Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Elsinoë australis
(citrus scab)

Toolbox

Datasheet

Elsinoë australis (citrus scab)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Elsinoë australis
  • Preferred Common Name
  • citrus scab
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Ascomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •         Class: Dothideomycetes

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Elsinoë australis (citrus scab); symptoms, showing scab lesions on a satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu). USA.
TitleField symptoms
CaptionElsinoë australis (citrus scab); symptoms, showing scab lesions on a satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu). USA.
Copyright©Don Ferrin/Louisiana State University Agricultural Center/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Elsinoë australis (citrus scab); symptoms, showing scab lesions on a satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu). USA.
Field symptomsElsinoë australis (citrus scab); symptoms, showing scab lesions on a satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu). USA.©Don Ferrin/Louisiana State University Agricultural Center/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Elsinoë australis (citrus scab); close view of scab lesions on a satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu). USA.
TitleField symptoms
CaptionElsinoë australis (citrus scab); close view of scab lesions on a satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu). USA.
Copyright©Don Ferrin/Louisiana State University Agricultural Center/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Elsinoë australis (citrus scab); close view of scab lesions on a satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu). USA.
Field symptomsElsinoë australis (citrus scab); close view of scab lesions on a satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu). USA.©Don Ferrin/Louisiana State University Agricultural Center/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Elsinoë australis Bitanc. & Jenkins

Preferred Common Name

  • citrus scab

Other Scientific Names

  • Sphaceloma australis Bitanc. & Jenkins
  • Sphaceloma fawcettii var. viscosa Jenkins

International Common Names

  • English: sweet orange scab
  • Spanish: antracnosis del naranjo; costra de los agrios; roña de la naranja dulce; sarna de la naranja dulce; sarna o roña del naranjo dulce
  • French: anthracnose de l'oranger; gale des agrumes

EPPO code

  • ELSIAU (Elsinoe australis)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Ascomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •                 Class: Dothideomycetes
  •                     Subclass: Dothideomycetidae
  •                         Order: Myriangiales
  •                             Family: Elsinoaceae
  •                                 Genus: Elsinoë
  •                                     Species: Elsinoë australis

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page The teleomorphs of the citrus scab pathogens Elsinöe fawcettii and E. australis are only known from Brazil, so most published information concerns the fungi identified as their anamorphs. The species are differentiated primarily by host range, tissues attacked and molecular markers (Tan et al., 1996; Timmer et al., 1996). Variety scabiosa, previously described by Jenkins (1936), is no longer considered valid. Four pathotypes of E. fawcettii are now recognized based on host range: Florida Broad Host Range, Florida Narrow Host Range, Tryon's and Lemon (Timmer et al., 1996).

Description

Top of page Teleomorph

Ascomata pulvinate, globose, dark, pseudoparenchymatous, multi-locular, up to 80-120 µm thick. Asci up to 20 per locule, subglobose or ovoid, bitunicate, inner wall thickened at the top, 12-16 µm diameter, eight-spored. Ascospores hyaline, ellipsoidal or oblong-ellipsoidal, with two to four cells, usually constricted at the central septum, 10-12 x 5-6 µm diameter (12-20 x 4-8 µm for E. australis). Only known from Brazil.

Anamorph

Acervuli intra-epidermal or sub-epidermal, scattered or confluent, pseudoparenchymatous. Conidiogenous cells originated from the upper cells of the pseudoparenchyma or from the hyaline or pale-brown phialidic conidiophores, which have two to four septa. Conidia hyaline, unicellular, ellipsoid, biguttulate, 4-8 x 2-3 µm. Mycelium hyaline, scanty, septate, short-branched. Colonies in culture very slow-growing, rose to purple, well raised above the agar surface and covered by tufts of short, erect hyphae. The anamorphs of E. fawcettii and E. australis are practically identical, except that E. fawcettii produces spindle-shaped conidia (10-15 x 2.5 -3.0 µm) on host tissue whereas E. australis does not.

For more information, see Bitancourt and Jenkins (1936), Sivanesan and Critchett (1974a,b,c), Holliday (1980) and Sivanesan (1984).

Distribution

Top of page Ciccarone (1957) identified a scab on lemon fruits in Sicily as caused by E. australis but there have been no records in Italy since.

See also CABI/EPPO (1998, No. 198).

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 23 Apr 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

EthiopiaAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)EPPO (2020); CABI/EPPO (2012)

Asia

IndiaAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)EPPO (2020)
-Tamil NaduAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)EPPO (2020)
JapanPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
-HonshuPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
South KoreaPresentCABI/EPPO (2012); EPPO (2020)

Europe

ItalyAbsent, Formerly present1957CABI/EPPO (2012); EPPO (2020)
-SicilyAbsent, Formerly presentCABI/EPPO (2012); EPPO (2020)
NetherlandsAbsent, Confirmed absent by surveyEPPO (2020)
SloveniaAbsentEPPO (2020)

North America

Dominican RepublicAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)EPPO (2020)
United StatesPresent, LocalizedCABI/EPPO (2012); EPPO (2020)
-ArizonaPresent, Few occurrencesNAPPO (2011); CABI/EPPO (2012); EPPO (2020)
-CaliforniaPresent, LocalizedNAPPO (2016); NAPPO (2013); EPPO (2020)
-FloridaPresent, Few occurrencesNAPPO (2011); CABI/EPPO (2012); EPPO (2020)
-LouisianaPresent, Few occurrencesNAPPO (2010a); CABI/EPPO (2012); EPPO (2020)
-MississippiPresent, Few occurrencesNAPPO (2010); CABI/EPPO (2012); EPPO (2020)
-TexasPresentNAPPO (2010a); CABI/EPPO (2012); EPPO (2020)

Oceania

AustraliaPresent, LocalizedCABI/EPPO (2012); EPPO (2020)
-New South WalesPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020); CABI/EPPO (2012)
-QueenslandPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020); CABI/EPPO (2012)
Cook IslandsPresentCABI/EPPO (2012); EPPO (2020)
FijiPresentCABI/EPPO (2012); EPPO (2020)
New CaledoniaAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)EPPO (2020)
NiuePresentCABI/EPPO (2012); EPPO (2020)
SamoaAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)CABI (Undated); CABI/EPPO (2012); EPPO (2020)Original citation: South Pacific Commission, 2008, personal communication

South America

ArgentinaPresentCABI/EPPO (2012); EPPO (2020)
BoliviaPresentCABI/EPPO (2012); EPPO (2020)
BrazilPresentCABI/EPPO (2012); EPPO (2020)
-GoiasPresentCABI/EPPO (2012); EPPO (2020)
-Minas GeraisPresentCABI/EPPO (2012); EPPO (2020)
-Rio de JaneiroPresentCABI/EPPO (2012); EPPO (2020)
-Rio Grande do SulPresentCABI/EPPO (2012); EPPO (2020)
-Sao PauloPresentCABI/EPPO (2012); EPPO (2020)
EcuadorAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)CABI/EPPO (2012); EPPO (2020)
ParaguayPresentCABI/EPPO (2012); EPPO (2020)
UruguayPresentCABI/EPPO (2012); EPPO (2020)

Risk of Introduction

Top of page The citrus scab pathogens E. fawcettii and E. australis are not listed as quarantine pests by any regional plant protection organization.

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page E. australis is most important on orange (Citrus sinensis) and mandarin (C. reticulata) fruit. It also infects lemons (C. limon), satsumas (C. unshiu), limes (C. aurantifolia), Fortunella and fruit of many other citrus species, but is not known to affect leaves.

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

Top of page

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage

Symptoms

Top of page Fruits are infected in the early stages of their development, grow misshapen and are subject to premature fall. On the rind of developed fruits, raised lesions are formed with different shape, size and colour according to the species and cultivar affected. They appear as scattered protuberances, conical projections or crater-like outgrowths, or they coalesce to give scabby patches or extensive areas of fine eruptions. Scab lesions do not extend into the albedo. E. australis forms larger, smoother, more circular scabs than E. fawcettii scabs, which are typically irregular, warty and deeply fissured.

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Fruit / abnormal shape
Fruit / lesions: scab or pitting
Fruit / premature drop

Biology and Ecology

Top of page Inoculum for new infections consists of conidia, and possibly ascospores, from scabs formed on fruits. Conidia are formed abundantly on wet scabs, in a nearly saturated atmosphere, between 20 and 28°C.

Germination of conidia and infection do not require rainfall, both processes being possible in the presence of free water from dew or fog. A wet period of 2.5-3.5 h is needed for conidial infection. The temperature range required for germination of conidia is 13-32°C, but infection does not take place below 14°C or above 25°C (Whiteside, 1975). The incubation period is at least 5 days. The optimal temperature for disease development is 20-21°C. Fruits are infected when young, i.e. when not more than 20 mm across.

The pathogen is able to survive in scab pustules on fruits remaining on the tree, providing the inoculum for the next season. Even in resistant cultivars, the fungus can survive on diseased shoots from susceptible rootstocks (Whiteside, 1988). For more information, see Yamada (1961) and Whiteside (1975, 1988).

Dissemination of the pathogen is mostly by rain (or irrigation water), although insects and, to a certain extent, wind-carried water droplets containing spores may contribute to the spread of the pathogen. In international trade the pathogen can be carried on infected nursery stock, ornamental citrus plants, and fruits.

Plant Trade

Top of page
Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Fruits (inc. pods) hyphae; spores Yes Yes
Leaves hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Growing medium accompanying plants
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
Wood

Impact

Top of page Of the two citrus scab pathogens, E. fawcettii is the more widespread but E. australis is more economically significant as it attacks species of citrus which are more widely grown.

In the field, E. fawcettii affects lemons, mandarins, tangelos and grapefruits, whereas most cultivars of oranges and limes are less or not affected. The disease may be serious in the nursery on susceptible rootstocks such as sour oranges, rough lemons, Poncirus trifoliata and Citrus limonia. It may stunt seedlings or make them bushy and difficult to bud. Scabs are present, particularly on the young growth. Infested nursery stock is the primary means by which scab is introduced into new plantings. Severely infected fruits are scarred and distorted and consequently unmarketable. E. australis differs in only causing fruit scab, mainly on oranges and mandarins.

Citrus scab is widespread in areas where suitable conditions of temperature and rainfall or high humidity prevail (wet subtropics and cooler tropics). Elsewhere, it occurs when new flush and fruit set coincide with spells of relatively warm, humid weather. It is also favoured by local conditions such as damp, low-lying areas and dense, shaded citrus groves. Citrus scab is important only in areas where susceptible species or cultivars of citrus fruit are grown for the fresh market and where young plants or new growth develop under favourable conditions of temperature, moisture and shade. Losses largely depend on seasonal and local variations in weather. The disease is not a problem in areas with a limited annual rainfall (less than 1300 mm), long-lasting hot seasons (mean monthly temperature above 24°C) or a dry summer. In the Mediterranean region and, more generally, in citrus-growing areas with a dry climate (e.g. California and Arizona in the USA, where the disease has never become established) scab, even if present, is rare or unimportant.

Detection and Inspection

Top of page Semi-selective media containing antibiotics and fungicides (dodine) have been developed for isolating E. fawcettii from scab lesions (Whiteside, 1988). The possibility of using immunochemical methods for pathogen detection has been envisaged (Peláez Abellán et al., 1986). E. fawcettii and E. australis are readily distinguished using molecular techniques (Tan et al., 1996).

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page E. fawcettii scabs are typically irregular, warty and deeply fissured, whereas E. australis forms larger, smoother, more circular scabs.

Citrus scab may be confused with other diseases, e.g. bacterial canker (Xanthomonas campestris pv. citri) and melanose (Diaporthe citri), or with injuries caused by various agents. For illustrations and further information, see Fawcett (1936), Brun (1971), Knorr (1973), Klotz (1978), Whiteside et al. (1988).

Prevention and Control

Top of page

Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Citrus scab can be controlled using resistant cultivars (Ieki, 1982; Yoshida and Shichijo, 1984; Reddy et al., 1986) and by fungicide applications both in the nursery and in the orchard. Protectant fungicides may be applied (copper, ferbam, thiram, difenoconazole and chlorothalonil have been used), or systemic fungicides (benomyl, carbendazim) before flushing and after petal fall (see González, 1980; Rao, 1983; Reddy et al., 1983). Benomyl-tolerant strains of the pathogen have been found (Whiteside, 1980).

Crop sanitation, establishing citrus nurseries in dry areas or in greenhouses, and adoption of proper treatments, may help in production of rootstocks and budwood free from the pathogen. The usual procedures for importation of certified citrus planting material should be followed. For more information, see also Knorr (1977) and Roistacher et al. (1977).

References

Top of page

Bitancourt AA; Jenkins AE, 1936. Elsinoë fawcettii, the perfect stage of citrus scab fungus. Phytopathology, 26:393-396.

Brun J, 1971. Les scab des agrumes. Fruits d'Outre Mer, 26:759-767.

CABI/EPPO, 1998. Distribution maps of quarantine pests for Europe (edited by Smith IM, Charles LMF). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, xviii + 768 pp.

CABI/EPPO, 2012. Elsinoë australis. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No.October. Wallingford, UK: CABI, Map 55 (Edition 5).

Ciccarone A, 1957. Elsinoë australis Bitancourt et Jenkins, causing a citrus scab in Sicily. Rivista di Agrumicoltura, 2:1-36.

Diaz LE; Gimenez G; Zefferino E; Cerdeiras JT, 1992. Relevamiento de especies y biotipos de sarnas de los citrus en Uruguay. (Abstr.) Fitopatol. Bras., 17:165.

EPPO, 2012. EPPO Reporting Service. EPPO Reporting Service. Paris, France: EPPO. http://archives.eppo.org/EPPOReporting/Reporting_Archives.htm

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

FAWCETT HS, 1936. Citrus diseases and their control, Second edition. New York and London, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., xv+656 pp.

Gonzalez E, 1980. Study of the effectiveness of various fungicides against scab in Persian lime. Cultivos Tropicales, 2(3):129-138

Holliday P, 1980. Fungus diseases of tropical crops. Fungus diseases of tropical crops. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Ieki H, 1982. Resistance of Citrus to scab. Proceedings of the International Society of Citriculture, 1981. Volume I. International Society of Citriculture Tokyo Japan, 340-344

IPPC, 2010. Detection of sweet orange scab (Elsinoë australis) in Texas and Louisiana, United States. IPPC Official Pest Report, No. USA-11/1. Rome, Italy: FAO. https://www.ippc.int/

Jenkins AE, 1936. Australian citrus scab caused by Saphaceloma fawcettii scabiosa. Phytopathology, 26:195-196.

Klotz LJ, 1978. Fungal, bacterial, and nonparasitic diseases and injuries originating in the seedbed, nursery, and orchard. In: Reuther W, Calavan EC, Carman GE, eds. The Citrus Industry. Vol. IV. Berkeley, USA: University of California.

Knorr LC, 1974. Citrus diseases and disorders. Citrus diseases and disorders. University of Florida. Gainesville USA, 163 pp.

Knorr LC, 1977. Citrus. In: Hewitt WB, Chiarappa L, eds. Plant health and quarantine in international transfer of genetic resources. Cleveland, USA: CRC Press, 111-117.

Kunta M; Rascoe J; Sa PBde; Timmer LW; Palm ME; Graça JVda; Mangan RL; Malik NSA; Salas B; Satpute A; Sétamou M; Skaria M, 2013. Sweet orange scab with a new scab disease "syndrome" of citrus in the USA associated with Elsinoë australis. Tropical Plant Pathology, 38(3):203-212. http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1982-56762013000300004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en

NAPPO, 2010. Phytosanitary Alert System: Detection of Sweet Orange Scab (Elsinoë australis) in Mississippi. NAPPO. http://www.pestalert.org/oprDetail.cfm?oprID=470

NAPPO, 2010. Phytosanitary Alert System: Detection of Sweet Orange Scab (Elsinoë australis) in Texas and Louisiana. NAPPO. http://www.pestalert.org/oprDetail.cfm?oprID=451

NAPPO, 2011. Phytosanitary Alert System: Detection of Sweet Orange Scab (Elsinoë australis) in Florida and Arizona. NAPPO. http://www.pestalert.org/oprDetail.cfm?oprID=475

NAPPO, 2013. Phytosanitary Alert System: Sweet Orange Scab (Elsinoë australis) detected in California. NAPPO. http://www.pestalert.org/oprDetail.cfm?oprID=571

NAPPO, 2016. Phytosanitary Alert System: Elsinoë australis (Sweet Orange Scab) - APHIS Establishes Quarantined Areas in California for Sweet Orange Scab and Revises the Conditions for Movement of Regulated Fruit and Nursery Stock under the SOS Quarantine. NAPPO. http://www.pestalert.org/oprDetail.cfm?oprID=683

Pelaez Abellan AI; Fernandez Martinez AI; Garcia C, 1986. Antigenic detection of the fungus Sphaceloma fawcettii. Ciencias de la Agricultura, 26:3-8.

Rao NNR, 1983. Efficacy of two copper-based fungicides in the control of citrus scab. Pesticides, 17: 31-33.

Reddy MRS; Naidu PH; Reddy GS, 1986. Screening rough lemon and Rangpur lime strains for resistance to citrus scab. Current Science, India, 55(3):152-153

Reddy MRS; Reddy BC; Reddy GS, 1983. Control of scab on Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia Osb.). Current Research, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore, 12(1):19

Roistacher CN; Calavan EC; Navarro L, 1977. Concepts and procedures for importation of citrus budwood. Proceedings of the International Society of Citriculture, 1:133-136.

Sivanesan A, 1984. The bitunicate ascomycetes and their anamorphs. The bitunicate ascomycetes and their anamorphs. Liechtenstein: J. Cramer Vaduz, 701 pp.

Sivanesan A; Critchett C, 1974a. Sphaceloma fawcettii var. scabiosa. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria No. 437. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Sivanesan A; Critchett C, 1974b. Elsinoë fawcettii. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria No. 438. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Sivanesan A; Critchett C, 1974c. Elsinoë australis. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria No. 440. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Tan MK; Timmer LW; Broadbent P; Priest M; Cain P, 1996. Differentiation by molecular analysis of Elsinoe spp. causing scab diseases of citrus and its epidemiological implications. Phytopathology, 86(10):1039-1044; 19 ref.

Timmer LW; Priest M; Broadbent P; Tan MK, 1996. Morphological and pathological characterization of species of Elsinoe causing scab diseases of citrus. Phytopathology, 86(10):1032-1038; 29 ref.

Whiteside JO, 1975. Biological characteristics of Elsinoe fawcettii pertaining to the epidemiology of sour orange scab. Phytopathology, 65(10):1170-1175

Whiteside JO, 1978. Pathogenicity of two biotypes of Elsinoe fawcettii to sweet orange and some other cultivars. Phytopathology, 68(8):1128-1131

Whiteside JO, 1980. Detection of benomyl-tolerant strains of Elsinoe fawcettii in Florida citrus groves and nurseries. Plant Disease, 64(9):871-872

Whiteside JO, 1988. Factors contributing to the rare occurrence of scab on sweet orange in Florida. Plant Disease, 72(7):626-628

Whiteside JO; Garnsey SM; Timmer LW, 1988. Compendium of citrus diseases. Compendium of citrus diseases., vi + 80 pp.

Yamada S, 1961. Epidemiological studies on the scab disease of Satsuma orange caused by Elsinoë fawcettii Bitancourt et Jenkins and its control. Tokai-Kinki National Agricultural Experiment Station, Horticultural Station, Special Bulletin No. 2.

Yoshida T; Shichijo T, 1984. Testing for resistance of citrus cultivars to Elsinoe fawcettii and segregation of resistance on hybrid seedlings. Bulletin, Fruit Tree Research Station, Japan, B (Okitsu), No. 11:9-16

Distribution References

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI/EPPO, 2012. Elsinoë australis. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, Wallingford, UK: CABI. Map 55 (Edition 5).

EPPO, 2020. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO.

NAPPO, 2010. Phytosanitary Alert System: Detection of Sweet Orange Scab (Elsinoë australis) in Texas and Louisiana. In: Phytosanitary Alert System: Detection of Sweet Orange Scab (Elsinoë australis) in Texas and Louisiana. USA: NAPPO. http://www.pestalert.org/oprDetail.cfm?oprID=451

NAPPO, 2010a. Phytosanitary Alert System: Detection of Sweet Orange Scab (Elsinoë australis) in Mississippi., NAPPO. http://www.pestalert.org/oprDetail.cfm?oprID=470

NAPPO, 2011. Phytosanitary Alert System: Detection of Sweet Orange Scab (Elsinoë australis) in Florida and Arizona., NAPPO. http://www.pestalert.org/oprDetail.cfm?oprID=475

NAPPO, 2013. Phytosanitary Alert System: Sweet Orange Scab (Elsinoë australis) detected in California., NAPPO. http://www.pestalert.org/oprDetail.cfm?oprID=571

NAPPO, 2016. Phytosanitary Alert System: Elsinoë australis (Sweet Orange Scab) - APHIS Establishes Quarantined Areas in California for Sweet Orange Scab and Revises the Conditions for Movement of Regulated Fruit and Nursery Stock under the SOS Quarantine., NAPPO. http://www.pestalert.org/oprDetail.cfm?oprID=683

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map