Earias vittella (spiny bollworm)
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Earias vittella (Fabricius, 1794)
Preferred Common Name
- spiny bollworm
Other Scientific Names
- Aphusia speiplena Walker, 1858
- Earias fabia (Stoll, 1781)
- Earias huegeli Rogenhofer
- Micra partita Walker, 1865
International Common Names
- English: rough bollworm; shoot and fruit borer; spiny cotton bollworm
Local Common Names
- Netherlands: katoenrupsje
- EARIFA (Earias fabia)
- EARIHE (Earias huegeli)
- EARIVI (Earias vittella)
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Metazoa
- Phylum: Arthropoda
- Subphylum: Uniramia
- Class: Insecta
- Order: Lepidoptera
- Family: Noctuidae
- Genus: Earias
- Species: Earias vittella
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 23 Apr 2020
Growth StagesTop of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage
List of Symptoms/SignsTop of page
|Fruit / internal feeding|
|Fruit / obvious exit hole|
|Growing point / internal feeding; boring|
|Inflorescence / internal feeding|
|Leaves / wilting|
|Stems / internal feeding|
Natural enemiesTop of page
ReferencesTop of page
Abdel-Fattah MI; Hosny MM; El-Saadany G, 1976. The spacing and density of cotton plants as factors affecting populations of the bollworms, Earias insulana Boisd. and Pectinophora gossypiella (Saund.). Bulletin of the Entomological Society of Egypt, No. 60:85-94
Abhishek Shukla; Pathak SC; Agrawal RK, 1997. Seasonal incidence of okra shoot and fruit borer Earias vittella (Fab.) and effect of temperature on its infestation level. Advances in Plant Sciences, 10(1):169-172; 6 ref.
Agarwal RA; Katiyar KN, 1974. Ovipositional preference and damage by spotted bollworm (Earias fabia Stoll) in cotton. Cotton Development, 4:28-30.
Ahmad T; Ghulamullah, 1939. Ecological studies on the spotted bollworms of cotton and their parasites. Indian Journal of Entomology, 1:17-47.
Anonymous, 1982. Saudi Arabia - three insect pests on maize, okra and eggplant. Plant Protection Bulletin, 30(1):24-25.
Anson RR; Knight RL; Evelyn SH; Rose MF, 1948. Anglo-Egyptian Sudan Progress Report of the Cotton Breeding Stations of the Empire Cotton Growing Corporation, 1946-47, 49-78.
Anwar M; Ashraf M; Arif MD, 1973. Some aspects of mating and oviposition behaviour of the spotted bollworm of cotton, Earias vittella (F.). Pakistan Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 16(1/2):28-31
APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Technical Document No. 135. Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA).
Badawy A, 1974. The susceptibility of certain American Upland and Sakel cotton varieties to bollworms infestation (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae and Gelechiidae). Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique d'Egypte, 58:261-266
Borkar SG; Verma JP; Singh RP, 1980. Transmission of Xanthomonas malvacearum (Smith) Dowson, the incitant of bacterial blight of cotton through spotted bollworms. Indian Journal of Entomology, 42(3):390-397
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Chamberlain DJ; Ahmad Z; Attique MR; Chaudhry MA, 1993. The influence of slow release PVC resin pheromone formulations on the mating behaviour and control of the cotton bollworm complex (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae and Noctuidae) in Pakistan. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 83(3):335-343
Chamberlain DJ; Critchley BR; Campion DG; Attique MR; Rafique M; Arif MI, 1992. Use of a multi-component pheromone formulation for control of cotton bollworms (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae and Noctuidae) in Pakistan. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 82(4):449-458
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Critchley BR; Campion DG; Cavanagh GG; Chamberlain DJ; Attique MR, 1987. Control of three major bollworm pests of cotton in Pakistan by a single application of their combined sex pheromones. Tropical Pest Management, 33(4):374
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Gracy RG; Shivalingaswamy TM; Satpathy S; Rai AB, 2011. Okra shoot and fruit borer, Earias vittella (F.), a new host record for the egg parasitoid, Trichogramma chiloraeae Nagaraja and Nagarkatti from India. Journal of Biological Control, 25(2):146-147. http://journalofbiologicalcontrol.com/index.php/jbc/article/view/54329
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Hegde NS; Thontadarya TS; Rao KJ, 1987. Effect of pyrethroids on the activity of Rogas aligarhensis Qadri (Hym: Braconidae), a larval parasite of the cotton spotted bollworm, Earias vittella (Fabricius). Mysore Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 21(3):305-308
Holloway JD, 1977. The Lepidoptera of Norfolk Island, their biogeography and ecology. The Lepidoptera of Norfolk Island, their biogeography and ecology. Dr. W. Junk b.v. The Hague, The Netherlands, vi + 291 pp.
Jai Singh; Sandhu BS, 1997. Effect of row skipping in tree cotton (Gossypium arboreum) on efficacy of chemical control of spotted bollworms (Earias vittella and E. insulana) and pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella). Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 67(9):407-409; 4 ref.
Khan MA; Samraj DA; Khan N, 1986. Tetrastichus davidi sp. nov. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) a primary parasitoid associated with Earias vittella (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from India. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, 83(2):409-411
Khan MH; Verma PM, 1946. Studies on Earias spp. (the spotted bollworms of cotton) in the Punjab. III. The biology of the common parasites of Earias fabia Stoll., E. insulana (Boisd., and E. cupreoviridis Wlk.) Indian Journal of Entomology, 7:41-63.
Khan O; Rao VP, 1960. Insects and Mites Pests: in cotton in India. A Monograph. Bombay, India: Indian Central Cotton Committee, 217-301.
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Mahelle VP; Ghodka RD; Saxena JS, 1976. Economic injury level of cotton bollworms. Indian Journal of Entomology, 38:27-32.
Mehta RC; Saxena KN, 1973. Growth of the cotton spotted bollworm, Earias fabia (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) in relation to consumption, nutritive value and utilization of food from various plants. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 16(1):20-30
Meng HL; Chang GS; Du SL; Ge JY, 1973. On the activity rhythms and interspecific dominance of three species of spotted bollworms (in Chinese). Acta Entomologica Sinica, 16:32-38.
Mudathir M; Basedow T, 2004. Field experiments on the effects of neem products on pests and yields of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus), tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum), and onion (Allium cepa) in the Sudan. Mitteilungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft für allgemeine und angewandte Entomologie [Papers from the Entomological Conference in Halle (Saale), Germany, 24-28 March, 2003.], 14(1-6):407-410.
Mulchandani LH; Shah AH; Mehtaa NP, 1980. Preliminary observations on economic threshold for cotton bollworms in IAN/579/188 cotton (irrigated). Cotton Development, 10:11-12.
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Sakthivel T; Sujeetha JARP; Nadarajan L, 2008. Bioefficacy of botanicals on okra shoot and fruit borer, Earias vittella Fabricius in Karaikal region, U. T. of Puducherry. Crop Research (Hisar), 35(3):255-258. http://www.cropresearch.org
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APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. In: Technical Document No. 135, Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA).
CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI
Gracy R G, Shivalingaswamy T M, Satpathy S, Rai A B, 2011. Okra shoot and fruit borer, Earias vittella (F.), a new host record for the egg parasitoid, Trichogramma chiloraeae Nagaraja and Nagarkatti from India. Journal of Biological Control. 25 (2), 146-147. http://journalofbiologicalcontrol.com/index.php/jbc/article/view/54329
Mudathir M, Basedow T, 2004. Field experiments on the effects of neem products on pests and yields of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus), tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum), and onion (Allium cepa) in the Sudan. Mitteilungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft für allgemeine und angewandte Entomologie. 14 (1-6), 407-410.
Sakthivel T, Sujeetha J A R P, Nadarajan L, 2008. Bioefficacy of botanicals on okra shoot and fruit borer, Earias vittella Fabricius in Karaikal region, U. T. of Puducherry. Crop Research (Hisar). 35 (3), 255-258. http://www.cropresearch.org
Distribution MapsTop of page
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