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Datasheet

Amrasca biguttula biguttula
(Indian cotton jassid)

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Datasheet

Amrasca biguttula biguttula (Indian cotton jassid)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 21 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Amrasca biguttula biguttula
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Indian cotton jassid
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Adults have prominent black spots on both sides of the median line on the vertex of the head, and another on the apical area of the forewing.
TitleAdult
CaptionAdults have prominent black spots on both sides of the median line on the vertex of the head, and another on the apical area of the forewing.
Copyright©Natural History Museum, London
Adults have prominent black spots on both sides of the median line on the vertex of the head, and another on the apical area of the forewing.
AdultAdults have prominent black spots on both sides of the median line on the vertex of the head, and another on the apical area of the forewing.©Natural History Museum, London
Symptoms of leafhopper damage include crinkling around margins and upward curling of leaves; leaf tips and margins develop necrotic areas.
TitleSymptoms on cowpea
CaptionSymptoms of leafhopper damage include crinkling around margins and upward curling of leaves; leaf tips and margins develop necrotic areas.
Copyright©James Litsinger
Symptoms of leafhopper damage include crinkling around margins and upward curling of leaves; leaf tips and margins develop necrotic areas.
Symptoms on cowpeaSymptoms of leafhopper damage include crinkling around margins and upward curling of leaves; leaf tips and margins develop necrotic areas. ©James Litsinger
At later stages, bronzing of entire leaves can be seen; severely affected plants have stunted growth.
TitleSymptoms on groundnut
CaptionAt later stages, bronzing of entire leaves can be seen; severely affected plants have stunted growth.
Copyright©James Litsinger
At later stages, bronzing of entire leaves can be seen; severely affected plants have stunted growth.
Symptoms on groundnutAt later stages, bronzing of entire leaves can be seen; severely affected plants have stunted growth.©James Litsinger

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Amrasca biguttula biguttula Ishida

Preferred Common Name

  • Indian cotton jassid

Other Scientific Names

  • Amrasca biguttula (Shiraki)
  • Amrasca devastans (Distant)
  • Chlorita biguttula (Ishida)
  • Chlorita biguttula biguttula (Ishida)
  • Empoasca biguttula (Shiraki)
  • Empoasca devastans (Distant)
  • Sundapteryx biguttula (Ishida)
  • Sundapteryx biguttula biguttula (Ishida)

International Common Names

  • English: cotton leafhopper; green jassid; Indian cotton leafhopper; okra leafhopper

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Formosanische Baumwoll-Zikade

EPPO code

  • CHLRBI (Chlorita biguttula)
  • EMPOBI (Amrasca biguttula)
  • EMPODV (Amrasca devastans)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hemiptera
  •                         Suborder: Auchenorrhyncha
  •                             Unknown: Cicadelloidea
  •                                 Family: Cicadellidae
  •                                     Genus: Amrasca
  •                                         Species: Amrasca biguttula biguttula

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

GhanaPresentObeng-Ofori and Sackey (2003)

Asia

AfghanistanPresentDworakowska (1982)
BangladeshPresent, WidespreadAPPPC (1987); Ali (1990); Ali and Karim (1990)
ChinaPresentYang (1985); APPPC (1987); Chen et al. (1987)
IndiaPresent, WidespreadSuman et al. (1990); Simwat and Dhawan (1995)
-Andhra PradeshPresentRadhika and Reddy (2007)
-AssamPresentInee Gogoi and Dutta (2000)
-BiharPresentMandal et al. (2006)
-ChhattisgarhPresentNetam et al. (2007)
-DelhiPresentAsha Thomas et al. (2008)
-GujaratPresentBharadiya and Patel (2005)
-HaryanaPresentSaini et al. (2008)
-Himachal PradeshPresentRanjeet Bhatia and Divender Gupta (2003)
-KarnatakaPresentAnitha and Nandihalli (2008)
-Madhya PradeshPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Dharpure (2002, publ. 2003)
-MaharashtraPresentMen and Kandalkar (2002)
-MeghalayaPresentSingh and Singh (2002)
-OdishaPresentMohapatra (2008)
-PunjabPresentSandeep Kaur (2002)
-RajasthanPresentDhaka and Pareek (2008)
-Tamil NaduPresentMurugesan and Kavitha (2008)
-Uttar PradeshPresentJandial and Anil Kumar (2007)
-West BengalPresentPal (2004)
IndonesiaPresentWaterhouse (1993)
JapanPresentDworakowska (1982)
LaosPresentWaterhouse (1993)
MyanmarPresentWaterhouse (1993)
NepalPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Thapa et al. (1983)
PakistanPresent, WidespreadAhmed (1986); Ahmed and Rao (1986)
PhilippinesPresentBernardo and Taylo (1990); Barroga and Bernardo (1993)
TaiwanPresentHo and Chen (1992)
ThailandPresentWaterhouse (1993)
VietnamPresentDworakowska (1977); Waterhouse (1993)

Oceania

Christmas IslandPresentBellis et al. (2004)
GuamPresentSchreiner (1990)

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
Leaves / necrotic areas
Leaves / necrotic areas
Whole plant / dwarfing

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Anagrus Parasite Eggs
Anagrus empoascae Parasite Eggs
Anagrus flaveolus Parasite Eggs
Araneus inustus Predator
Arescon enocki Parasite Eggs
Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Bacillus thuringiensis thuringiensis Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Cheilomenes sexmaculata Predator Adults/Nymphs
Chrysoperla carnea Predator Adults/Nymphs
Complyomma Predator Nymphs
Euborellia pallipes Predator Adults/Nymphs
Gonatocerus ater Parasite Eggs
Hippasa holmerae Predator Adults/Nymphs
Mallada boninensis Predator Nymphs
Oligosita sp. Parasite Eggs
Orius albidipennis Predator Adults/Nymphs
Stethynium triclavatum Parasite Eggs

References

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Ahmed M, 1986. Leafhopper infestation of brinjal (Solanum melongena) and its relationship with various factors of growth of the plant. Pakistan Journal of Zoology, 18(2):209-214

Ahmed M; Rao S, 1986. Some commonly found leaf and planthoppers on vegetable plants in the suburbs of Peshawar N.W.F.P., Pakistan. Proceedings of Pakistan Congress of Zoology, 6:73-80

Ali MI, 1990. The development of symptoms due to attack of the cotton jassid, Amrasca biguttula (Shir.) (Homoptera: Jassidae) on cotton. Bangladesh Journal of Zoology, 18(2):211-214

Ali MI; Karim MA, 1990. Threshold sprays of insecticides: its advantages on conservation of arthropod predators and parasites in cotton ecosystem in Bangladesh. Bangladesh Journal of Zoology, 18(1):17-22

Anitha KR; Nandihalli BS, 2008. Seasonal incidence of sucking pests in okra ecosystem. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 21(1):137-138. http://203.129.218.157/ojs/index.php/kjas/article/viewFile/496/476

APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Technical Document No. 135. Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA).

Asha Thomas; Babita Chaudhary; Jagmail Singh; Ramamurthy VV, 2008. Preliminary observations on the non-target insect communities in Bt cotton. Indian Journal of Entomology, 70(4):400-402.

Balasubramanian G, 1979. Predicition of leafhopper population in upland cotton in relation to plant characters. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 49(12):970-973

Balasubramanian G; Chelliah S, 1985. Chemical control of pests of sunflower. Pesticides, 19(4):21-22

Balraj Singh; Atwal AS; Singh B, 1976. Role of physico-chemical characteristics of the leaves of cotton varieties in imparting resistance to Amrasca biguttula biguttula (Ishida). Indian Journal of Ecology, 3(2):172-180.

Barrion AT; Litsinger JA, 1981. Hippasa holmerp Thorell (Aranep: Lycosidae): a new predator of rice leafhoppers and planthoppers. International Rice Research Newsletter, 6(4):15

Barroga GF; Bernardo EN, 1993. Biology, feeding behavior and damage of the cotton leafhopper (Amrasca biguttula (Ishida)) on susceptible and resistant varieties of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench.). Philippine Entomologist, 9(2):186-200

Bellis GA; Donaldson JF; Carver M; Hancock DL; Fletcher MJ, 2004. Records of insect pests on Christmas Island and the Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Indian Ocean. Australian Entomologist, 31(3):93-102.

Bernardo EN; Taylo LD, 1990. Preference of the cotton leafhopper, Amrasca biguttula (Ishida) for okra, Abelmoschus esculentus (Linn.), and eggplant, Solanum melongena Linn. Philippine Agriculturist, 73(2):165-177

Bharadiya AM; Patel BR, 2005. Succession of insect pests of brinjal in north Gujarat. Pest Management and Economic Zoology, 13(1):159-161.

Brar KS; Sandhu GS, 1974. Note on the screening of sunflower varieties for resistance against jassid Amrasca biguttula biguttula (Ishida) and Empoasca sp. Indian Journal of Agricultural Research, 8(3):185-186.

Caasi-Lit M; Bernardo EN, 1990. Mechanism of resistance of eggplant (Solanum melongena Linn.) to cotton leafhopper, (Amrasca biguttula Ishida) I. Biological bases of resistance. Philippine Journal of Crop Science, 15(2):69-77

Chaudhary OP; Kashyap RK, 1992. Effect of some management practices on the incidence of insect pests and yield of egg plant (Solanum melongena L.) in India. Tropical Pest Management, 38(4):416-419

Chen YN; Zhong BZ; Zhou KJ, 1987. A preliminary study on the sources of Empoasca biguttula Shiraki in Hunan Province. Insect Knowledge, 24(3):148-150

Chopra NP, 1973. Cotton jassid: Nomenclatural correction. Entomologists Record, 85:88-89.

Darshan Singh; Ramzan M; Bindra OS, 1982. Determination of economic threshold of cotton jassid, Amrasca biguttula biguttula (Ishida) on okra. Indian Journal of Ecology, 9(1):113-117

Deshmukh SD; Akhare MD, 1979. Response of early and dwarf varieties of sunflower to jassids. Indian Journal of Plant Protection, 7(1):64-65

Dhaka SR; Pareek BL, 2008. Weather factors influencing population dynamics of major insect pests of cotton under semi arid agro-ecosystem. Indian Journal of Entomology, 70(2):157-163.

Dhamdhere SV; Bahadur J; Misra US, 1987. Studies on persistence and toxicity of carbamate insecticides against Amrasca biguttula biguttula Ishida infesting okra. PKV Research Journal, 11(1):97-99

Dharpure SR; 2002, publ. 2003. Changing scenario of insect pests of potato in Satpura plateau of Madhya Pradesh. Journal of the Indian Potato Association, 29(3/4):135-138.

Dhawan AK; Sidhu AS; Simwat GS, 1988. Assessment of avoidable loss in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum and G. arboreum) due to sucking pests and bollworms. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 58(4):290-292

Distant WL, 1918. Rhynchota VII. Homoptera: Appendix, Heteroptera:Addenda. In: Shipley AE, Marshall GAK, eds. The Fauna of British India including Ceylon and Burma, VIII 208, Taylor and Francis, London.

Dworakowska I, 1970. On some genera of Typhlocybini and Empoascini (Auchenorrhyncha, Cicadellidae, Typhlocybinae). Bulletin of Academy of Poland Science Cl. II Series. Science Biology,18(11):707-716.

Dworakowska I, 1977. On some Typhlocybinae form Vietnam. Folia Entomologica Hungarica, 30(2):9-47.

Dworakowska I, 1982. Empoascini of Japan, Korea and North-East part of China. Reichenbachia, 20:33-57.

Faleiro JR; Rai S, 1985. Determination of vulnerable stage of crop growth to leafhopper attack in okra. Indian Journal of Entomology, 47(2):238-239

Faleiro JR; Rai S, 1988. Yield-infestation relationship and economic injury level for okra leafhopper management in India. Tropical Pest Management, 34(1):27-30, 114-115, 119-

Gaikwad BP; Darekar KS; Chavan UD, 1991. Varietal reaction of eggplant against jassid. Journal of Maharashtra Agricultural Universities, 16(3):354-356

Gangwar SK; Sachan JN, 1981. Seasonal incidence and control of insect pests of brinjal with special reference to shoot and fruit borer, Leucinodes orbonalis Guen. in Meghalaya. Journal of Research, Assam Agricultural University, 2(2):187-192

Ghai S; Ahmed R, 1975. Larvae of Bochartia sp. (Acarina: Erythraeidae) parasitizing jassids. Entomologists' Newsletter, 5(5):29-30

Ghauri MSK, 1962. Distinctive features and geographical distribution of two closely similar pests of cotton (Empoasca devastans Dist and E. terra-e-reginae Paoli) (Homoptera, Cicadellidae). Bulletin of Entomology Research, 53:653-655.

Ghauri MSK, 1967. New mango leafhoppers from the oriental and Austro-oriental regions (Homoptera:Cicadellidoidea). Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society, London (B), 36(11-12):159-166.

Ho CC; Chen WH, 1992. Species survey of spider mites and seasonal occurrence of Thrips palmi, Chlorita biguttula biguttula, and Tetranychus cinnabarinus on eggplant. Chinese Journal of Entomology, 12(4):259-268.

Hooda VS; Dhankhar BS, 1992. Evaluation of wild taxa of okra against the leafhopper Amrasca biguttula biguttula (Ishida). Tests of Agrochemicals and Cultivars, No. 13:108-109

Hussain MA; Lal KB, 1940. Binomics of Empoasca devastans Distant on some varieties of cotton in Punjab. Indian Journal of Entomology, 2:123-136.

Inee Gogoi; Dutta BC, 2000. Seasonal abundance of cotton jassid, Amrasca biguttula biguttula (Ishida) on okra. Journal of the Agricultural Science Society of North-East India, 13(1):22-26.

Jandial VK; Anil Kumar, 2007. Insect pest status of vegetable crops in Western Uttar Pradesh. International Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 3(1):148-150. http://www.hindagrihorticulturalsociety.com

Joginder Singh; Gatoria GS; Sidhu AS; Karnail Singh; Dhawan AK, 1978. Effect of time of sowing on incidence of pest and plant characters of hirsutum cotton variety 320F. Entomon, 3(2):177-180

Kakar KL; Dogra GS, 1988. Insect-pests of okra, Abelmoschus esculentus (Linn.) Moench. and their control under mid-hill conditions. Journal of Insect Science, 1(2):195-198

Khan ZR; Agarwal RA, 1984. Ovipositional preference of jassid, Amrasca biguttula biguttula Ishida on cotton. Journal of Entomological Research, 8(1):78-80

Kishore N; Kashyap RK; Dhankhar BS, 1983. Field resistance of okra lines against jassid and fruit borer. Annals of Applied Biology, 102(Suppl.):130-131

Kulkarni SN; Raodeo AK, 1986. The incidence of sucking pest complex and its effect on plant growth and yield in cotton. Indian Journal of Plant Protection, 14(2):75-81

Kumar S; Jain PC; Kumawat SR, 1988. Comparative efficacy of insecticides against jassids, Amrasca biguttula biguttula Ishida of brinjal under field conditions. Indian Journal of Entomology, 50(4):449-453

Lal H; Mahal MS; Rajwant Singh; Balraj Singh, 1990. Influence of rainfall on population build-up of Amrasca biguttula biguttula (Ishida) on okra. Journal of Insect Science, 3(2):169-171

Litsinger JA; Ruhendi, 1984. Rice stubble and straw mulch suppression of preflowering insect pests of cowpeas sown after puddled rice. Environmental Entomology, 13(2):509-514

Mahal MS; Lal H; Singh R; Singh B, 1993. Field resistance in okra to the cotton jassid, Amrasca biguttula (Ishida) in relation to crop age. Journal of Insect Science, 6(1):60-63

Mahto Y, 1990. A study on vertical distribution of Amrasca biguttula biguttula (Ishida) in sunflower. Indian Journal of Entomology, 52(4):721-723

Malik VS; Nandal AS, 1986. Screening of cotton varieties/germplasm for resistance against cotton jassid, Amrasca biguttula biguttula (Ishida) and pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders). Haryana Agricultural University Journal of Research, 16(3):290-293

Mall NP; Pandey RS; Singh SV; Singh SK, 1992. Seasonal incidence of insect-pests and estimation of the losses caused by shoot and fruit borer on brinjal. Indian Journal of Entomology, 54(3):241-247

Mandal SK; Abdus Sattar; Gupta SC, 2006. Influence of meteorological parameters on the incidence of leaf hopper in okra at Pusa, Bihar. Journal of Agrometeorology, 8(1):126-129. http://www.agrimetassociation.com

Men UB; Kandalkar HG, 2002. Effect of nitrogen levels on the incidence of sunflower jassids, Amrasca biguttula biguttula Ishida. Journal of Applied Zoological Researches, 13(2/3):145-146.

Mohan S; Tajuddin A, 1988. Efficacy of a battery operated suction trap for sampling insects. Indian Journal of Plant Protection, 16(1):71-73

Mohapatra LN, 2008. Population dynamics of sucking pests in hirsutum cotton and influence of weather parameters on its incidence in western Orissa. Journal of Cotton Research and Development, 22(2):192-194.

Moorthy PNK; Alexander MP; Tewari GC, 1988. Versatile method for staining insect eggs and larvae in leaves. Journal of Economic Entomology, 81(1):403-405

Mote UN, 1982. Varietal susceptibility of brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) to jassid (Amrasca biguttula biguttula Ishida). Journal of the Maharashtra Agricultural Universities, 7(1):59-60

Mukhopadhyay A; Mandal A, 1994. Screening of brinjal (Solanum melongena) for resistance to major insect pests. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 64(11):798-803

Murugesan N; Kavitha A, 2008. Evaluation of an IPM module against the leafhopper, Amrasca devastans (Distant) in cotton. Journal of Biopesticides, 1(1):98-100. [Maiden issue of the Journal of Biopesticides.] http://www.jbiopest.com

Nagia DK; Mallik F; Kumar S; Saleem MD; Saini ML; Kumar A, 1993. Compatability of insecticides and fungicides for the control of leafhopper and leaf blight of brinjal. Plant Protection Bulletin (Faridabad), 45(2/3):16-18

Nair MRGK, 1986. Insects and mites of crops in India. New Delhi, India; Indian Council of Agricultural Research, Ed. 2:v + 408pp.

Netam PK; Ganguli RN; Dubey AK, 2007. Insect pest succession in okra. Environment and Ecology, 25(1):177-180.

Obeng-Ofori D; Sackey J, 2003. Field evaluation of non-synthetic insecticides for the management of insect pests of okra Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench in Ghana. Sinet, Ethiopian Journal of Science, 26(2):145-150.

Pal PK, 2004. Seasonal diversity with incidence and damage of insect pests in groundnut under red and laterite zone of West Bengal. Environment and Ecology, 22(3):565-570.

Panchabhavi KS; Kulkarni KA; Veeresh GK; Hiremath PC; Hegde RK, 1990. Comparative efficiency of techniques for assessing loss due to insect pests in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 60(4):252-254

Patil AS; Kadam MV; Dethe MD, 1977. Evaluation of some bhindi varieties for resistance to the jassid, Amrasca biguttula biguttula Ishd. Journal of Maharashtra Agricultural Universities, 2(3):275-276.

Prasad RT; Reddy GPV; Murthy MMK; Prasad VD, 1993. Efficacy and residues of certain newer insecticides on okra. Indian Journal of Plant Protection, 21(1):47-50

Premsekar, 1985. Induced mutant for jassid resistance in cotton. Mutation Breeding Newsletter, No. 26:7

Radadia GG; Patel CB, 1993. Evaluation of different insecticides against aphid (Aphis gossypii Glov.) and jassid (Amrasca biguttula biguttula Ishida) on okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench). Gujarat Agricultural University Research Journal, 18(2):120-121

Radhika P; Reddy BS, 2007. Seasonal incidence of insect-pests of cotton in the scarce rainfall zone of Andhra Pradesh. Journal of Cotton Research and Development, 21(1):98-102.

Rajendra Singh, 1978. Field observations on copulation, pre-oviposition and oviposition periods of Amrasca biguttula biguttula (Ishida). Indian Journal of Entomology, 40(1):100

Raju AK; Rao PRM, 1985. Evaluation of certain insecticides against the jassid, Amrasca biguttula biguttula Ishida on mesta. Indian Journal of Plant Protection, 13(1):31-33

Ranjeet Bhatia; Divender Gupta, 2003. Insect and mite pest status of subtropical horticultural crops in Himachal Pradesh. Journal of Insect Science (Ludhiana), 16(1/2):1-8.

Rao BRS, 1983. A catalogue of enemies of some important planthoppers and leafhoppers. In: Knight WJ, Pant NC, Robertson TS, Wilson MR, ed. Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Biotaxonomy, Classification and Biology of Leafhoppers and Planthoppers (Auchenorrhyncha) of Economic Importance, London, 4-7 October 1982 Commonwealth Institute of Entomology London UK, 385-403

Rao PRM; Raju AK; Rao RVA; Rao BHKM, 1981. Note on a new record of spider predators of Amrasca biguttula biguttula Ishida, a serious pest on mesta from Andhra Pradesh. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 51(3):203-204

Rote NB; Patel BK; Mehta NP; Shah AH; Raja KRV, 1985. Threshold level of Amrasca biguttula biguttula (Ishida) causing economic injury to cotton. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 55(7):491-492

Sagar P; Mehta SK, 1982. Field screening of exotic cowpea cultivars against jassid Amrasca bigutulla bigutulla (Ishida) (Cicadellidae: Homoptera) in Punjab. Journal of Research, Punjab Agricultural University, 19(3):222-223

Saini RK; Ram Niwas; Khichar ML, 2008. Population dynamics of leafhopper (Amrasca biguttula biguttula) on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) in relation to weather variables. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 78(11):1000-1002.

Sandeep Kaur, 2002. Management of cotton jassid, Amrasca biguttula biguttula (Ishida) and spotted bollworm, Earias spp. in okra. Vegetable Science, 29(2):172-175.

Schreiner IH, 1990. Resistance and yield response to Amrasca biguttula (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) in eggplant (Solanum melongena). Philippine Entomologist, 8(1):661-669

Senapati B; Mohanty GB, 1980. A note on the population fluctuation of sucking pests of cotton. Madras Agricultural Journal, 67(9):624-630

Sheila MK; Abraham CC; Sosamma Jacob, 1992. Orientational response of leaf hoppers, epilachna beetles and aphids to brinjal plants treated with the sublethal concentrations of decamethrin and carbaryl. Agricultural Research Journal of Kerala, 30(2):132-134

Sheila MK; Abraham CC; Wahid PA, 1991. Feeding response of insect pests of brinjal as influenced by sub-lethal doses of insecticides. Journal of Nuclear Agriculture and Biology, 20(3):215-217; 7 ref.

Shukla RP, 1986. Within plant distribution of leaf hopper, Amrasca biguttula biguttula Ishida (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) on brinjal. International Journal of Tropical Agriculture, 4(4):360-364

Shukla RP, 1989. Population fluctuation of Leucinodes orbonalis and Amrasca biguttula biguttula on brinjal (Solanum melongena) in relation to abiotic factors in Meghalaya. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 59(4):260-264

Simwat GS; Dhawan AK, 1995. Population distribution of cotton jassid (Amrasca biguttula biguttula) and whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) on upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) at different times during day and levels of plant canopy. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 65(1):84-86

Simwat GS; Gill BS, 1992. Population build-up of cotton jassid and white fly on Gossypium arboreum and its correlation with weather factors. Journal of Research, Punjab Agricultural University, 29(1):70-76

Singh G; Misra PN, 1988. Efficacy of new insecticides for control of insect pests of spring okra (Abelmoschus esculentus). Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 58(10):783-785

Singh J; Sinha MM; Prasad AR, 1977. Light trap catches of paddy pests at Agricultural Research Institute Farm, Dholi, Muzaffarpur (Bihar). Entomologists' Newsletter, 7(7/8):35

Singh J; Sohi AS; Dhaliwal ZS; Mann HS, 1993. Comparative incidence of Helicoverpa armigera (Hub.) and other insect pests on okra and sunflower intercrops in cotton under Punjab conditions. Journal of Insect Science, 6(1):137-138

Singh SP; Rao NS and Henneberry TJ, 1993a. Leafhoppers and their natural enemies. Tech. Bull. No. 6. Project Directorate Biological Control, Bangalore.

Singh SV; Kavadia VS, 1989. Insecticidal schedule against the pests attacking brinjal. I. During the preflowering stage. Indian Journal of Entomology, 51(1):64-68

Singh YP; Singh PP, 2002. Pest complex of egg plant (Solanum melongena) and their succession at medium high altitude hills. Indian Journal of Entomology, 64(3):335-342; 5 ref.

Sontakke BK; Singh DN; Misra B, 1989. Seasonal abundance of potato pests in relation to environmental factors. Environment and Ecology, 7(2):391-394

Srinivasan K; Krishnakumar NK, 1988. Timing of scheduled insecticide application for control of leafhopper (Amrasca biguttula biguttula) on okra (Abelmoschus esculentus). Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 58(11):828-831

SUBBA RAO BR; PARSHAD B; RAM A; SINGH RP; SRIVASTAVA ML, 1965. Studies on the parasites and predators of Empoasca devastans Distant (Homoptera : Jassidae). Indian Journal of Entomology, 27(pt. 1):104-106 pp.

SUBBA RAO BR; PARSHAD B; RAM A; SINGH RP; SRIVASTAVA ML, 1968. Distribution of Empoasca devastans and its egg parasites in the Indian Union. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 11(2):250-254 pp.

Sukhija HS; Butter NS; Jagdev Singh; Balwinder Singh, 1987. Assessment of losses due to important insect pests of cotton in the Punjab. Agricultural Science Digest, India, 7(2):115-118

Suman CL; Wahi SD; Peter C; Nagarkatti S, 1990. Spatial pattern of the cotton leaf hopper, Amrasca biguttula biguttula (nymph and adult) under natural condition. Indian Journal of Entomology, 52(4):570-573

Surulivelu T; Kumaraswami T, 1989. Effect of 'skip row coverage' of insecticide application on some sucking pests and their predators in cotton. Journal of Biological Control, 3(1):17-19

Teli VS; Dalaya VP, 1981. Varietal resistance in okra to Amrasca biguttula biguttula (Ishida). Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 51(10):729-731

Thanki KV; Patel JR, 1991. Field evaluation of some brinjal varieties for resistance to insect pests and disease in north Gujarat conditions. Gujarat Agricultural University Research Journal, 16(2):94-97

Thapa VK, 1983. Descriptions of two new genera and a few new records of leafhoppers (Typhlocybinp, Cicadellidae, Homoptera) from Nepal. In: Knight WJ, Pant NC, Robertson TS, Wilson MR, ed. Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Biotaxonomy, Classification and Biology of Leafhoppers and Planthoppers (Auchenorrhyncha) of Economic Importance, London, 4-7 October 1982 Commonwealth Institute of Entomology London UK, 173-177

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Uthamasamy S; Subramaniam TR; Jayaraj S, 1975. Preference of the leafhopper, Amrasca bigutulla bigutulla for okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) varieties. Indian Journal of Entomology, 37(1):100, 102

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Waterhouse DF, 1993. The Major Arthropod Pests and Weeds of Agriculture in Southeast Asia. ACIAR Monograph No. 21. Canberra, Australia: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, 141 pp.

Yang JH, 1985. A preliminary observation on Euborellia pallipes Shiraki. Insect Knowledge (Kunchong Zhishi), 22(6):271-272.

Yein BR, 1983. Relative susceptibility of some cotton cultivars to insect pests. Journal of Research, Assam Agricultural University, 4(2):141-147

Distribution References

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Simwat G S, Dhawan A K, 1995. Population distribution of cotton jassid (Amrasca biguttula biguttula) and whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) on upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) at different times during day and levels of plant canopy. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 65 (1), 84-86.

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Yang J H, 1985. A preliminary observation on Euborellia pallipes Shiraki. Insect Knowledge (Kunchong Zhishi). 22 (6), 271-272.

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