Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Epidiaspis leperii
(European pear scale)

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Datasheet

Epidiaspis leperii (European pear scale)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Epidiaspis leperii
  • Preferred Common Name
  • European pear scale
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Epidiaspis leperii (Signoret)

Preferred Common Name

  • European pear scale

Other Scientific Names

  • Aspidiotus piricola Del Guercio, 1894
  • Diaspis betulae
  • Diaspis fallax Hovath, 1897
  • Diaspis leperii Signoret, 1869
  • Diaspis ostreaeformis Signoret, 1869
  • Diaspis piricola
  • Diaspis pyri Colvée, 1881
  • Diaspis pyricola
  • Epidiaspis betulae Lindinger, 1912
  • Epidiaspis leperei Lindinger, 1911
  • Epidiaspis leperii Ferris, 1937
  • Epidiaspis piricola Cockerell, 1902

International Common Names

  • English: gray pear scale; Italian pear scale; pear-tree oyster scale; red pear scale
  • Spanish: cochinilla gris del peral; cochinilla roja del peral; conchuela blanca del peral
  • French: cochenille rouge du poirier

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Schildlaus, Rote Austern-; Schildlaus, Rote Deckel-; Schildlaus, Rote Obstbaum-
  • Italy: cocciniglia grigia del pero
  • Netherlands: rode pereschildluis
  • Turkey: armut kabuklu biti

EPPO code

  • EPIDBE (Epidiaspis leperii)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hemiptera
  •                         Suborder: Sternorrhyncha
  •                             Unknown: Coccoidea
  •                                 Family: Diaspididae
  •                                     Genus: Epidiaspis
  •                                         Species: Epidiaspis leperii

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresentNakahara (1982); Danzig and Pellizzari (1998)
LibyaPresentNHM (1959)
MoroccoPresentNakahara (1982)
TunisiaPresentNakahara (1982)

Asia

GeorgiaPresentAleksidze (1995)
IranPresentNakahara (1982); Danzig and Pellizzari (1998)
TurkeyPresentDanzig and Pellizzari (1998); CABI (Undated)

Europe

AlbaniaPresentDanzig and Pellizzari (1998)
AustriaPresentDanzig and Pellizzari (1998)
BelgiumPresentDanzig and Pellizzari (1998)
BulgariaPresentDanzig and Pellizzari (1998)
CroatiaPresentMilek et al. (2017); CABI (Undated)
CzechiaPresentHolman (2002)
CzechoslovakiaPresentDanzig and Pellizzari (1998); CABI (Undated)
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresentDanzig and Pellizzari (1998)
FrancePresentDanzig and Pellizzari (1998); Foldi (2001)
GermanyPresentDanzig and Pellizzari (1998)
HungaryPresentDanzig and Pellizzari (1998); Ripka (1999)
ItalyPresentLongo et al. (1995); Danzig and Pellizzari (1998)
MaltaPresentDanzig and Pellizzari (1998)
NetherlandsPresentDanzig and Pellizzari (1998)
NorwayPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Gertsson, 2001
PolandPresentDanzig and Pellizzari (1998)
PortugalPresentDanzig and Pellizzari (1998)
-AzoresPresentNakahara (1982)
-MadeiraPresentNakahara (1982)
RomaniaPresentDanzig and Pellizzari (1998)
RussiaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-Southern RussiaPresentDanzig and Pellizzari (1998)
SerbiaPresentGraora et al. (2009)
SpainPresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated)Original citation: Amparo Blay Golcoechea, 1993
SwitzerlandPresentCABI (Undated);

North America

MexicoPresentNakahara (1982); Miller (1996)
United StatesPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-CaliforniaPresentGill (1997)
-ConnecticutPresentNakahara (1982)
-MarylandPresentNakahara (1982)
-MontanaPresentNakahara (1982)
-New YorkPresentNakahara (1982)
-OklahomaPresentNakahara (1982)
-Rhode IslandPresentNakahara (1982)

South America

ArgentinaPresent, LocalizedClaps et al. (2001)
ChilePresentClaps et al. (2001)
UruguayPresentNakahara (1982)

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / reduced size
Stems / distortion
Stems / external feeding
Whole plant / external feeding

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Aphytis maculicornis Parasite
Aphytis mytilaspidis Parasite Adults/Larvae
Aphytis proclia
Chilocorus bipustulatus Predator
Chilocorus renipustulatus Predator
Diaspiniphagus moeris Parasite
Encarsia gigas Parasite
Encarsia perniciosi Parasite
Exochomus quadripustulatus Predator
Hemisarcoptes malus Predator Adults/Eggs/Larvae
Pteroptrix dimidiata Parasite

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Land vehicles Yes

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bark adults; larvae Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx larvae Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Fruits (inc. pods) larvae Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Leaves larvae Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches adults; larvae Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Growing medium accompanying plants
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

References

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Abdel-Kareim AI, Kozar F, 1988. Extraction and bioassay of the sex pheromone of the red pear scale, Epidiaspis leperii. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 46(1):79-84

Aleksidze G, 1995. Armored scale insects (Diaspididae), pests of fruit orchards and their control in the Republic of Georgia. Israel Journal of Entomology, 29:187-190; 9 ref.

Amparo Blay Golcoechea M, 1993. La familia Diaspididae Targioni-Tozzetti, 1868 de Espa±a peninsular y Baleares (Insecta: Hemiptera: Coccoidea). PhD thesis. Madrid, Spain: Universidad Complutense de Madrid.

Argyriou LC, 1990. Olive. In: Rosen D, ed. Armoured Scale Insects, their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. Vol. 4B. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, 579-583.

Bassi R, 1994. The principal adversities of plum. Vita in Campagna, 12(12):33-35

Bianchi H, BTnassy C, 1979. The red pear scale, Epidiaspis leperii Sign. (Homoptera, Coccoidea) a pest of plum in France. Annales de Zoologie, Ecologie Animale, 11(3):493-511

Borchsenius NS, 1966. A Catalogue of the Armoured Scale Insects (Diaspidoidea) of the World. (In Russian). Leningrad, Russia: Akademii Nauk SSR Zoologicheskogo Instituta, 449 pp.

Burger HC, Ulenberg SA, 1990. Quarantine problems and procedures. In: Rosen D, ed. Armoured Scale Insects, their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. Vol. 4B. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, 313-327.

Claps LE, Wolff VRS, González RH, 2001. Catálogo de las Diaspididae (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) exóticas de la Argentina, Brasil y Chile. Revista de la Socieded Entomológica Argentina, 60:9-34.

Danzig EM, 1972. Coccoidea - scale insects. In: Insects and Ticks. Pests of the forest. Leningrad, Russia: Akademii Nauk (SSR) Zoologicheskogo Instituta, 189-221 (in Russian).

Danzig EM, Pellizzari G, 1998. Diaspididae. In: Kozßr F, ed. Catalogue of Palaearctic Coccoidea. Hungarian Academy of Sciences. Budapest, Hungary: Akaprint Nyomdaipari Kft., 172-370.

El-Kareim AIA, Darvas B, Kozar F, 1988. Effects of the juvenoids fenoxycarb, hydroprene, kinoprene and methoprene on first instar larvae of Epidiaspis leperii Sign. (Hom., Diaspididae) and on its ectoparasitoid, Aphytis mytilaspidis (Le Baron) (Hym., Aphelinidae). Journal of Applied Entomology, 106(3):270-275

El-Kareim AIA, Darvas B, Kozar F, 1989. Effects of juvenoids on prediapause and postdiapause females of Epidiaspis leperii Sign. (Hom., Diaspididae). Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica, 24(3-4):473-482

Foldi I, 2001. Liste des cochenilles de France (Hemiptera, Coccoidea). Bulletin de la SociTtT entomologique de France 106:303-308.

Geier W, 1949. Contribution a l'Ttude de la cochenille rouge de poirier (Epidiaspis leperii Sign.) en Suisse. Revue de Pathologie VTgTtale et d'Entomologie Agricole de France 28:177-262.

Gertsson CA, 2001. An annotated checklist of the scale insects (Homoptera: Coccoidea) of Sweden. Entomologisk Tidskrift, 122(3):123-130; many ref.

Gill RJ, 1997. The scale insects of California. Part 3. The armoured scales (Homoptera: Diaspididae). Technical Series in Agricultural Biosystematics and Plant Pathology, No 3. Sacramento, USA: Department of Food and Agriculture.

Graora D, Spasic R, Vucetic A, 2009. Parasitoids and predators of armored scales in some orchards in Serbia. (Parazitoidi i predatori ?titastih va?iju iz familije Diaspididae u nekim vocnjacima u Srbiji.) Pesticidi i Fitomedicina, 24(4):295-301.

Greathead DJ, 1990. Crawler behaviour and dispersal. 1.4.3. In: Rosen D, ed. Armoured Scales, their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. World Crop Pests, Volume 4A. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier, 305-308.

Holman J, 2002. The natural enemies of San Jose scale (Quadraspidiotus perniciosus Comstock) from the order Hymenoptera in the Czech Republic. (Prirození neprátelé ?títenky zhoubné (Quadraspidiotus perniciosus Comstock) z rádu blanokrídlých (Hymenoptera) v Ceské Republice.) Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis, 50(3):41-54.

Konstantinova GM, 1976. Coccids - pests of apple. Zashchita Rastenii, 12:49-50.

Kosztarab M, 1990. 3.1.2 Economic importance. In: Rosen D (Ed.), Armoured scale insects, their biology, natural enemies and control. Vol. 4B. World Crop Pests. Amsterdam, the Netherlands: Elsevier, 307-311.

Kosztarab M, 1996. Scale Insects of North Eastern North America: identification, biology, and distribution. Martinsville, USA: Virginia Museum of Natural History, 650 pp.

Kosztarab M, Kozar F, 1988. Scale insects of Central Europe. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 455 pp.

Kozár F, Guignard E, Bachmann F, Mani E, Hippe C, 1994. The scale insect and whitefly species of Switzerland (Homoptera: Coccoidea and Aleyrodoidea). Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft, 67(1-2):151-161; 24 ref.

Kozár F, Konstantinova GM, Akman K, Altay M, Kiroglu H, 1979. Distribution and density of scale insects (Homoptera: Coccoidea) on fruit plants in Turkey in 1976 (Survey of scale insect (Homoptera: Coccoidea) infestations in European orchards No. 11). Acta Phytopathologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, 14(3/4):535-542

Kozár F, Viktorin RA, 1978. Survey of scale insect (Homoptera: Coccoidea) infestations in European orchards. Changes in the scale infestation levels in Hungarian orchards between 1971 and 1976. Acta Phytopathologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, 13(3/4):391-402

Kozßr F, 1990. Deciduous fruit trees. In: Rosen D, ed. Armored Scale Insects their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. Vol. 4B. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., 593-602.

Kozßr F, Hippe C, 1996. A new species from the genus Greenisca Borchsenius, 1948 and additional data on the occurrence of scale insects (Homoptera: Coccoidea) in Switzerland. Folia Entomologica Hungarica, 62:91-96; 13 ref.

Kozßr F, Jasnosh VA, Konstantinova GM, 1982. Comparative evaluation of the distribution of scale-insects (Hom. Coccoidea) and their parasites in Georgia (USSR) and in Turkey. Survey of scale insect (Homoptera Coccoidea) infestations in European orchards, No. VI. Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Entomologie, 93(4):333-338

Kozßr F, Koncz-Benedicty Z, 1996. New data on the swarming of San JosT scale (Quadraspidiotus perniciosus (Comstock, 1881), Homoptera: Coccoidea) males and scale parasitoids. No^umlaut~ve^acute~nyve^acute~delem, 32(10):499-506; 33 ref.

Longo S, Marotta S, Pellizzari G, Russo A, Tranfaglia A, 1995. An annotated list of the scale insects (Homoptera: Coccidea) of Italy. Israel Journal of Entomology, 29:113-130.

Milek TM, ?imala M, 2008. Results of four-year investigation (2005-2008) of scale insects genus Diaspididae (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) on olive trees. (Rezultati cetverogodi?njeg faunistickog istrazivanja (2005.-2008.) ?titastih u?i porodice diaspididae (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) na maslini.) Glasilo Biljne Za?tite, 8(6):379-386.

Milek, T. M., Šimala, M., Bjeliš, M., Pintar, M., Markotic, V., 2017. Updated check list of scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) on olive trees in Croatia with special regard on Black araucaria scale - Lindingaspis rossi (Maskell 1891)., IOBC/WPRS Bulletin, 121:91-97 https://www.iobc-wprs.org/members/shop_en.cfm?mod_Shop_detail_produkte=173

Miller DR, 1996. Checklist of the scale insects (Coccoidea: Homoptera) of Mexico. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 98(1):68-86; 33 ref.

Nakahara S, 1982. Checklist of the Armored Scales (Homoptera: Diapididae) of the Conterminous United States. Washington, USA: USDA, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Plant Protection and Quarantine, 110 pp.

Ripka G, 1999. Arthropod pests of ornamental trees and shrubs: scale insects, aphids, mites. Novenyvedelem, 35(12):623-626 (in Hungarian).

Trenchev G, Pavlov A, 1981. Hemisarcoptes malus Shimer - a predatory mite on Lepidosaphes ulmi L. Gradinarska i Lozarska Nauka, 18(2):35-37

Distribution References

Aleksidze G, 1995. Armored scale insects (Diaspididae), pests of fruit orchards and their control in the Republic of Georgia. In: Israel Journal of Entomology [Proceedings of the VII International Symposium of Scale Insect Studies, held in Bet Dagan, Israel, June 12-17 1994.], 29 [ed. by Ascher K R S, Ben-Dov Y]. 187-190.

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Claps LE, Wolff VRS, González RH, 2001. (Catálogo de las Diaspididae (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) exóticas de la Argentina)., 60 9-34.

Danzig EM, Pellizzari G, 1998. Diaspididae. In: Catalogue of Palaearctic Coccoidea, [ed. by Kozßr F]. Budapest, Hungary: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Akaprint Nyomdaipari Kft. 172-370.

Foldi I, 2001. A list of the scale insects of France (Hemiptera, Coccoidea). (Liste des Cochenilles de France (Hemiptera, Coccoidea).). Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France. 106 (3), 303-308.

Gill RJ, 1997. The scale insects of California. Part 3. The armoured scales (Homoptera: Diaspididae). In: Technical Series in Agricultural Biosystematics and Plant Pathology, Sacramento, USA: Department of Food and Agriculture.

Graora D, Spasić R, Vučetić A, 2009. Parasitoids and predators of armored scales in some orchards in Serbia. (Parazitoidi i predatori štitastih vašiju iz familije Diaspididae u nekim voćnjacima u Srbiji.). Pesticidi i Fitomedicina. 24 (4), 295-301.

Holman J, 2002. The natural enemies of San Jose scale (Quadraspidiotus perniciosus Comstock) from the order Hymenoptera in the Czech Republic. (Přirození nepřátelé štítenky zhoubné (Quadraspidiotus perniciosus Comstock) z řádu blanokřídlých (Hymenoptera) v České Republice.). Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis. 50 (3), 41-54.

Longo S, Marotta S, Pellizzari G, Russo A, Tranfaglia A, 1995. An annotated list of the scale insects (Homoptera: Coccidea) of Italy. In: Israel Journal of Entomology [Proceedings of the VII International Symposium of Scale Insect Studies, held in Bet Dagan, Israel, June 12-17 1994.], 29 [ed. by Ascher K R S, Ben-Dov Y]. 113-130.

Milek T M, Šimala M, Bjeliš M, Pintar M, Markotić V, 2017. Updated check list of scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) on olive trees in Croatia with special regard on Black araucaria scale - Lindingaspis rossi (Maskell 1891). IOBC/WPRS Bulletin. 91-97. https://www.iobc-wprs.org/members/shop_en.cfm?mod_Shop_detail_produkte=173

Miller D R, 1996. Checklist of the scale insects (Coccoidea: Homoptera) of Mexico. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington. 98 (1), 68-86.

Nakahara S, 1982. Checklist of the Armored Scales (Homoptera: Diapididae) of the Conterminous United States., Washington, USA: USDA, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Plant Protection and Quarantine. 110 pp.

NHM, 1959. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

Ripka G, 1999. Arthropod pests of ornamental trees and shrubs: scale insects, aphids, mites. (Növénykárosító ízeltlábúak a díszfákon és a díszcserjéken: pajzstetvek, levéltetvek, atkák.). Növényvédelem. 35 (12), 623-626.

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