Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Earias vittella
(spiny bollworm)

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Datasheet

Earias vittella (spiny bollworm)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 21 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Earias vittella
  • Preferred Common Name
  • spiny bollworm
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
The fully-grown larva is 13-18 mm long.
TitleLarva on okra
CaptionThe fully-grown larva is 13-18 mm long.
Copyright©AgrEvo
The fully-grown larva is 13-18 mm long.
Larva on okraThe fully-grown larva is 13-18 mm long.©AgrEvo

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Earias vittella (Fabricius, 1794)

Preferred Common Name

  • spiny bollworm

Other Scientific Names

  • Aphusia speiplena Walker, 1858
  • Earias fabia (Stoll, 1781)
  • Earias huegeli Rogenhofer
  • Micra partita Walker, 1865

International Common Names

  • English: rough bollworm; shoot and fruit borer; spiny cotton bollworm

Local Common Names

  • Netherlands: katoenrupsje

EPPO code

  • EARIFA (Earias fabia)
  • EARIHE (Earias huegeli)
  • EARIVI (Earias vittella)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Lepidoptera
  •                         Family: Noctuidae
  •                             Genus: Earias
  •                                 Species: Earias vittella

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 23 Apr 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

SeychellesPresentEPPO (2020)
SudanPresentMudathir and Basedow (2004)

Asia

AfghanistanPresentEPPO (2020)
BangladeshPresent, WidespreadAPPPC (1987); EPPO (2020)
BruneiPresentWaterhouse (1993)
CambodiaPresentWaterhouse (1993); EPPO (2020)
ChinaPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
-GuangdongPresentEPPO (2020)
-GuangxiPresentEPPO (2020)
-HubeiPresentEPPO (2020)
-JiangsuPresentEPPO (2020)
-JiangxiPresentEPPO (2020)
-SichuanPresentEPPO (2020)
-YunnanPresentEPPO (2020)
-ZhejiangPresentEPPO (2020)
IndiaPresent, WidespreadAPPPC (1987); EPPO (2020)
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresentEPPO (2020)
-Andhra PradeshPresentEPPO (2020)
-AssamPresentEPPO (2020)
-BiharPresentEPPO (2020)
-ChhattisgarhPresentNetam et al. (2007)
-DelhiPresentEPPO (2020)
-GujaratPresentEPPO (2020)
-HaryanaPresentRishi Kumar et al. (2004)
-Himachal PradeshPresentRajpal Singh and Joshi (2003)
-KarnatakaPresentEPPO (2020)
-KeralaPresentEPPO (2020)
-Madhya PradeshPresentEPPO (2020)
-MaharashtraPresentEPPO (2020)
-OdishaPresentEPPO (2020)
-PuducherryPresentSakthivel et al. (2008)
-PunjabPresentEPPO (2020)
-RajasthanPresentEPPO (2020)
-Tamil NaduPresentEPPO (2020)
-TripuraPresentEPPO (2020)
-Uttar PradeshPresentEPPO (2020); Gracy et al. (2011)
-West BengalPresentEPPO (2020)
IndonesiaPresentAPPPC (1987); EPPO (2020)
-Irian JayaPresentEPPO (2020)
-JavaPresentEPPO (2020)
-SumatraPresentEPPO (2020)
IranPresentAlipanah and Piri (2005)
IsraelPresentEPPO (2020)
LaosPresentWaterhouse (1993); EPPO (2020)
MalaysiaPresentWaterhouse (1993); EPPO (2020)
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentEPPO (2020)
-SarawakPresentEPPO (2020)
MyanmarPresentWaterhouse (1993); EPPO (2020)
North KoreaPresent, WidespreadEPPO (2020)
PakistanPresentEPPO (2020)
PhilippinesPresentEPPO (2020)
SingaporePresentWaterhouse (1993); EPPO (2020)
Sri LankaPresentEPPO (2020)
TaiwanPresentEPPO (2020)
ThailandPresentEPPO (2020)
VietnamPresentAPPPC (1987); EPPO (2020)

Oceania

AustraliaPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
-Northern TerritoryPresentEPPO (2020)
-Western AustraliaPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
Federated States of MicronesiaPresentEPPO (2020)
FijiPresentEPPO (2020)
GuamPresentEPPO (2020)
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentEPPO (2020)
PalauPresentEPPO (2020)
Papua New GuineaPresentEPPO (2020)
Solomon IslandsPresentEPPO (2020)
TongaPresentEPPO (2020)

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / internal feeding
Fruit / obvious exit hole
Growing point / internal feeding; boring
Inflorescence / internal feeding
Leaves / wilting
Stems / internal feeding

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Agathis aciculatus Parasite Larvae
Aleiodes aligharensi Parasite Larvae
Apanteles angaleti Parasite Larvae
Apanteles shrii Parasite
Bacillus cereus Pathogen Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis Pathogen Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis aizawai Pathogen Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis entomocidus Pathogen Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis finitimus Pathogen Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis galleriae Pathogen Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki Pathogen Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis sotto Pathogen Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. dendrolimus Pathogen Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis subtoxicus Pathogen Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis thompsoni Pathogen Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis thuringiensis Pathogen Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis tolworthi Pathogen Larvae
Brachymeria lasus Parasite
Brachymeria tenuicornis Parasite
Bracon greeni Parasite Larvae
Bracon hebetor Parasite Larvae
Bracon kirkpatricki Parasite Larvae India; Haryana cotton
Bracon lefroyi Parasite Larvae
Brinckochrysa scelestes Predator
Cheilomenes sexmaculata Predator
Chelonus curvimaculatus Parasite Larvae
Eurytoma Parasite Larvae/Pupae
Gibberella fujikuroi Pathogen
Goryphus nursei Parasite Pupae
Microchelonus blackburni Parasite Larvae Haryana; India; Maharashtra; Tamil Nadu cotton
Orius albidipennis Predator
Tetrastichus davidi Parasite India; Tamil Nadu cotton
Trichogramma achaeae Parasite Eggs
Trichogramma brasiliense Parasite Eggs India; Haryana cotton
Trichogramma chilonis Parasite Eggs
Trichogramma chilotraeae Parasite Eggs Gracy et al., 2011
Trichogramma pretiosum Parasite Eggs India; Haryana cotton
Trichogrammatoidea bactrae Parasite Eggs

References

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Abdel-Fattah MI; Hosny MM; El-Saadany G, 1976. The spacing and density of cotton plants as factors affecting populations of the bollworms, Earias insulana Boisd. and Pectinophora gossypiella (Saund.). Bulletin of the Entomological Society of Egypt, No. 60:85-94

Abhishek Shukla; Pathak SC; Agrawal RK, 1997. Seasonal incidence of okra shoot and fruit borer Earias vittella (Fab.) and effect of temperature on its infestation level. Advances in Plant Sciences, 10(1):169-172; 6 ref.

Agarwal RA; Katiyar KN, 1974. Ovipositional preference and damage by spotted bollworm (Earias fabia Stoll) in cotton. Cotton Development, 4:28-30.

Agawal RA; Gupta GP, 1986. Recent advances in cotton pest management. Plant Protection Bulletin, India, 38(1-4):51-54

Ahmad T; Ghulamullah, 1939. Ecological studies on the spotted bollworms of cotton and their parasites. Indian Journal of Entomology, 1:17-47.

Alipanah H; Piri M, 2005. Earias vittella (Fabricius, 1794) (Lep.: Nolidae: Eariadinae) as a new record for Iran. Applied Entomology and Phytopathology, 72(2):Pe136, en40.

Anonymous, 1982. Saudi Arabia - three insect pests on maize, okra and eggplant. Plant Protection Bulletin, 30(1):24-25.

Anson RR; Knight RL; Evelyn SH; Rose MF, 1948. Anglo-Egyptian Sudan Progress Report of the Cotton Breeding Stations of the Empire Cotton Growing Corporation, 1946-47, 49-78.

Anwar M; Ashraf M; Arif MD, 1973. Some aspects of mating and oviposition behaviour of the spotted bollworm of cotton, Earias vittella (F.). Pakistan Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 16(1/2):28-31

APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Technical Document No. 135. Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA).

Arshad M; Quayyoom MA, 1984. Distinguishing larval features in Earias insulana (Boisd.) and E. vitella (Fab.). Pakistan Journal of Zoology, 16(2):171-173

Badawy A, 1974. The susceptibility of certain American Upland and Sakel cotton varieties to bollworms infestation (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae and Gelechiidae). Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique d'Egypte, 58:261-266

Balasubramanian G; Balasubramanian M; Kulandaivelu R, 1981. Prediction of bollworms' damage in cotton in relation to weather factors. Madras Agricultural Journal, 68(10):657-659

Beevi SN; Jacob A, 1982. Susceptibility of different pests and plants to infection by Fusarium moniliformp var. subglutinans. Entomon, 7(2):235-236

Bilapate GG, 1985. Studies on overlapping generations of Earias vittella (Fab.) in pesticides free cotton field. Journal of Maharashtra Agricultural Universities, 10(2):147-150

Bishara I, 1969. Effect of agricultural factors on cotton yield and bollworm attack. Technical Bulletin, Plant Protection Department, UAR Ministry of Agriculture, No. 2:28 pp.

Borkar SG; Verma JP; Singh RP, 1980. Transmission of Xanthomonas malvacearum (Smith) Dowson, the incitant of bacterial blight of cotton through spotted bollworms. Indian Journal of Entomology, 42(3):390-397

Bourgeois A, 1970. Experimentation with cotton in Cambodia. II. Phytosanitary tests. Coton et Fibres Tropicales, 25(2):205-212.

Brader L, 1969. La faune des cottoniers sans glandes dans la partie meridionale du Tchad. II Les chenilles de la capsule. Coton et Fibres Tropicales, 29:333-336.

Butani DK, 1974. Insect pests of cotton. XVII. - Effects of cotton varieties, cultural practices and fertiliser on infestation by bollworms. Coton et Fibres Tropicales, 29(2):237-240

Butani DK, 1976. Spotted bollworms of cotton, Earias spp. (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera). Cotton Development, 6:17-22.

Capizzi A, 1987. Earias vittella (Fab) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), dannosa al cotone, presente anche in Africa Orientale. Bolletino di Zoologica Agraria e di Bachicoltura, 19:199-203.

Chamberlain DJ; Ahmad Z; Attique MR; Chaudhry MA, 1993. The influence of slow release PVC resin pheromone formulations on the mating behaviour and control of the cotton bollworm complex (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae and Noctuidae) in Pakistan. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 83(3):335-343

Chamberlain DJ; Critchley BR; Campion DG; Attique MR; Rafique M; Arif MI, 1992. Use of a multi-component pheromone formulation for control of cotton bollworms (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae and Noctuidae) in Pakistan. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 82(4):449-458

Christidies BG; Harrison GJ, 1955. Cotton Growing Problems. New York, USA: McGraw-Hill.

Cork A; Chamberlain DJ; Beevor PS; Hall DR; Nesbitt BF; Campion DG; Attique MR, 1988. Components of female sex pheromone of spotted bollworm, Earias vittella F. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): identification and field evaluation in Pakistan. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 14(3):929-945

Critchley BR; Campion DG; Cavanagh GG; Chamberlain DJ; Attique MR, 1987. Control of three major bollworm pests of cotton in Pakistan by a single application of their combined sex pheromones. Tropical Pest Management, 33(4):374

Das BB; Basu AK, 1977. Studies on natural enemies of cotton bollworms. Science and Culture, 43(3):129-131

Dash AN; Mahapatra H; Pradhan AC; Patnaik NC, 1987. Effect of mixed and intercropping on occurrence of some pests in Orissa. Environment and Ecology, 5(3):526-530

Deshpande BP; Nadkarny NT, 1936. The Spotted Bollworms of Cotton (Earias fabia Stoll. and Earias insulana Boisd.) in South Gujerat, Bombay Presidency. Scientific Monograph of the Imperial Council of Agricultural Research, India, No. 10.

Devinder Singh, 1984. Histomorphology of the female reproductive system in various instars of Earias fabia (Stoll). Bulletin of Entomology, 25(1):10-21

Devinder Singh, 1984. Histomorphology of the male reproductive system in various instars of Earias fabia (Stoll). Bulletin of Entomology, 25(1):1-9

Dhandapani N, 1985. Need based application of pesticide on some bhendi varieties for control of the fruit borer Earias vittella F. Madras Agricultural Journal, 72(2):118-120

Dhawan AK; Simwat GS, 1996. Monitoring the seasonal abundance of cotton bollworms with pheromone traps. Indian Journal of Ecology, 23(2):123-129; 8 ref.

Dongre TK; Rahalkar GW, 1992. Relative host plant preference and induction of preference for feeding behaviour in spotted bollworm. Indian Journal of Ecology, 19(1):61-64; 7 ref.

Dongre TK; Rahalkar GW, 1993. Feeding deterrent and toxic activity in the leaves of Sida acuta L. (Malvaceae) against the larvae of Earias vittella. Journal of Insect Science, 6(1):100-101

Duhoon SS; Singh M, 1980. Resistance to spotted bollworms, Earias spp. in cotton, Gossypium arboreum Linn. Indian Journal of Entomology, 42(1):116-121

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Faseli MD, 1977. Investigations on the biology, ecology and control of Earias insulana Boisd. (Noctuidae). Entomologie et Phytopathologie Appliquees, No.43:Pe 39-54; de 6-7

Fletcher TB; Misra CS, 1920. Cotton Bollworms in India. Report of Proceedings of 3rd Entomological Meeting, 2:443-472.

Gadkari PD, 1961. Contral arboreum region. In: Cotton in India. A. Monograph No. 4. Bombay, India: Indian Central Cotton Committee, 129-182.

Gardner JCN, 1947. On the larvae of the Noctuidae, III. Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London, 98:59-90.

Gracy RG; Shivalingaswamy TM; Satpathy S; Rai AB, 2011. Okra shoot and fruit borer, Earias vittella (F.), a new host record for the egg parasitoid, Trichogramma chiloraeae Nagaraja and Nagarkatti from India. Journal of Biological Control, 25(2):146-147. http://journalofbiologicalcontrol.com/index.php/jbc/article/view/54329

Gupta BD, 1978. Differentiation of sex in pupae of spotted bollworm, Earias fabia (Stoll) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae-Erastriinp). Current Science, 47(17):642

Hall DR; Chamberlain DJ; Cork A; Desouza K; McVeigh LJ; Ahmad Z; Krishnaiah K; Brown NJ; Casagrande E; Jones OT, 1994. The use of pheromones for mating disruption of cotton bollworms and rice stemborer in developing countries. Proceedings - Brighton Crop Protection Conference, Pests and Diseases, 1994, vol. 3., 1231-1238; [^italic~BCPC Publications^roman~]; 14 ref.

Hegde NS; Thontadarya TS; Rao KJ, 1987. Effect of pyrethroids on the activity of Rogas aligarhensis Qadri (Hym: Braconidae), a larval parasite of the cotton spotted bollworm, Earias vittella (Fabricius). Mysore Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 21(3):305-308

Hill DS, 1975. Agricultural insect pests of the tropics and their control. Agricultural insect pests of the tropics and their control. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge UK, [12 +] 516 pp.

Hiremath IG; Thontadarya TS, 1984. Estimation of damage due to cotton spotted bollworm. Current Research, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore, 13(7/9):55-56

Holloway JD, 1977. The Lepidoptera of Norfolk Island, their biogeography and ecology. The Lepidoptera of Norfolk Island, their biogeography and ecology. Dr. W. Junk b.v. The Hague, The Netherlands, vi + 291 pp.

Ilango L; Uthamasamy S, 1989. Influence of sowing time on the incidence of bollworms and its influence on bollrot complex of cotton. Madras Agricultural Journal, 76(10):571-573

Jai Singh; Sandhu BS, 1997. Effect of row skipping in tree cotton (Gossypium arboreum) on efficacy of chemical control of spotted bollworms (Earias vittella and E. insulana) and pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella). Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 67(9):407-409; 4 ref.

Kadam JR; Khaire VM, 1995. Raining and relative humidity: key factors to suppress Earias vittella (Fabricius) infestation on okra crop. Journal of Entomological Research, 19(3):201-205; 4 ref.

Kamath MK, 1979. A review of biological control of insect pests and noxious weeds in Fiji (1969-1978). Fiji Agricultural Journal, 41(2):55-72

Kashyap RK; Verma AN, 1987. Management of spotted bollworms (Earias spp.) in cotton - a review. International Journal of Tropical Agriculture, 5(1):1-27

Katiyar KN, 1977. Impact of sequence of flowering on the incidence of bollworms in some varieties of cotton. Indian Journal of Entomology, 39(4):324-332

Keerthisinghe CI, 1982. Economic thresholds for cotton pest management in Sri Lanka. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 72(2):239-246

Khaliq A; Yousaf M, 1986. Effect of weather on the light-trap captures of some insect pests of cotton. Journal of Agricultural Research (Lahore), 24(4):313-319

Khambete MS; Desai BD, 1996. Studies on the varietal resistance of okra to jassid and shoot and fruit borer. TVIS Newsletter, 1(2):18-19.

Khan MA; Samraj DA; Khan N, 1986. Tetrastichus davidi sp. nov. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) a primary parasitoid associated with Earias vittella (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from India. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, 83(2):409-411

Khan MH; Verma PM, 1946. Studies on Earias spp. (the spotted bollworms of cotton) in the Punjab. III. The biology of the common parasites of Earias fabia Stoll., E. insulana (Boisd., and E. cupreoviridis Wlk.) Indian Journal of Entomology, 7:41-63.

Khan O; Rao VP, 1960. Insects and Mites Pests: in cotton in India. A Monograph. Bombay, India: Indian Central Cotton Committee, 217-301.

Krishnamoorthy A; Mani M, 1985. Feeding behaviour of Chrysopa scelestes Banks on the parasitised eggs of some lepidopterous pests. Entomon, 10(1):17-19; 5 ref.

Kumar KK; Urs KCD, 1988. Effect of fertilizers on incidence of shoot-and-fruit borer on okra (Abelmoschus esculentus). Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 58(9):732-734

Kumar KK; Urs KCD, 1988. Population fluctuation of Earias vittella (Fab.) on okra in relation to abiotic factors. Indian Journal of Plant Protection, 16(2):137-142

Kumar KK; Urs KCD, 1991. Evaluation of pheromone and virgin female traps in monitoring Earias vittella on bhendi. Indian Journal of Entomology, 53(2):232-238

Mabbett TH, 1979. A review of the economic insect pests of cotton in Thailand. Description, infestation and control. A review of the economic insect pests of cotton in Thailand. Description, infestation and control. Cotton Pests Research Branch, Department of Agriculture. Bangkok Thailand, [5+] 80 pp.

Mahelle VP; Ghodka RD; Saxena JS, 1976. Economic injury level of cotton bollworms. Indian Journal of Entomology, 38:27-32.

Mani HC; Krishna SS, 1984. Pupal cocoon colour of mated males and females influencing reproductive potential in Earias fabia (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Journal of Advanced Zoology, 5(1):52-54

Mehta RC; Saxena KN, 1973. Growth of the cotton spotted bollworm, Earias fabia (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) in relation to consumption, nutritive value and utilization of food from various plants. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 16(1):20-30

Meng HL; Chang GS; Du SL; Ge JY, 1973. On the activity rhythms and interspecific dominance of three species of spotted bollworms (in Chinese). Acta Entomologica Sinica, 16:32-38.

Misra PN; Dheer Singh; Tewari SK, 1995. Integrated pest management in ambrette (Abelmoschus moschatus Medik). Hamdard Medicus, 38(3):48-51; 3 ref.

Mudathir M; Basedow T, 2004. Field experiments on the effects of neem products on pests and yields of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus), tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum), and onion (Allium cepa) in the Sudan. Mitteilungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft für allgemeine und angewandte Entomologie [Papers from the Entomological Conference in Halle (Saale), Germany, 24-28 March, 2003.], 14(1-6):407-410.

Mulchandani LH; Shah AH; Mehtaa NP, 1980. Preliminary observations on economic threshold for cotton bollworms in IAN/579/188 cotton (irrigated). Cotton Development, 10:11-12.

Naik MI; Lingappa S; Hiremath IG; Shivanna BK, 1997. Pheromone trap to monitor adult spotted bollworm, Earias vittella (F.) on cotton. Mysore Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 31(1):33-35; 4 ref.

Nangpal HD, 1948. Insect Pests of Cotton in India. Bombay, India: Indian Central Cotton Committee.

Narasimha Rao B; Mallikarjuna Rao D; Nagalingam B; Rosaiah B; Narajana KL; Krishnamurthy Rao BH; Satyanarayana Reddy A; Appraao P, 1969. Estimation of economic thresholds of cotton spotted bollworm Earias vitella (Fab) and its scope in integrated pest control pragramme. Journal of Indian Society of Cotton Improvement, 3:24-28.

Nerkar YS, 1991. The use of related species in transferring disease and pest resistance genes to okra. Report of an international workshop on okra genetic resources held at the National Bureau for Plant Genetic Resources, New Delhi, India, 8-12 October 1990 Rome, Italy; IBPGR, 110-113

Netam PK; Ganguli RN; Dubey AK, 2007. Insect pest succession in okra. Environment and Ecology, 25(1):177-180.

Patel BK; Shah AH, 1989. Studies on different types of threshold levels for controlling Earias vittella Fb. on cotton in South Gujarat. Gujarat Agricultural University Research Journal, 15(1):41-46

Patel KI; Patel JR; Jayani DB; Shekh AM; Patel NC, 1997. Effect of seasonal weather on incidence and development of major pests of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus). Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 67(5):181-183; 6 ref.

Patel MP; Bilapate GG, 1984. Key mortality factors of spotted bollworm on cotton. Journal of Maharashtra Agricultural Universities, 9(2):155-157

Patel RM, 1949. Control of cotton spotted bollworm (Earias fabia S) in Baroda. Indian Cotton Growing Review, 3:135-44.

Patil BV; Thimmaiah G; Thyagrajan KS; Hardcastle MJ, 1991. Conservation of ecosystem with higher profit through integrated pest management in cotton. Entomon, 16(4):291-300

Pawar AD; Prasad J, 1985. Evaluation of some exotic parasites in biocontrol of cotton bollworms in Haryana. Indian Journal of Plant Protection, 13(1):21-24

Pawar AD; Prasad J; Asre R; Raj Singh, 1983. Introduction of exotic parasitoid, Chelonus blackburni Cameron in India for the control of cotton bollworms. Indian Journal of Entomology, 45(4):436-439.

Pearson EO, 1958. The Insect Pests of Cotton in Tropical Africa. London, UK: CAB International.

Prasad J; Pawar AD; Singh P, 1986. Role of exotic and indigenous parasites Trichogramma brasiliensis Ashmead, T. pretiosum Riley, T. achep Nagaraja and Nagarkati, Chelonus blackburni Cameron and Bracon kirkpatricki (Wilkinson), for the control of cotton bollworms in Hissar (Haryana) India. Proceedings of a national symposium on pesticide residues and environmental pollution, Muzaffarnagar, India, 2-4 October, 1985 Muzaffarnagar, India; Sanatan Dharm College, 190-194

Punit Mohan; Phundan Singh; Narayanan SS; Ram Ratan, 1994. Relation of gossypol-gland density with bollworm incidence and yield in tree cotton (Gossypium arboreum). Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 64(10):691-696

Qureshi ZA; Ahmed N, 1989. Efficacy of combined sex pheromones for the control of three major bollworms of cotton. Journal of Applied Entomology, 108(4):386-389

Qureshi ZA; Ahmed N, 1991. Monitoring seasonal population fluctuation of spotted and spiny bollworms by synthetic sex pheromones and its relationships to boll infestation in cotton. Journal of Applied Entomology, 112(2):171-175

Rajpal Singh; Joshi AK, 2003. Pests of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Moench.) in Paonta Valley, Himachal Pradesh. Insect Environment, 9(4):173-174.

Reed W, 1970. The Ecology and Control of Earias spp. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in East Africa. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 64:33-44.

Rishi Kumar; Sucheta; Khokhar KS, 2004. Relative abundance of noctuids (Lepidoptera) associated with cotton and other crops in Haryana. Journal of Cotton Research and Development, 18(1):99-101.

Sakthivel T; Sujeetha JARP; Nadarajan L, 2008. Bioefficacy of botanicals on okra shoot and fruit borer, Earias vittella Fabricius in Karaikal region, U. T. of Puducherry. Crop Research (Hisar), 35(3):255-258. http://www.cropresearch.org

Sangwan HS; Verma SN; Sharma VK, 1972. Possibility of integration of exotic parasite, Trichogramma brasiliensis Ashmead for the control of cotton bollworms. Indian Journal of Entomology, 34(4):360-361

Sathe TV; Ingawale DM, 1995. Two new species of the genus Apanteles Foerster (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from India. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, 92(1):81-84; 16 ref.

Satpute US; Bhalerao PD; Subramaniam TR, 1982b. Timings of spraying in the control of spotted bollworms of cotton (Earias spp.). Cotton Development, 12:21-22.

Sawhney K; Nadkarny NT, 1942. Results of an experiment to control cotton bollworms in Hyderabad State, 1937-40. Department of Agriculture Hyderabad Division, Bulletin No. 2: 40.

Shah AH; Mehta MP; Rote NB, 1980. Evaluation of economic threshold for spotted bollworms (Earias spp.). Paper presented for symposium on economic threshold of key pests and use of synthetic pyrethroids on cotton, held at Nagpur in Sept. 1980.

Shantharam K; Tamhankar AJ; Harwalkar MR, 1995. Comparative mating and reproductive performance of radiation sterilized and radiation induced F sterile males of Earias vittella (Fabricius). Journal of Nuclear Agriculture and Biology, 24(4):232-236; 22 ref.

Sharma HC; Agarwal RA, 1984. Factors imparting resistance to stem damage by Earias vittella F. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in some cotton phenotypes. Protection Ecology, 6(1):35-42

Sharma IN; Lall BS; Sinha RP; Singh BN, 1985. Biology of spotted bollworm, Earias vitella Fab. Bulletin of Entomology, 26(1):38-41

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Distribution References

Alipanah H, Piri M, 2005. Earias vittella (Fabricius, 1794) (Lep.: Nolidae: Eariadinae) as a new record for Iran. Applied Entomology and Phytopathology. 72 (2), Pe136, en40.

APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. In: Technical Document No. 135, Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA).

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

EPPO, 2020. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO.

Gracy R G, Shivalingaswamy T M, Satpathy S, Rai A B, 2011. Okra shoot and fruit borer, Earias vittella (F.), a new host record for the egg parasitoid, Trichogramma chiloraeae Nagaraja and Nagarkatti from India. Journal of Biological Control. 25 (2), 146-147. http://journalofbiologicalcontrol.com/index.php/jbc/article/view/54329

Mudathir M, Basedow T, 2004. Field experiments on the effects of neem products on pests and yields of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus), tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum), and onion (Allium cepa) in the Sudan. Mitteilungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft für allgemeine und angewandte Entomologie. 14 (1-6), 407-410.

Netam P K, Ganguli R N, Dubey A K, 2007. Insect pest succession in okra. Environment and Ecology. 25 (1), 177-180.

Rajpal Singh, Joshi A K, 2003. Pests of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Moench.) in Paonta Valley, Himachal Pradesh. Insect Environment. 9 (4), 173-174.

Rishi Kumar, Sucheta, Khokhar K S, 2004. Relative abundance of noctuids (Lepidoptera) associated with cotton and other crops in Haryana. Journal of Cotton Research and Development. 18 (1), 99-101.

Sakthivel T, Sujeetha J A R P, Nadarajan L, 2008. Bioefficacy of botanicals on okra shoot and fruit borer, Earias vittella Fabricius in Karaikal region, U. T. of Puducherry. Crop Research (Hisar). 35 (3), 255-258. http://www.cropresearch.org

Waterhouse D F, 1993. The major arthropod pests and weeds of agriculture in Southeast Asia. Canberra, Australia: ACIAR. v + 141 pp.

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