Pradesh||Present||Singh and Singh (1988)|
|-Odisha||Present||Bina Shadiza (1993)|
|-Punjab||Present||Josan et al. (1993)|
|-Tamil Nadu||Present||Jeyarajan et al. (1988)|
|-Uttar Pradesh||Present||Singh et al. (1994)|
|-West Bengal||Present||Mukhopadhyay and Buddhadeb Duary (1995)|
|Indonesia||Present||Holm et al. (1979); Waterhouse (1993)|
|Japan||Present||CABI (Undated a)||Present based on regional distribution.|
|-Ryukyu Islands||Present||Ohwi (1965)|
|Kuwait||Present||Holm et al. (1979)|
|Laos||Present||Moody (1989); Waterhouse (1993)|
|Malaysia||Present||CABI (Undated a)||Present based on regional distribution.|
|-Peninsular Malaysia||Present||Holm et al. (1979)|
|-Sabah||Present||Holm et al. (1979)|
|-Sarawak||Present||Holm et al. (1979)|
|Myanmar||Present||Holm et al. (1979); Waterhouse (1993)|
|Oman||Present||Holm et al. (1979)|
|Pakistan||Present||Holm et al. (1979)|
|Philippines||Present||Holm et al. (1979); Waterhouse (1993)|
|Qatar||Present||Holm et al. (1979)|
|Saudi Arabia||Present||Holm et al. (1979)|
|Sri Lanka||Present||Holm et al. (1979)|
|Taiwan||Present||Holm et al. (1979)|
|Thailand||Present||Holm et al. (1979); Waterhouse (1993)|
|United Arab Emirates||Present||Holm et al. (1979)|
|Vietnam||Present||Holm et al. (1979); Waterhouse (1993)|
|Yemen||Present||Holm et al. (1979)|
|Russia||Present||Holm et al. (1979)|
|Dominican Republic||Present||Holm et al. (1979)|
|El Salvador||Present||Holm et al. (1979)|
|Guatemala||Present||Holm et al. (1979)|
|Honduras||Present||Holm et al. (1979)|
|Jamaica||Present||Holm et al. (1979)|
|Mexico||Present||Holm et al. (1979)|
|Trinidad and Tobago||Present||Holm et al. (1979)|
|United States||Present||Holm et al. (1979)|
|-Florida||Present||Locascio and Stall (1983)|
|-Hawaii||Present||Holm et al. (1979)|
|-Louisiana||Present||Holcomb et al. (1989)|
|Australia||Present||Holm et al. (1979)|
|-Northern Territory||Present||Cowie and Werner (1993)|
|Fiji||Present||Holm et al. (1979)|
|French Polynesia||Present||Florence et al. (1983)|
|Papua New Guinea||Present||Holm et al. (1979)|
|Samoa||Present||Sauerborn and Sauerborn (1984)|
|Argentina||Present||Holm et al. (1979)|
|Brazil||Present||Holm et al. (1979)|
|-Alagoas||Present||CABI (Undated b)|
|-Amazonas||Present||CABI (Undated b)|
|-Bahia||Present||CABI (Undated b)|
|-Ceara||Present||CABI (Undated b)|
|-Espirito Santo||Present||CABI (Undated b)|
|-Fernando de Noronha||Present||CABI (Undated b)|
|-Goias||Present||CABI (Undated b)|
|-Maranhao||Present||CABI (Undated b)|
|-Mato Grosso do Sul||Present||CABI (Undated b)|
|-Minas Gerais||Present||CABI (Undated b)|
|-Para||Present||CABI (Undated b)|
|-Paraiba||Present||CABI (Undated b)|
|-Parana||Present||CABI (Undated b)|
|-Pernambuco||Present||CABI (Undated b)|
|-Piaui||Present||CABI (Undated b)|
|-Rio de Janeiro||Present||CABI (Undated b)|
|-Rio Grande do Norte||Present||CABI (Undated b)|
|-Rio Grande do Sul||Present||CABI (Undated b)|
|-Santa Catarina||Present||CABI (Undated b)|
|-Sao Paulo||Present||CABI (Undated b)|
|-Sergipe||Present||CABI (Undated b)|
|Colombia||Present||Holm et al. (1979)|
|Ecuador||Present||Holm et al. (1979)|
|Peru||Present||Holm et al. (1979)|
|Suriname||Present||Holm et al. (1979)|
|Venezuela||Present||Holm et al. (1979)|
HabitatTop of page E. hirta is a native of tropical America, now widespread at low altitudes throughout the tropics and subtropics. It is the most common and ubiquitous of the Euphorbiaceae (Merrill, 1981). It prefers sunny to lightly shaded dry conditions, and is an early colonizer of bare ground. E. hirta is a weed of cultivated fields, perennial crops, grasslands, roadsides, gardens, lawns, fallow lands, ditch banks and waste places.
Habitat ListTop of page
Host Plants and Other Plants AffectedTop of page
|Allium cepa (onion)||Liliaceae||Main|
|Ananas comosus (pineapple)||Bromeliaceae||Main|
|Annona cherimola (cherimoya)||Annonaceae||Main|
|Arachis hypogaea (groundnut)||Fabaceae||Main|
|Brassica napus var. napus (rape)||Brassicaceae||Main|
|Cajanus cajan (pigeon pea)||Fabaceae||Main|
|Camellia sinensis (tea)||Theaceae||Main|
|Carica papaya (pawpaw)||Caricaceae||Main|
|Cocos nucifera (coconut)||Arecaceae||Main|
|Corchorus olitorius (jute)||Tiliaceae||Main|
|Glycine max (soyabean)||Fabaceae||Main|
|Helianthus annuus (sunflower)||Asteraceae||Main|
|Litchi chinensis (lichi)||Sapindaceae||Main|
|Macadamia integrifolia (macadamia nut)||Proteaceae||Main|
|Mangifera indica (mango)||Anacardiaceae||Main|
|Manihot esculenta (cassava)||Euphorbiaceae||Main|
|Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco)||Solanaceae||Main|
|Oryza sativa (rice)||Poaceae||Main|
|Phoenix dactylifera (date-palm)||Arecaceae||Main|
|Prunus persica (peach)||Rosaceae||Main|
|Psidium guajava (guava)||Myrtaceae||Main|
|Punica granatum (pomegranate)||Punicaceae||Main|
|Pyrus communis (European pear)||Rosaceae||Main|
|Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane)||Poaceae||Main|
|Sorghum bicolor (sorghum)||Poaceae||Main|
|Theobroma cacao (cocoa)||Malvaceae||Main|
|Triticum aestivum (wheat)||Poaceae||Main|
|Vigna mungo (black gram)||Fabaceae||Main|
|Vigna radiata (mung bean)||Fabaceae||Main|
|Vitis vinifera (grapevine)||Vitaceae||Main|
|Zea mays (maize)||Poaceae||Main|
Biology and EcologyTop of page E. hirta is propagated by seed, and is a C4 species.
The lower temperature limit required for germination of E. hirta is 10-20°C. The maximum temperature is 40°C. Optimum germination temperature is 15-40°C. It requires light for germination, and is unable to germinate when buried below the soil surface. Germination decreases with decreasing osmotic potential. Seeds of E. hirta are unable to germinate at -10.3 bar (Sauerborn et al., 1988).
Veeranjaneyulu and Das (1984) observed purple pigmentation in dicotyledonous weed species, including E. hirta, subjected to high solar radiation and water stress; these pigments were anthocyanins and betalains. The intensity of purple pigmentation was higher in C4 than in C3 species. Pigment intensity and soil moisture content were inversely related.
Natural enemiesTop of page
|Natural enemy||Type||Life stages||Specificity||References||Biological control in||Biological control on|
Notes on Natural EnemiesTop of page Jeritta and David (1986) reported that Haplothrips euphorbiae was specific to E. hirta.
E. hirta is an alternative host of the root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne incognita (Valdez, 1968), M. graminicola (Rao et al., 1970) and M. javanica (Dahiya et al., 1988); Hoplolaimus indicus; Tylenchorhynchus claytoni (Satyanarayana Prasad et al., 1980); the reniform nematode Rotylenchulus reniformis (Linford and Yap, 1940); the burrowing nematode Radopholus similis (Martin et al., 1969); and the root-lesion nematode Pratylenchus indicus [P. zeae] (Prasad and Rao, 1986). It is a host of two vectors of groundnut rosette disease (Adams, 1967) and of the rust Aecidium tithymali (Puckdeedindan, 1966).
It is an alternative host of the lygaeid Spilostethus hospes which feeds on the seeds of aubergines and tomatoes (Sanjayan, 1993); painted bug Bagrada cruciferaum [B. hilaris], an insect pest of rape and Indian mustard (Singh and Malik, 1993); Aphis craccivora, the vector of rosette disease of groundnuts in Uganda (Davies, 1972) and Nigeria (Ofuya, 1988); the grasshopper Chrotogonus trachypterus which feeds mainly on grasses but damages a wide variety of plants (Chandra et al., 1983); the taro planthopper Tarophagus proserpina (Duatin and Pedro, 1986); and Aphis gossypii and the pseudococcid Ferrisia virgata, a pest of fruit trees (Jeritta and David, 1986).
It is also an alternative host of the girdle beetle Oberea [Obereopsis] brevis (Shrivastava et al., 1989) and of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, a polyphagous insect, which transmits a number of plant viruses including tomato yellow leaf curl bigeminivirus, tapioca mosaic, urd bean yellow mosaic and hibiscus yellow mosaic tobamovirus (Jeyarajan et al., 1988). It is a food plant for larvae of Amsacta moorei which feed on newly emerged sorghum and castor bean plants (Agarwal et al., 1989).
According to Chen et al. (1972), temporary survival of fourth- and fifth-instar nymphs of the leafhopper Matsumuratettix hiroglyphicus is possible on E. hirta. It can complete its development only on sugarcane or Saccharum spontaneum.
Amphobotrys ricini was isolated from blighted leaves of cultivated poinsettia and E. hirta in Louisiana, USA (Holcomb et al., 1989). It is an alternative host of Cylindrocladium quinqueseptatum [Calonectria quinqueseptata] (Sulochana et al., 1982). It is also partially susceptible to Phytophthora palmivora which causes foot rot of black pepper (Department of Agriculture Sarawak, 1979). It is a collateral host of Erysiphe polygoni [E. betae], the causal agent of powdery mildew of mungbean (Kunkaliker et al., 1994) and a host of rice sheath blight Rhizoctonia solani [Thanatephorus cucumeris] (Kardin et al., 1977).
ImpactTop of page E. hirta is a weed of relatively minor importance because of its low stature (Soerjani et al., 1987). It is a weed of bananas in India and Taiwan; beans in USA (Florida); black gram (Vigna mungo) in India; cassava in Cambodia, Ghana, Laos, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, Venezuela and Vietnam; cacao in Ecuador; citrus in India and Trinidad; cotton in El Salvador, Kenya, Mozambique, Sudan, Thailand and Venezuela; coconuts in French Polynesia and the Philippines; coffee in Thailand; custard apples in India; date orchards in India; elephant foot yams (Amorphophallus campanulatus) in India; grapes in India; groundnuts in Ghana, India, Indonesia, Nigeria, Philippines, Trinidad, Uganda and the USA (Hawaii); guava in India; litchi in Thailand; intercrops (pigeon peas + soyabeans; groundnuts + sunflower) in India; jute in India; macadamia nuts in Thailand; lawns in Philippines, USA (Hawaii) and Zambia; maize in Cambodia, El Salvador, Ghana, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Mexico, Nigeria, Philippines, Taiwan, Thailand, USA (Hawaii) and Vietnam; mangoes in India; mungbeans in Philippines and Thailand; onions in Philippines and Western Samoa; ornamental plants/flowers in Australia, India, Philippines, Thailand and the USA (Hawaii); pawpaws in India, Indonesia and Philippines; peach in India; pears in Thailand; phalsa in India; pineapples in Philippines, Taiwan and the USA (Hawaii); pomegranates in India; potatoes in India; pulse crops in Bangladesh; rape in Taiwan; sorghum in Indonesia, Philippines and Thailand; soyabeans in India and the Philippines; sugarcane in Angola, Brazil, Cambodia, El Salvador, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Mauritius, Mexico, Peru, Philippines, South Africa, Taiwan, Thailand, Trinidad, USA (Hawaii) and Vietnam; sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea) in Bangladesh; tea in Sri Lanka and Taiwan; tobacco in Thailand; vegetables in Mexico, Thailand, Philippines and the USA (Hawaii); and wheat in India.
In South and South-East Asia, E. hirta has been reported as a weed of upland rice in India, Indonesia, Laos, Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam, of dry-seeded rice in India and the Philippines, of wet-seeded rice (sprouted seeds sown on puddled soil) in India and Vietnam, and of transplanted rice in Bangladesh, India and Indonesia (Moody, 1989). It is also a weed of rice seedling nurseries in Gujarat, India (Barman and Mehta, 1989).
Dharmaraj et al. (1988) reported that root and shoot leachates of E. hirta reduced germination and seedling vigour of sorghum cv. TNS 30.
E. hirta is also an alternative host of a number of nematode and arthropod pests (see Natural Enemies). It is an important source of food for adults of Lixophaga sphenophori, a tachinid parasite of the New Guinea sugarcane weevil Rhabdoscelus obscurus (Leeper, 1972).
Aqueous extracts of E. hirta were inhibitory to conidial germination of Sarocladium oryzae, the causal agent of sheath rot of rice (Jeeva and Ramabadran, 1993), inhibited sporulation in Helminthosporium sp. (Kazmi and Trivedi, 1981) and inhibited aflatoxin production by Aspergillus parasiticus [A. flavus] on agricultural commodities, including rice, wheat, maize and groundnuts (Sinha and Singh, 1986). A leaf extract of E. hirta inhibited infection when mixed with crude preparations of tobacco mosaic, sunn-hemp rosette [sunn-hemp mosaic tobamovirus], Gomphrena mosaic [Gomphrena nucleorhabdovirus] or tobacco ringspot nepovirus and applied to leaves of several hypersensitive hosts, evidently by increasing host resistance (Verma and Awasthi, 1979). Yadav (1970) reported that a root exudate of E. hirta inhibited the hatching of Meloidogyne incognita eggs; only 4% of the larvae emerged. An aqueous extract of E. hirta totally inhibited hatching and inhibited egg development.
This plant is often available in large quantities in native drug stores. The whole plant is used as a sedative and to assist the breathing of asthmatics (Usher, 1974). Leaves and latex are used against intestinal diseases, ulcers and bronchitis; the latex is used against conjunctivitis (Soerjani et al., 1987). It is also used for ring worm and old wounds in West Bengal, India (Mukhopadhyay and Duary, 1995). It is used as a leafy vegetable in India. Shadiza (1993) observed significant differences in the mineral content of healthy leaves and leaves infected with unspecified pathogens.
Detection and InspectionTop of page E. hirta is usually easy to recognize (Vernon, 1983). The peculiarly blotched leaves are interesting and unusual among weeds (Pope, 1968). It can be distinguished by its hairy stems, opposite leaves, tiny inconspicuous cyathia (a type of inflorescence) arranged in globose cymes and tiny three-lobed splitting fruits (Whistler, 1994).
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page E. heterophylla is larger than E. hirta and the flowers are at the top of the stem at the centre of a cluster of leaves (Vernon, 1983).
E. hirta is similar to E. hypericifolia (E. indica), which differs in being glabrous and having more conspicuous, mostly white or pink flowers (Whistler, 1994). Also, the internodes of E. hypericifolia are longer making the leaves further apart than in E. hirta (Cardenas et al., 1972).
E. hyssopifolia is a more erect-growing species with smooth, dehiscent fruits more than 1.6 mm long (Kranz et al., 1977).
E. prostrata, with blue-green leaves and stems, is common in fields and lawns but unimportant as an arable weed (Vernon, 1983). It is a creeping plant with very small leaves and dehiscent fruits 1-1.4 mm in diameter, with hairs along the edge of the fruit (Burch, 1966).
E. thymifolia is a smaller and more slender prostrate plant than E. hirta with many diverging branches. The leaves are small (much smaller than those of E. hirta), opposite and dark green in colour.
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.
It is easily controlled by hand or hoe (Parker, 1992) and by cultivation (Pope, 1968).
Soil solarization for 30 or 45 days using four thicknesses of polyethylene sheets (2.0, 2.5, 3.0 and 4.0 mm) gave 100% control of E. hirta (Nasr Esfahani, 1993).
E. hirta is susceptible to oxadiazon (Nishimoto et al., 1980), oryzalin + fluometuron + metolachlor (Quinones, 1982), ethalfluralin + EPTC (Locascio and Stall, 1983), atrazine (Gautam and Chauhan, 1984), diuron, fluchloralin (Challa, 1984), ametryn, cyanazine, metribuzin, prometryn, simazine (Soerjani et al., 1987), moderately resistant to propanil, trifluralin (Madrid et al., 1972) and pendimethalin (Terry, 1983), and resistant to asulam (Terry, 1983). Contradictory results have been reported concerning its level of susceptibility to 2,4-D, metolachlor and atrazine, its level of resistance to trifluralin, and its control with paraquat (Madrid et al., 1972; Locascio and Stall, 1983; Terry, 1983) and glyphosate (Abad and San Juan, 1981; Terry, 1983). Ampong-Nyarko and de Datta (1991) indicate susceptibility to butralin and oxyfluorfen, only moderate susceptibility to 2,4-D, and relative resistance to fenoxaprop, thiobencarb and pendimethalin.
Other herbicides that have been reported to give effective control of weeds including E. hirta are butachlor (Barman and Mehta, 1989), oxyfluorfen (Rajamani et al., 1992), fluazifop-butyl (Singh et al., 1994), chlorimuron (Karmakar et al., 1994) and isoproturon + 2,4-D (Deshmukh et al., 1995).
ReferencesTop of page
1979. Annual Report of the Research Branch, Department of Agriculture, Sarawak, for the year 1977. Annual Report of the Research Branch, Department of Agriculture, Sarawak, for the year 1977. Ministry of Agriculture and Community Development. Kuching Sarawak, 257 pp.
Adams A, 1967. The vectors and alternate hosts of groundnuts resette virus in Central Province, Malawi. Rhodesian, Zambian, Malawian Journal of Agricultural Research, 5(2):145-151.
Anon., 1992. Important crops of the world and their weeds, 2nd ed. Leverkusen, Germany: Bayer.
Barnes DE; Chandapillai MM, 1972. Common Malaysian Weeds and their Control. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Ansul (Malaysia) Sdn. Berhad.
Burch D, 1966. Two new species of Chamaesyce (Euphorbiaceae), new combinations and key to the Caribbean members of the genus. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 53:375-376.
Cardenas J; Reyes CE; Doll JD, 1972. Tropical weeds Vol. 1. Bogota, Colombia: Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario.
Chandra R; Mital VP, 1983. Consumption and utilization of different food plants by Chrotogonus trachypterus Blanch. (Orthoptera: Acrididae). In: Goel SC, ed. Insect ecology and resource management Sanatan Dharm College Muzaffarnagar India, 226-231
Chen CT; Lee CS; Lee SM, 1972. Beneficial effects of white leaf infected plants on the leafhopper, Matsumuratettix hiroglyphicus Matsumura. In: Henderson MT, ed. Proceedings of the International Society of Sugar Cane Technologists. Fourteenth Congress, New Orleans, Louisiana, October 22-November 5, 1971. Executive Committee of the International Society of Sugar Cane Technologists. New Orleans USA, 434-438
Deshmukh SV; Kale HB; Atale SB, 1995. Effect of 2,4-diphenoxy acetic acid, isoproturon and Isoguard Plus on weed control in irrigated, late-sown wheat (Triticum aestivum). Indian Journal of Agronomy, 40(2):296-297; 2 ref.
Deuse JPL, 1977. Adaptation of semi-desert species to irrigation conditions in Senegal. Comptes Rendus du Ve Colloque International sur l'Ecologie et la Biologie des Mauvaises Herbes, Dijon, 1976., 359-365
Florence J; Guerin M; Reboul JL, 1983. Weeds of French Polynesia (Les mauvaises herbes de la Polynesie Francaise). Compte Rendu de la 12e Conference du COLUMA. Tome I. Paris, France: Comite Francais de Lutte contre les Mauvaises Herbes, 427-432.
Harada J; Paisooksantivatana Y; Zungsontiporn S, 1987. Weeds in the highlands of northern Thailand. Project Manual No. 3. Bangkok, Thailand: National Weed Science Research Institute.
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