Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Eggplant mottled dwarf virus
(tomato vein yellowing virus)

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Datasheet

Eggplant mottled dwarf virus (tomato vein yellowing virus)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 11 January 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Eggplant mottled dwarf virus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • tomato vein yellowing virus
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Unknown: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •     Unknown: "RNA viruses"
  •       Order: Mononegavirales
  •         Family: Rhabdoviridae

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Symptoms typically induced by natural EMDV infection in aubergine.
TitleSymptoms on aubergine leaves
CaptionSymptoms typically induced by natural EMDV infection in aubergine.
CopyrightG.P. Martelli
Symptoms typically induced by natural EMDV infection in aubergine.
Symptoms on aubergine leavesSymptoms typically induced by natural EMDV infection in aubergine.G.P. Martelli
Symptoms typically induced by natural EMDV infections in aubergine.
TitleSymptoms on aubergine leaves
CaptionSymptoms typically induced by natural EMDV infections in aubergine.
CopyrightG.P. Martelli
Symptoms typically induced by natural EMDV infections in aubergine.
Symptoms on aubergine leavesSymptoms typically induced by natural EMDV infections in aubergine.G.P. Martelli
Malformed fruit on an EMDV-infected aubergine.
TitleSymptoms on aubergine fruit
CaptionMalformed fruit on an EMDV-infected aubergine.
CopyrightG.P. Martelli
Malformed fruit on an EMDV-infected aubergine.
Symptoms on aubergine fruitMalformed fruit on an EMDV-infected aubergine.G.P. Martelli
EMDV-induced vein yellowing in honeysuckle.
TitleSymptoms on honeysuckle leaves
CaptionEMDV-induced vein yellowing in honeysuckle.
CopyrightG.P. Martelli
EMDV-induced vein yellowing in honeysuckle.
Symptoms on honeysuckle leavesEMDV-induced vein yellowing in honeysuckle.G.P. Martelli

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Eggplant mottled dwarf virus

Preferred Common Name

  • tomato vein yellowing virus

Other Scientific Names

  • eggplant mottled dwarf nucleorhabdovirus

International Common Names

  • English: Hibiscus vein yellowing virus; Pelargonium vein clearing virus; Pittosporum vein clearing virus; Pittosporum vein yellowing virus

Local Common Names

  • Italy: nanismo maculato della melanzana

English acronym

  • EMDV

EPPO code

  • EMDV00 (Eggplant mottled dwarf nucleorhabdovirus)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Virus
  •     Unknown: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •         Unknown: "RNA viruses"
  •             Order: Mononegavirales
  •                 Family: Rhabdoviridae
  •                     Genus: Nucleorhabdovirus
  •                         Species: Eggplant mottled dwarf virus

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page Eggplant mottled dwarf virus (EMDV) was named after the disease it induces in aubergines, its primary host (Martelli, 1969).

Based on its morphological, structural, physicochemical and cytopathological features (Martelli, 1969; Martelli and Castellano, 1970; Russo and Martelli, 1973; Dale and Peters, 1981), EMDV was assigned to the genus Nucleorhabdovirus, as a definitive species (Murphy et al., 1995). The Nucleorhabdovirus genus is one of five genera included in the Rhabdoviridae family (Murphy et al., 1985).

EMDV is not serologically related to any of the other plant rhabdoviruses tested (El-Maataoui et al., 1985; Adam et al., 1987). Virus isolates from different hosts proved to be serologically uniform, suggesting that they belong to the same species. However, differences were noticed in the response to infection of some experimental hosts, in the cytopathological features and in the molecular mass of proteins G and M1 indicating that different strains may exist (Adam et al., 1987).

Description

Top of page EMDV has bacilliform particles with estimated length and diameter ranging from 220 to 310 nm and from 65 to 86 nm, respectively (Martelli, 1969; El-Maataoui et al., 1975; Plavsic-Banjac et al., 1976, Plavsic et al., 1976, 1978; Kano et al., 1985; Lockhart, 1987). Thin-sectioned particles have a most frequent size of 220-230 x 65-70 nm (Martelli, 1969; Plavsic et al., 1984; Cherif and Martelli, 1985; Martelli and Hamadi, 1986; Martelli and Cherif, 1987). However, in thin-sectioned tissues of artificially infected hosts, abnormally long virions, measuring up to 1.5 mm, were occasionally observed (Martelli and Castellano, 1970; Rana and Franco, 1979). The presence of these long virions can stimulate the formation of cell wall outgrowths in infected cells (Di Franco et al., 1980).

Virions have a lipoprotein outer membrane 100-200 nm thick, with surface projections about 60Å in length, enveloping an internal core 45-50 nm in diameter. The helical nucleocapsid is 55Å thick, with a pitch of the helix of 45Å (Russo and Martelli, 1973). Virions contain four species of structural proteins with the following Mr: G, 83 kDa; N, 61 kDa; M1, 27 kDa; M2, 22 kDa (Dale and Peters, 1981). Virus particles acquire the outer membrane at the inner lamella of the nuclear envelope and accumulate in perinuclear gaps (Martelli and Castellano, 1970; Russo and Martelli, 1973). The nuclei of infected cells have a reduced electron opacity, and a uniformly finely granular nucleoplasm which is a consequence of a drastic reduction of nucleohistones (Russo and Martelli, 1975).

Distribution

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EMDV is endemic in the Mediterranean basin, where it is widespread, but it also occurs in countries outside this area (for example, Afghanistan). A yellow vein disease of tomato resembling that occurring in Morocco (El-Maataoui et al., 1985) and Italy (Castellano and Martelli, 1987) was recorded from Nigeria (Ladipo, 1977). The causal agent of the Nigerian disease, however, has not been identified.

A record of EMDV in Honshu, Japan (Kano et al., 1985) published in previous versions of the Compendium is unreliable. Kano et al. (1985) refers to a new virus in Japan, tomato vein clearing virus (TVCV), which is similar to tomato vein yellowing virus (synonym of EMDV) but differs in host range and intracellular appearances, and is distinct from EMDV. According to The Phytopathological Society of Japan (2014), EMDV has never occurred in Japan.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AfghanistanPresentMartelli and Lal, 1985; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
AzerbaijanPresentDesbiez et al., 2018
IranPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
IsraelPresentMartelli, 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
JapanAbsent, unreliable record
-HonshuAbsent, unreliable recordKano et al., 1985
JordanPresentMartelli, 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
TurkeyPresentMartelli et al., 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014

Africa

AlgeriaPresentMartelli and Hamadi, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
LibyaPresentPlavsic et al., 1978; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
MoroccoPresentEl Maatoui et al., 1985; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
Spain
-Canary IslandsPresentPlavsic et al., 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
TunisiaPresentCherif and Martelli, 1985; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014

Europe

AlbaniaPresentPappi et al., 2012; EPPO, 2014
BulgariaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
CroatiaPresentPlavsic et al., 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
GermanyPresentMenzel et al., 2016
GreecePresentPlavsic et al., 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
ItalyPresentMartelli, 1969; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014; Zhai et al., 2014
-Italy (mainland)PresentCABI/EPPO, 2008
-SicilyPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
PortugalPresentAdam et al., 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
SloveniaAbsent, formerly presentIPPC, 2006; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
SpainPresentParrella et al., 2013; EPPO, 2014
-Spain (mainland)PresentCABI/EPPO, 2008

Risk of Introduction

Top of page EMDV does not have quarantine status. Dissemination through infected propagative material of ornamentals is likely to occur, but whether this represents a source of inoculum for subsequent spread to vegetable crops is unknown.

Hosts/Species Affected

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EMDV can be transmitted mechanically to a moderate range of plant species in different botanical families, most of which are infected both locally and systemically. Gomphrena globosa reacts with reddish local lesions not followed by systemic invasion, whereas all solanaceous hosts, Nicotiana spp. in particular, typically respond with conspicuous vein clearing or yellowing of systemically invaded leaves (Martelli and Rana, 1970; Franco et al., 1979; Rana and Franco, 1979; El-Maataoui et al., 1985; Martelli and Cherif, 1987, Roggero et al., 1995; Polverari et al., 1996).

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

Symptoms

Top of page Infected aubergines have deformed leaves of varying intensity, which are also crinkled and puckered, and have chlorotic to yellow discolorations of the veins and adjacent tissues that sometimes turn into a generalized chlorotic mottling. Foliar symptoms may be accompanied by mild to severe stunting and a lack of fruit. The flowers are apparently unaffected, while the fruits, when present, are small, deformed and roughened by suberized cracks (Martelli, 1969). The same symptomatology occurs in all aubergine cultivars in the countries where the disease is found (Martelli and Cirulli, 1969; Martelli et al., 1984; Cherif and Martelli, 1985; Martelli and Hamadi, 1986).

The recurrent and characterizing symptom shown by all other naturally infected hosts, regardless of the plant species, is a clearing or yellowing of the main and secondary veins, sometimes accompanied by crinkling, curling and deformation of the leaves (Plavsic et al., 1976, 1984; Franco et al., 1979; Di Franco and Gallitelli, 1985; El-Maataoui et al., 1985; Kano et al., 1985; Castellano and Martelli, 1987; Lockhart, 1987; Roggero et al., 1995; Polverari et al., 1996).

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / abnormal shape
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal forms
Leaves / abnormal patterns
Stems / stunting or rosetting
Whole plant / dwarfing
Whole plant / early senescence

Biology and Ecology

Top of page In vegetatively propagated crops, especially ornamentals, EMDV is disseminated through infected propagating material. In the absence of seed transmission, the recurrent infections to vegetable crops are likely to be mediated by a vector that acquires the virus from natural reservoirs, possibly weeds (El-Maataoui et al., 1985; Lockhart, 1987). The distribution pattern of infected vegetables in the field suggests the activity of an inefficient aerial vector (Martelli, 1990) which, however, has not been identified. Repeated attempts to transmit the eggplant and Pittosporum isolates by aphids and leafhoppers have failed (Rana and Franco, 1979; M. Conti, Istituto di Fitovirologia Applicato del CNR, Turin, Italy, personal communication, 1997).

Seedborne Aspects

Top of page EMDV is not known to be seedborne.

Impact

Top of page EMDV does not appear to greatly affect any of the ornamentals it infects. In contrast, the virus is very severe and highly damaging to vegetable crops. Its economic impact, however, is minor because the incidence of field infections is very low, both in aubergine, where it rarely exceeds 1% (Martelli and Cirulli, 1969; Martelli et al., 1984; Cherif and Martelli, 1985; Martelli and Hamadi, 1986), and in other crops, such as tomato (El-Maataoui et al., 1985; Castellano and Martelli, 1987), pepper and cucumber (Roggero et al., 1995).

Diagnosis

Top of page Although the reactions of some herbaceous hosts, Nicotiana spp. in particular, are highly diagnostic, confirmation by serology is advisable. Antisera to the eggplant and tomato isolates of EMDV were produced. The serological identification methods most frequently used are agar gel immunodiffusion tests (El-Maataoui et al., 1985; Martelli and Hamadi, 1986; Castellano and Martelli, 1987; Lockhart, 1987; Martelli and Cherif, 1987; Polverari et al., 1996) and immunoelectron microscopy (Adam et al., 1987; Castellano and Martelli, 1987; Lockhart, 1987; Martelli and Cherif, 1987; Polverari et al., 1996). ELISA has been used to detect the hibiscus isolate of the virus (Lockhart, 1987).

Detection and Inspection

Top of page EMDV infections are readily detected in the field because of the vein clearing or yellowing typically shown by infected hosts, regardless of whether they are wild or cultivated.

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

The use of healthy material for vegetatively propagated species is advised.

References

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Adam G, Chagas CM, Lesemann D-E, 1987. Comparison of three plant rhabdovirus isolates by two different serological techniques. Journal of Phytopathology, 120(1):31-43

CABI/EPPO, 2008. Eggplant mottled dwarf virus. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, April (Edition 1). Wallingford, UK: CABI, Map 1019

Castellano MA, Martelli GP, 1987. Tomato vein yellowing in Italy, a disease caused by eggplant mottled dwarf virus. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 26(1):46-50

Cherif C, Martelli GP, 1985. Outbreaks and new records. Tunisia. Mottled dwarf of eggplant. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, 33(4):166-167

Dale JL, Peters D, 1981. Protein composition of the virions of five plant rhabdoviruses. Intervirology, 16(2):86-94

Desbiez, C., Verdin, E., Moury, B., Lecoq, H., Millot, P., Wipf-Scheibel, C., et al., 2018. Prevalence and molecular diversity of the main viruses infecting cucurbit and solanaceous crops in Azerbaijan. European Journal of Plant Pathology, https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs10658-018-1562-0.pdf doi: 10.1007/s10658-018-1562-0

Di Franco A, Russo M, Martelli GP, 1980. Cell wall outgrowths associated with infection by a plant rhabdovirus. Journal of General Virology, 49(1):221-224

El-Maataoui M, Lockhart BEL, Lesemann D-E, 1985. Biological, serological, and cytopathological properties of tomato vein-yellowing virus, a rhabdovirus occurring in tomato in Morocco. Phytopathology, 75(1):109-115

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Franco ADi, Gallitelli D, 1985. Rhabdovirus-like particles in caper leaves with vine yellowing. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 24(1/2):234-236

Franco ADi, Russo M, Martelli GP, 1979. Isolation and some properties of Pelargonium vein clearing virus. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 18:41-47

IPPC, 2006. IPP Report No. SI-1/3. Rome, Italy: FAO

Kano T, Namba S, Yamashita S, Doi Y, Yora K, 1985. Tomato vein clearing virus, a sap-transmissible rhabdovirus in tomato. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan, 51(5):606-612

Ladipo JL, 1977. A yellow-vein viruslike disease of tomato in Nigeria. Plant Disease Reporter, 61(11):958-960

Lockhart BEL, 1987. Evidence for identity of plant rhabdoviruses causing vein-yellowing diseases of tomato and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis. Plant Disease, 71(8):731-733

Martelli GP, 1969. Bacilliform particles associated with mottled dwarf of eggplant. Journal of General Virology, 5:319-320

Martelli GP, 1990. Virosi della melanzana. Sono poche e poco dannose ma é bene conoscerle. Giornale di Agricoltura, 100(25):45-46

Martelli GP, Castellano MA, 1970. Electron microscopy of eggplant mottled dwarf virus. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 9:39-49

Martelli GP, Cherif C, 1987. Eggplant mottled dwarf virus associated with vein yellowing of honeysuckle. Journal of Phytopathology, 119(1):32-41

Martelli GP, Cirulli M, 1969. Mottled dwarf of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.), a virus disease. Annales de Phytopathologie, 1:393-397

Martelli GP, Hamadi A, 1986. Occurrence of eggplant mottled dwarf virus in Algeria. Plant Pathology, 35(4):595-597

Martelli GP, Lal SB, 1985. Ultrastructural observations on virus-diseased plants of the Kabul area. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 24(1/2):228-233

Martelli GP, Rana GL, 1970. Trasmissione meccanica dell'agente del nanismo maculato della melanzana. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 9:187-191

Martelli GP, Yilmaz MA, Baloglu S, 1984. Ultrastructural observations on virus-diseased plants from Western Turkey. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 23(1):9-14

Menzel W, Winter S, Hamacher J, 2016. First report of Eggplant mottled dwarf virus causing flower breaking and vein clearing in Hydrangea macrophylla in Germany. New Disease Reports, 34:11. http://www.ndrs.org.uk/article.php?id=034011

Murphy FA, Fauquet CM, Bishop DHL, Ghabrial SA, Jarvis AW, Martelli GP, Mayo MA, Summers MD, 1995. Virus taxonomy: classification and nomenclature of viruses. Sixth report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Virus taxonomy: classification and nomenclature of viruses. Sixth report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses., viii + 586 pp.; [^italic~Archives of Virology, Supplement 10^roman~]

Pappi PG, Efthimiou KE, Katis NI, 2012. First report of Eggplant mottled dwarf virus in tobacco crops in Albania. Journal of Plant Pathology, 94(4, Supplement):S4.87. http://www.sipav.org/main/jpp/

Parrella G, Stradis Ade, Greco B, Villanueva F, Fortes IM, Navas-Castillo J, 2013. First report of Eggplant mottled dwarf virus in China rose in southern Spain. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research, 11(1):204-207. http://revistas.inia.es/index.php/sjar/article/view/3461

Plavsic B, Corte A, Milicic D, 1976. Association of bacilliform virus particles with Pittosporum vein clearing disease. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 15(2/3):115-118

Plavsic B, Eric Z, Milicic D, 1984. Rhabdovirus-like particles associated with vein yellowing of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 23(1):52-54

Plavsic B, Milicic D, Eric Z, 1978. Occurrence of Pittosporum vein clearing virus in Libya. Phytopathologische Zeitschrift, 91(1):67-75

Plavsic-Banjac B, Milicic D, Eric Z, 1976. Rhabdovirus in Pittosporum tobira plants suffering from vein yellowing disease. Phytopathologische Zeitschrift, 86(3):225-232

Polverari A, Castellano MA, Marte M, 1996. The natural occurrence of eggplant mottled dwarf rhabdovirus in tobacco in Italy. Journal of Phytopathology, 144(1):25-27; 9 ref

Rana GL, Franco ADi, 1979. Mechanical transmission of Pittosporum vein clearing virus. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 18:48-56

Roggero P, Milne RG, Masenga V, Ogliara P, Stravato VM, 1995. First reports of eggplant mottled dwarf rhabdovirus in cucumber and in pepper. Plant Disease, 79(3):321

Russo M, Martelli GP, 1973. A study of the structure of eggplant mottled dwarf virus. Virology, 52:39-48

Russo M, Martelli GP, 1975. Some cytochemical reactions of nuclei infected with eggplant mottled dwarf virus. Phytopathologische Zeitschrift, 83(2):97-102

Tang J, Elliott C, Ward LI, Iqram A, 2015. Identification of Eggplant mottled dwarf virus in PEQ Hibiscus syriacus plants imported from Australia. Australasian Plant Disease Notes, 10(1):6. http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13314-014-0153-y/fulltext.html

The Phytopathological Society of Japan, 2014. Plant viruses and viroids occurred in Japan. http:/www.ppsj.org/pdf/mokuroku-viroid_2014.pdf

Zhai Y, Miglino R, Sorrentino R, Masenga V, Alioto D, Pappu HR, 2014. First report of natural infection of Agapanthus sp. by Eggplant mottled dwarf virus (EMDV). New Disease Reports, 29:20. http://www.ndrs.org.uk/article.php?id=029020

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