Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Empoasca fabae
(potato leafhopper)



Empoasca fabae (potato leafhopper)


  • Last modified
  • 11 October 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Empoasca fabae
  • Preferred Common Name
  • potato leafhopper
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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TitleArtwork of E. fabae
Artwork of E. fabaeAAFC


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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Empoasca fabae Harris

Preferred Common Name

  • potato leafhopper

Other Scientific Names

  • Chloroneura malefica Walsh
  • Empoa fabae (Walsh)
  • Empoasca albopicta Forbes
  • Empoasca consobrina Walsh
  • Empoasca flavescens (Fabricius)
  • Empoasca mali (LeBaron)
  • Empoasca viridescens Walsh
  • Typhlocyba photophila Berg

International Common Names

  • English: bean leafhopper; cotton leafhopper; green leafhopper (USA); leafhopper, bean; leafhopper, potato
  • Spanish: chicharrita del frijol; chinche verde de los frijoles; cigarrita del frijol; lorito verde; salta hoja del frijol; saltahoja común del frijol; saltahojas de la papa
  • French: cicadelle de la pomme de terre; cicadelle de l'haricot; cicadelle du cotonnier
  • Portuguese: cigarrinha verde

Local Common Names

  • Colombia: lorito verde
  • Cuba: saltohojas de los frijoles
  • Dominica: chinche verde del los frijoles
  • Germany: Amerikanische Kartoffel Zikade; Zikade, Amerikanische Kartoffel-
  • Haiti: cicadelle de l'haricot
  • Mexico: chicharrita del fríjol; gicarrita del frijol
  • Turkey: yaprak piresi

EPPO code

  • EMPOFA (Empoasca fabae)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hemiptera
  •                         Suborder: Auchenorrhyncha
  •                             Unknown: Cicadelloidea
  •                                 Family: Cicadellidae
  •                                     Genus: Empoasca
  •                                         Species: Empoasca fabae

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes


IndiaPresentVerma et al., 1994
-KarnatakaPresentSharanappa et al., 2010
-Uttar PradeshPresentPandey et al., 2007
-West BengalPresentLaskar and Ghimiray, 2004

North America

-AlbertaPresentHamilton, 1983
-British ColumbiaPresentHamilton, 1983
-ManitobaPresentHamilton, 1983
-New BrunswickPresentHamilton, 1983
-Newfoundland and LabradorPresentHamilton and Langor, 1987
-Nova ScotiaPresentHamilton, 1983
-OntarioPresentHamilton, 1983
-Prince Edward IslandPresentHamilton, 1983
-QuebecPresentHamilton, 1983
-SaskatchewanPresentHamilton, 1983
-AlabamaPresentKwon, 1988
-ArizonaPresentKwon, 1988
-ArkansasPresentKwon, 1988
-CaliforniaPresentKwon, 1988
-ColoradoPresentKwon, 1988
-ConnecticutPresentKwon, 1988
-FloridaPresentHamilton, 1983; Kwon, 1988
-GeorgiaPresentHamilton, 1983; Kwon, 1988
-IdahoPresentKwon, 1988
-IllinoisPresentKwon, 1988
-IowaPresentKwon, 1988
-KansasPresentDeLong, 1931; Medler, 1957
-KentuckyPresentDeLong, 1931
-LouisianaWidespreadDeLong, 1931; Medler, 1957
-MainePresentDeLong, 1931
-MarylandPresentMedler, 1957
-MassachusettsPresentDeLong, 1931
-MichiganWidespreadDeLong, 1931; Medler, 1957
-MinnesotaWidespreadDeLong, 1931; Medler, 1957
-MississippiWidespreadDeLong, 1931; Medler, 1957
-MissouriPresentDeLong, 1931; Medler, 1957
-NebraskaPresentDeLong, 1931; Medler, 1957
-New HampshirePresentDeLong, 1931
-New JerseyPresentMaletta et al., 2004
-New YorkWidespreadDeLong, 1931; Medler, 1957
-North CarolinaPresentDeLong, 1931; Medler, 1957
-OhioWidespreadDeLong, 1931; Medler, 1957
-OklahomaPresentDeLong, 1931; Medler, 1957
-PennsylvaniaWidespreadDeLong, 1931
-South CarolinaWidespreadDeLong, 1931; Medler, 1957
-South DakotaPresentDeLong, 1931; Medler, 1957
-TennesseeWidespreadDeLong, 1931; Medler, 1957
-TexasWidespreadDeLong, 1931; Medler, 1957
-VermontWidespreadDeLong, 1931; Medler, 1957
-VirginiaWidespreadDeLong, 1931
-West VirginiaPresentDeLong, 1931
-WisconsinWidespreadDeLong, 1931; Medler, 1957

Central America and Caribbean

CubaPresentLópez and Estrada, 2005

Growth Stages

Top of page Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal forms

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Anagrus armatus Parasite Eggs
Anagrus atomus Parasite Eggs
Anagrus empoascae Parasite Eggs
Anagrus epos Parasite Eggs
Anagrus nigriventris Parasite Eggs
Erynia radicans Pathogen Adults/Nymphs USA; Illinois Medicago sativa; potatoes
Hirsutella guyana Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Metarhizium anisopliae Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Nabis alternatus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Nabis americoferus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Nabis capsiformis Predator Adults/Nymphs
Nabis roseipennis Predator Adults/Nymphs
Nosema empoascae Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Oxyopes salticus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Phidippus audax Predator Adults/Nymphs


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Abdel-Salam AM; Assem MA; Hammad SM, 1974. Ecological studies and control on some artichoke insects in Egypt. 2 deg Congresso Internazionale di Studi sul Carciofo, Bari e Polignano a Mare. Turin, Italy: Edizioni Minerva Medica, 923-928.

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Backus EA; Gruenhagen NM; Becker SA, 1990. The potato leafhopper (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) exhibits different settling distributions on alfalfa and broad bean. Journal of Economic Entomology, 83(3):814-818

Backus EA; Hunter WA, 1989. Comparison of feeding behavior of the potato leafhopper Empoasca fabae (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) on alfalfa and broad bean leaves. Environmental Entomology, 18(3):473-480; 23 ref.

Ball ED, 1919. The potato leafhopper and its relation to the hopperburn. Journal of Economic Entomology, 12(2):149-154.

Brewer GJ; Horber E; Sorensen EL, 1986. Potato leafhopper (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) antixenosis and antibiosis in Medicago species. Journal of Economic Entomology, 79(2):421-425

Brewer GJ; Sorensen EL; Horber E; Kreitner GL, 1986. Alfalfa stem anatomy and potato leafhopper (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) resistance. Journal of Economic Entomology, 79(5):1249-1253

Broersma DB; Bernard RL; Luckmann WH, 1972. Some effects of soybean pubescence on populations of the potato leafhopper. Journal of Economic Entomology, 65(1):78-82.

Butcher FG, 1951. Some observations on various insects found on fruit and ornamentals in the Miami area. Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society, 64:196.

Cancelado RE; Radcliffe EB, 1979. Action thresholds for potato leafhopper on potatoes in Minnesota. Journal of Economic Entomology, 72(4):566-569

Cardoso AM, 1974. Survey of the leafhoppers of Portugal. I. Agronomica Lusitana, 35(2):145-167

Cuperus GW; Watrin CG; Radcliffe EB, 1986. Influence of postharvest alfalfa stubble on potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae (Harris) (Homoptera, Cicadellidae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, 59(2):246-252

DeLong DM, 1931. Distribution of the potato leafhopper (Empoasca fabae Harris) and its close relatives of Empoasca. Journal of Economic Entomology, 24(2):475-479.

DeLong DM, 1938. Biological studies on the leafhopper Empoasca fabae as a bean pest. USDA Tech. Bull. 618.

Dudley JE, 1926. The potato leafhopper and how to control it. United States Department of Agriculture Farmers' Bulletin 1462.

Ebeling W, 1959. Subtropical Fruit Pests. Los Angeles, USA: University of California.

Falistocco E; Falcinelli M, 1993. Karyotype and C-banding in Medicago noeana Boiss., Leguminosae. Cytologia, 58(2):151-154

Fenton FA; Hartzell A, 1923. Bionomics and control of the potato leafhopper, Empoasca mali LeBaron. Iowa State Agricultural Experiment Station Research Bulletin, 78:378-440.

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Flanders KL; Radcliffe EB; Hawkes JG, 1997. Geographic distribution of insect resistance in potatoes. Euphytica, 93(2):201-221; 33 ref.

Flinn PW; Taylor RAJ; Hower AA, 1986. Predictive model for the population dynamics of potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae (Homoptera: Cicadellidae), on alfalfa. Environmental Entomology, 15(4):898-904

Godfrey LD, 1997. UC IPM Pest management guidelines: dry bean. UC DANR Publication, 3339.

Habibi J; Backus EA; Czapla TH, 1993. Plant lectins affect survival of the potato leafhopper (Homoptera: Cicadellidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 86(3):945-951

Hamilton KGA, 1983. Introduced and native leafhoppers common to the Old and New Worlds (Rhynchota: Homoptera: Cicadellidae). Canadian Entomologist, 115(5):473-511

Hamilton KGA; Langor DW, 1987. Leafhopper fauna of Newfoundland and Cape Breton Islands (Rhynchota: Homoptera: Cicadellidae). Canadian Entomologist, 119(7-8):663-695

Hammond RB; Jeffers DL, 1990. Potato leafhopper (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) populations on soybean relay intercropped into winter wheat. Environmental Entomology, 19(6):1810-1819

Herms DA; Nielsen DG; Syndor TD, 1990. Comparison of two methods for sampling arboreal insect populations. Journal of Economic Entomology, 83(3):869-874

Hibbs ET; Dahlman DL; Rice RL, 1964. Empoasca fabae (Harris), Infestation and Potato foliage sugars. American Potato Journal, 41.

Hodge KT; Sawyer AJ; Humber RA, 1995. RAPD-PCR for identification of Zoophthora radicans isolates in biological control of the potato leafhopper. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 65(1):1-9

Hoffman GD; Hogg DB, 1991. Potato leafhopper (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) in water-stressed alfalfa: population consequences and field tests. Environmental Entomology, 20(4):1067-1073

Hoffman GD; Hogg DB; Boush GM, 1990. The effect of plant-water stress on potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae, egg developmental period and mortality. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 57(2):165-175

Hoffman GD; Hogg DB; Boush GM, 1991. Potato leafhopper (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) life history traits on water-stressed alfalfa in the early regrowth and bud stage. Environmental Entomology, 20(4):1058-1066

Hower AA; Flinn PW, 1986. Effects of feeding by potato leafhopper nymphs (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) on growth and quality of established stand alfalfa. Journal of Economic Entomology, 79(3):779-784

Jewett HH, 1929. A leafhopper pest of clover and alfalfa. Kentucky Extension Circular 44.

Johnson KB; Radcliffe EB, 1991. Validation of a model simulating the feeding effects of the potato leafhopper (Empoasca fabae) on potato growth. Crop Protection, 10(5):416-422

Johnson KB; Teng PS; Radcliffe EB, 1987. Analysis of potato foliage losses caused by interacting infestations of early blight, Verticillium wilt, and potato leafhopper; and the relationship to yield. Zeitschrift fur Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz, 94(1):22-33

Johnson RL, 1984. Determination of Economic Thresholds for Potato Leafhopper, Empoasca fabae (Harris), and Action Thresholds for Colorado Potato Beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), on Potato in Minnesota. PhD Thesis. Minnesota, USA: University of Minnesota.

Kwon YJ, 1988. Taxonomic revision of the leafhopper genus Macrosteles Fieber of the world (Homoptera: Cicadellidae). PhD Thesis. Cardiff, UK: University of Wales.

Lamp WO, 1991. Reduced Empoasca fabae (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) density in oat-alfalfa intercrop systems. Environmental Entomology, 20(1):118-126

Lamp WO; Nielsen GR; Danielson SD, 1994. Patterns among host plants of potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae (Homoptera: Cicadellidae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, 67(4):354-368

Lamp WO; Smith LM, 1989. Sampling objectives and problems. Miscellaneous Publications of the Entomological Society of America, No. 72:3-9

Laskar N; Ghimiray TS, 2004. Varietal and biophysical reactions of soybean to potato leaf hopper, Empoasca fabae (Harris.) and green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulz.). Journal of Applied Zoological Researches, 15(1):1-3.

López Díaz MT; Estrada Ortíz J, 2005. The neem bioinsecticides in pest insects control in economics crops. La Habana (Cuba). (Los bioinsecticidas de nim en el control de plagas de insectos en cultivos económicos. La Habana [Cuba].) Revista de la Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, 37(2):41-49.

MacKenzie JD; Gregory P; Tingey WM, 1977. Foliar glycoalkaloid content of some wild potato species with differential resistance to green peach aphid and potato leafhopper. 61. Annual Meeting of the Potato Association of America. Fredericton, New Brunswick (Canada). 24-28 Jul 1977. American Potato Journal (USA), 54(10):509.

Maletta M; Tietjen W; Ghidiu G; Holmstrom K; Cowgill W, 2004. Evaluation of controls for flea beetle on eggplant in an organic production system. Acta Horticulturae [Sustainability of horticultural systems in the 21st Century, a proceedings of the XXVI International Horticultural Congress, Toronto, Canada, 11-17 August, 2002.], No.638:341-346.

McGuire MR, 1989. Control of the potato leafhopper: past practices, current research, and future considerations. Miscellaneous Publications of the Entomological Society of America, No. 72:50-57

McGuire MR; Maddox JV; Armbrust EJ, 1987. Host range studies of an Erynia radicans strain (Zygomycetes: Entomophthoraceae) isolated from Empoasca fabae (Homoptera: Cicadellidae). Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 50(1):75-77

Medler JT, 1957. Migration of the potato leafhopper a report on a cooperative study. Journal of Economic Entomology, 50(4):493-497.

Moffitt HR; Reynolds HT, 1972. Bionomics of Empoasca solana DeLong on cotton in southern California. Hilgardia, 41(11):247-298.

Ni XinZhi; Backus EA; Maddox JV, 1997. Transmission mechanisms of Nosema empoascae (Microspora: Nosematidae) in Empoasca fabae (Homoptera: Cicadellidae). Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 69(3):269-275; 25 ref.

Ni XZ; Backus EA; Maddox JV, 1995. A new microsporidium, Nosema empoascae n. sp., from Empoasca fabae (Harris) (Homoptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadellidae). Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 66(1):52-59

Nielson MW, 1968. The leaf-hopper vectors of phytopathogenic viruses (Homoptera: Cicadellidae); taxonomy, biology, and virus transmission. USDA Technical Bulletin 1382.

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Pandey KC; Hasan N; Bhaskar RB, 2007. Field evaluation of indigenous biopesticides and resident bioagents for pest management in sorghum-cowpea intercrop. Range Management and Agroforestry [National Symposium "Rangeland and forage resources in changing socio-economic scenario", India, 15-17 November 2007.], 28(2A):159-161.

Pelletier Y; King RR, 1987. Semiochemicals and potato pests: Review and perspectives for crop protection. Symposium on Improving Potato Pest Protection. New Brunswick, Canada: Canada-New Brunswick Agri-Food Development Agreement, 1987, 146-172.

Pillemer EA; Tingey WM, 1976. Hooked trichomes: a physical plant barrier to a major agricultural pest. Science, 193(4252):482-484.

Poos FW, 1942. The potato leafhopper, a pest of alfalfa in the eastern states. United States Department of Agriculture Leaflet 229.

Pretorius A, 1960. Leafhoppers, a pest at Koster in the Western Transvaal. Citrus Growers, 313:17, 19.

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Radcliffe EB; Ragdale DW; Flanders KL, 1993. Management of aphids and leafhoppers. In: Rowe RC, ed, Potato Health Management, 117-126.

Raman KV; Tingey WM; Gregory P, 1979. Potato glycoalkaloids: effect on survival and feeding behavior of the potato leafhopper. Journal of Economic Entomology, 72(3):337-341

Ramirez-Martinez M; Ramos-Elorduy de Conconi J, 1978. Poblaciones de cigarritas (Homoptera-Cicadellidae) en doce variedades de papa en Chapingo, Mexico, y su posible relacion con la enfermedad de la `punta morada'. Agrociencia, 34:79-90.

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Reling D; Taylor RAJ, 1984. A collapsible tow net used for sampling arthropods by airplane. Journal of Economic Entomology, 77(6):1615-1617

Robbins JC; Daugherty DM; Hatchett JH, 1979. Ovipositional and feeding preference of leafhoppers (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) on Clark soybeans in relation to plant pubescence. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, 52(3):603-608

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Ruggles AG; Eyer JR, 1922. Preliminary notes on the life history and control of the potato leaf-hopper. Nineteenth Report of the State Entomologist of Minnesota.

Sanford LL, 1982. Effect of plant age on potato leafhopper infestation of resistant and susceptible potato clones. American Potato Journal (USA), 59(1):9-16.

Sanford LL; Carlson OV; Hibbs ET, 1972. Genetic variation in a population of tetraploid potatoes: foliar resistance to oviposition of the potato leafhopper. American Potato Journal (USA), 49(3):98-108.

Sanford LL; Deahl KL; Sinden SL, 1994. Glycoalkaloid content in foliage of hybrid and backcross populations from a Solanum tuberosum S. chacoense cross. American Potato Journal, 71(4):225-235

Sanford LL; Deahl KL; Sinden SL; Kobayashi RS, 1995. Glycoalkaloid content in tubers of hybrid and backcross populations from a Solanum tuberosum x S. chacoense cross. American Potato Journal, 72(5):261-271; 26 ref.

Sanford LL; Deahl KL; Sinden SL; Ladd TL Jr, 1992. Glycoalkaloid contents in tubers from Solanum tuberosum populations selected for potato leafhopper resistance. American Potato Journal, 69(11):693-703

Sanford LL; Ladd TL Jr, 1986. Tolerance to potato leafhopper in Solanum tuberosum L. gp. Tuberosum clones. American Potato Journal, 63(1):39-45

Sanford LL; Ladd TL, 1979. Selection for resistance to potato leafhopper in potatoes. II. Progress after two cycles of phenotypic recurrent selection. American Potato Journal, 56:541-547

Sanford LL; Ladd TL, 1983. Selection for resistance to potato leafhooper in potatoes. 3: Comparison of two selection procedures. American Potato Journal (USA), 60(9):653-659.

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Sanford LL; Ladd TL, 1987. Genetic transmission of potato leafhopper resistance from recurrent selection populations in potato Solanum tuberosum L. Gp Tuberosum. American Potato Journal, 64(12):655-662

Schaafsma AW; Ablett GR, 1990. Developing a decision threshold for potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae, control in dry beans. Annual-report-of-the-Bean-Improvement-Cooperative (USA), 33:76-77.

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Senanayake DG; Holliday NJ, 1988. Comparison of visual, sweep-net, and whole plant bag sampling methods for estimating insect pest populations on potato. Journal of Economic Entomology, 81(4):1113-1119

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Taylor PS; Shields EJ, 1995. Phenology of Empoasca fabae (Harris) (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) in its overwintering area and proposed seasonal phenology. Environmental Entomology, 24(5):1096-1108; 42 ref.

Taylor PS; Shields EJ; Davis JI, 1995. Empoasca fabae (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) identification and population studies with allozyme electrophoresis. Environmental Entomology, 24(5):1109-1114; 12 ref.

Taylor PS; Shields EJ; Tauber MJ; Tauber CA, 1995. Induction of reproductive diapause in Empoasca fabae (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) and its implications regarding southward migration. Environmental Entomology, 24(5):1086-1095; 49 ref.

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Tingey WM et al., 1978. Total foliar glycoalkaloids and resistance of wild potato species to Empoasca fabae (Harris). American Potato Journal (USA), 55:577-585.

Tingey WM, 1984. Glycoalkaloids as pest resistance factors. American Potato Journal (USA), 61(3):157-167.

Tingey WM; Gibson RW, 1978. Feeding and mobility of the potato leafhopper impaired by glandular trichomes of Solanum berthaultii and S. polyadenium. Journal of Economic Entomology, 71(6):856-858

Tingey WM; Lamont WJ Jr, 1988. Insect abundance in field beans altered by intercropping. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 78(3):527-535

Tingey WM; Laubengayer JE, 1981. Defense against the green peach aphid and potato leafhopper by glandular trichomes of Solanum berthaultii. Journal of Economic Entomology, 74(6):721-725

Tingey WM; Laubengayer JE, 1986. Glandular trichomes of a resistant hybrid potato alter feeding behavior of the potato leafhopper (Homoptera: Cicadellidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 79(5):1230-1234

Tingey WM; Plaisted RL, 1976. Tetraploid sources of potato resistance to Myzus persicae, Macrosiphum euphorbip, and Empoasca fabae. Journal of Economic Entomology, 69(5):673-676

Tolman JH; McLeod DGR; Harris CR, 1986. Yield losses in potatoes, onions and rutabagas in Southwestern Ontario, Canada the case for pest control. Crop Protection, 5(4):227-237

Verma KD; Parihar SBS; Khan IA, 1994. Effect of planting dates and field reaction of potato varieties/germplasm to leafhopper Empoasca fabae. 3. National Symposium. Modipuram (India). 1-3 Mar 1993. Shimla, India: Indian Potato Association, 188-190.

Walgenbach JF; Wyman JA, 1984. Dynamic action threshold levels for the potato leafhopper (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) on potatoes in Wisconsin. Journal of Economic Entomology, 77(5):1335-1340

Walgenbach JF; Wyman JA; Hogg DB, 1985. Evaluation of sampling methods and development of sequential sampling plan for potato leafhopper (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) on potatoes. Environmental Entomology, 14(3):231-236

Wandell WN, 1980. Propagation and cultural practices in shade tree nurseries. Hopkins, G. (Coordinating Editor): Proceedings of the National Urban Forestry Conference. November 13-16, 1978 Washington, D.C. Volume I Session I. Volume II Session II and III, poster session abstracts. State University of New York, College of Environmental Science and Forestry. Syracuse, New York, 500-507

Wells PW; Dively GP; Schalk JM, 1984. Resistance and reflective foil mulch as control measures for the potato leafhopper (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) on Phaseolus species. Journal of Economic Entomology, 77(4):1046-1051

Willson HR, 1991. Variability among field personnel in sampling potato leafhopper (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) populations in alfalfa. Journal of Agricultural Entomology, 8(1):71-76

Wraight SP; Butt TM; Galaini-Wraight S; Allee LL; Soper RS; Roberts DW, 1990. Germination and infection processes of the entomophoralean fungus Erynia radicans on the potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 56(2):157-174

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