Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Dysmicoccus brevipes
(pineapple mealybug)

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Datasheet

Dysmicoccus brevipes (pineapple mealybug)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 10 December 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Vector of Plant Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Dysmicoccus brevipes
  • Preferred Common Name
  • pineapple mealybug
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Heavy infestations conspicuous because of white waxy adults which often occur at growing points, around stem nodes, on undersides of leaves, on fruit and on roots - pictured here on pineapple, Ivory Coast.
TitleInfestation on pineapple
CaptionHeavy infestations conspicuous because of white waxy adults which often occur at growing points, around stem nodes, on undersides of leaves, on fruit and on roots - pictured here on pineapple, Ivory Coast.
CopyrightCrown Copyright
Heavy infestations conspicuous because of white waxy adults which often occur at growing points, around stem nodes, on undersides of leaves, on fruit and on roots - pictured here on pineapple, Ivory Coast.
Infestation on pineappleHeavy infestations conspicuous because of white waxy adults which often occur at growing points, around stem nodes, on undersides of leaves, on fruit and on roots - pictured here on pineapple, Ivory Coast.Crown Copyright

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell, 1893)

Preferred Common Name

  • pineapple mealybug

Other Scientific Names

  • Dactylopius (Pseudococcud) ananassae Kuwana
  • Dactylopius brevipes Cockerell, 1893
  • Dactylopius bromeliae
  • Dysmicoccus bromeliae Auct.
  • Dysmicoccus cannae
  • Dysmicoccus pseudobrevipes (Mamet)
  • Pseudococcus brevipes (Cockerell), Fernald, 1903
  • Pseudococcus bromeliae
  • Pseudococcus cannae Green, 1934
  • Pseudococcus longirostralis James, 1936
  • Pseudococcus missionum Cockerell, 1910
  • Pseudococcus palauensis Kanda, 1933
  • Pseudococcus pseudobrevipes Mamet, 1941

International Common Names

  • Spanish: chinche harinosa de la piña; escama harinosa de la piña; palomilla de la raiz de la piña; piojo harinoso de la piña
  • French: cochenille farineuse de l'ananas

Local Common Names

  • Brazil: cochonilha do abacaxizeiro; cochonilha pulverulenta do abacaxi
  • Germany: ananas-schmierlaus
  • South Africa: pynappelwitluis

EPPO code

  • DYSMBR (Dysmicoccus brevipes)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hemiptera
  •                         Suborder: Sternorrhyncha
  •                             Unknown: Coccoidea
  •                                 Family: Pseudococcidae
  •                                     Genus: Dysmicoccus
  •                                         Species: Dysmicoccus brevipes

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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D. brevipes, commonly known as the pineapple mealybug, was originally described from specimens collected from pineapple in Jamaica. Ito (1938) pointed out that there were two distinct types of pineapple mealybug in Hawaii, which he referred to as the pink and grey forms. The pink form reproduced parthenogenetically and the grey form biparentally. Beardsley (1959) found morphological differences between them and described the grey form as D. neobrevipes. In some other regions of the world, there is a third form morphologically indistinguishable from D. brevipes which is biparental, and on the basis of its biology, a distinct species (Rohrbach et al., 1988). For the purposes of this data sheet the biparental and uniparental forms of D. brevipes are regarded as the same species.

Description

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Authoritative identification involves detailed microscopic examination of teneral adult females. Beardsley (1959, 1965) discussed the important morphological characters that separated D. brevipes from closely-related species. Detailed morphological descriptions, illustrations and keys to Dysmicoccus are provided by McKenzie (1967), Williams and Watson (1988) and Williams and Granara de Willink (1992).

Distribution

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D. brevipes originated in tropical America (Rohrbach et al., 1988) and has spread to all zoogeographical regions, mainly in the tropics and subtropics (see also CIE (1972) and Ben-Dov (1994)). It is probably one of the commonest mealybugs in Central and South America (Williams and Granara de Willink, 1992).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 25 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AngolaPresent
BeninPresent
Burkina FasoPresent
BurundiPresent
CameroonPresent
ChadPresent
Congo, Republic of thePresent
Côte d'IvoirePresent
EgyptPresent
EthiopiaPresent
GhanaPresent
GuineaPresent
KenyaPresent
MadagascarPresent
MalawiPresent
MaliPresent
MauritiusPresent
MozambiquePresent
NigerPresent
NigeriaPresent
RéunionPresent
RwandaPresent
Saint HelenaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AscensionPresent
São Tomé and PríncipePresent
SenegalPresent
SeychellesPresent
Sierra LeonePresent
SomaliaPresent
South AfricaPresent
SudanPresent
TanzaniaPresent
-Zanzibar IslandPresent
TogoPresent
UgandaPresent
ZambiaPresent

Asia

BangladeshPresent
BruneiPresent
CambodiaPresent
ChinaPresent
-FujianPresent
-GuangdongPresent
-GuangxiPresent
-HainanPresent
-YunnanPresent
IndiaPresent
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresent
-Andhra PradeshPresent
-AssamPresent
-BiharPresent
-KarnatakaPresent
-KeralaPresent
-MaharashtraPresent
-OdishaPresent
-Tamil NaduPresent
-TripuraPresent
-West BengalPresent
IndonesiaPresent
-Irian JayaPresent
IranPresent
JapanPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Ryukyu IslandsPresent
MalaysiaPresent
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresent
-SabahPresent
-SarawakPresent
PakistanPresent
PhilippinesPresent
SingaporePresent
Sri LankaPresent
TaiwanPresent
ThailandPresent
TurkeyPresent
VietnamPresent

Europe

CroatiaPresent2006
FrancePresent
ItalyPresent, Localized
-SicilyPresent
PortugalPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AzoresPresent
-MadeiraPresent
SloveniaPresent
SpainPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Canary IslandsPresent

North America

Antigua and BarbudaPresent
BahamasPresent
BarbadosPresent
BelizePresent
BermudaPresent
Cayman IslandsPresent
Costa RicaPresent
CubaPresent
DominicaPresent
Dominican RepublicPresent
El SalvadorPresent
GrenadaPresent
GuadeloupePresent
GuatemalaPresent
HaitiPresent
HondurasPresent
JamaicaPresent
MartiniquePresent
MexicoPresent
MontserratPresent
NicaraguaPresent
PanamaPresent
Puerto RicoPresent, Widespread
Saint Kitts and NevisPresent
Saint LuciaPresent
Trinidad and TobagoPresent
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresent
United StatesPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-CaliforniaPresent
-FloridaPresent
-HawaiiPresent
-LouisianaPresent

Oceania

American SamoaPresent
AustraliaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-New South WalesPresent
-Northern TerritoryPresent
-QueenslandPresent
-Western AustraliaPresent
Cook IslandsPresent
Federated States of MicronesiaPresent
-ChuukPresent
-PohnpeiPresent
-YapPresent
FijiPresent
French PolynesiaPresent
GuamPresent
KiribatiPresent
Marshall IslandsPresent
New CaledoniaPresent
NiuePresent
Northern Mariana IslandsPresent
PalauPresent
Papua New GuineaPresent
SamoaPresent
Solomon IslandsPresent
TokelauPresent
TongaPresent
TuvaluPresent
VanuatuPresent
Wallis and FutunaPresent

South America

ArgentinaPresent
BoliviaPresent
BrazilPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-BahiaPresent
-CearaPresent
-Espirito SantoPresent
-Mato GrossoPresent
-Minas GeraisPresent
-ParaPresent
-ParanaPresent
-PernambucoPresent
-PiauiPresent
-Rio de JaneiroPresent
-Rio Grande do SulPresent
-Santa CatarinaPresent
-Sao PauloPresent
ChilePresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Easter IslandPresentOriginal citation: Charlin, 1973
ColombiaPresent
EcuadorPresent
GuyanaPresent
ParaguayPresent
PeruPresent
SurinamePresent
UruguayPresent
VenezuelaPresent

Risk of Introduction

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D. brevipes is often injurious to crops especially when the mealybug is introduced to new geographical areas without natural enemies, or as a result of injudicious chemical spraying techniques. Areas where the mealybug occurs but where the mealybug wilt of pineapple is absent are at risk from the introduction of mealybugs carrying the virus. Areas where only the parthenogenetic form occurs are also at risk from the introduction of the biparental form.

Hosts/Species Affected

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D. brevipes is highly polyphagous, attacking plant species belonging to more than a 100 genera placed in 53 families (Ben-Dov, 1994). It is particularly common on pineapple but is also recorded on a wide range of other crops, mostly fruit crops and ornamentals, including avocado, banana, celery, citrus, clover, cocoa, coconut, coffee, cotton, custard apple, figs, ginger, guava, maize, mango, oil palm, orchids, groundnut, peppers, pineapple, plantain, potato and sugarcane.

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Acacia (wattles)FabaceaeUnknown
Acorus gramineusUnknown
AlpiniaZingiberaceaeUnknown
  • Matile-Ferrero and Étienne (2006)
Anacardium occidentale (cashew nut)AnacardiaceaeMain
    AnanasUnknown
    Ananas comosus (pineapple)BromeliaceaeMain
    Annona muricata (soursop)AnnonaceaeMain
    Annona reticulata (bullock's heart)AnnonaceaeMain
      Annona squamosa (sugar apple)AnnonaceaeMain
      Apium graveolens (celery)ApiaceaeMain
        Arachis hypogaea (groundnut)FabaceaeMain
        ArecaArecaceaeUnknown
        Areca catechu (betelnut palm)ArecaceaeUnknown
        Brassica rapa subsp. chinensis (Chinese cabbage)BrassicaceaeMain
          BromeliaBromeliaceaeUnknown
          Bromelia hemisphaericaUnknown
          Canna indica (canna lilly)CannaceaeMain
            Capsicum (peppers)SolanaceaeMain
              Caryota urens (fishtail palm)ArecaceaeUnknown
              Casuarina equisetifolia (casuarina)CasuarinaceaeMain
                Chloris gayana (Rhodes grass)PoaceaeUnknown
                CitrusRutaceaeMain
                  Cocos nucifera (coconut)ArecaceaeMain
                  Coffea (coffee)RubiaceaeUnknown
                  Coffea arabica (arabica coffee)RubiaceaeMain
                    ColocasiaAraceaeUnknown
                    • Matile-Ferrero and Étienne (2006)
                    Colocasia esculenta (taro)AraceaeMain
                    Cucumis sativus (cucumber)CucurbitaceaeMain
                      Cucurbita (pumpkin)CucurbitaceaeMain
                      Curcuma longa (turmeric)ZingiberaceaeUnknown
                      Cyperus (flatsedge)CyperaceaeUnknown
                      • Matile-Ferrero and Étienne (2006)
                      Cyperus appendiculatusCyperaceaeOther
                        Cyperus rotundus (purple nutsedge)CyperaceaeUnknown
                        Daucus carota (carrot)ApiaceaeMain
                          Digitaria eriantha (pangola grass)PoaceaeUnknown
                          • Matile-Ferrero and Étienne (2006)
                          Elaeis guineensis (African oil palm)ArecaceaeMain
                          ErythrinaFabaceaeUnknown
                          • Matile-Ferrero and Étienne (2006)
                          FicusMoraceaeMain
                          Glycine max (soyabean)FabaceaeUnknown
                          • Matile-Ferrero and Étienne (2006)
                          Gossypium (cotton)MalvaceaeMain
                            HedychiumUnknown
                            Hedychium coronarium (white butterfly ginger lily)ZingiberaceaeOther
                              HeliconiaHeliconiaceaeUnknown
                              • Matile-Ferrero and Étienne (2006)
                              Hibiscus (rosemallows)MalvaceaeMain
                                HyophorbeUnknown
                                Impatiens (balsam)BalsaminaceaeUnknown
                                Ipomoea batatas (sweet potato)ConvolvulaceaeMain
                                  LivistonaArecaceaeUnknown
                                  Malus domestica (apple)RosaceaeMain
                                    Mangifera indica (mango)AnacardiaceaeMain
                                    Manihot esculenta (cassava)EuphorbiaceaeMain
                                      Manilkara zapota (sapodilla)SapotaceaeUnknown
                                      Medicago sativa (lucerne)FabaceaeMain
                                      Musa (banana)MusaceaeMain
                                      Musa acuminata (wild banana)MusaceaeUnknown
                                      Nephelium lappaceum (rambutan)SapindaceaeOther
                                      Ocimum tenuiflorum (holy basil)LamiaceaeUnknown
                                      Orobanche (broomrape)OrobanchaceaeUnknown
                                      Pandanus tectorius (screw pine)PandanaceaeUnknown
                                      Paphiopedilum ciliolareUnknown
                                      PaspalumPoaceaeUnknown
                                      • Matile-Ferrero and Étienne (2006)
                                      Persea americana (avocado)LauraceaeMain
                                      Phoenix dactylifera (date-palm)ArecaceaeMain
                                      Piper betle (betel pepper)PiperaceaeMain
                                      Piper nigrum (black pepper)PiperaceaeUnknown
                                      Poaceae (grasses)PoaceaeMain
                                        Psidium guajava (guava)MyrtaceaeMain
                                        Ptychosperma macarthurii (Macarthur palm)ArecaceaeUnknown
                                        Rhapis excelsaArecaceaeOther
                                          Roystonea regia (cuban royal palm)ArecaceaeUnknown
                                          SaccharumPoaceaeUnknown
                                          Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane)PoaceaeMain
                                          Senna occidentalis (coffee senna)FabaceaeUnknown
                                          Solanum tuberosum (potato)SolanaceaeMain
                                          Sorghum halepense (Johnson grass)PoaceaeMain
                                            Syzygium aromaticum (clove)MyrtaceaeUnknown
                                            Theobroma cacao (cocoa)MalvaceaeMain
                                            Trifolium pratense (red clover)FabaceaeMain
                                              Trifolium repens (white clover)FabaceaeMain
                                                Vanda sanderianaUnknown
                                                Vitis vinifera (grapevine)VitaceaeUnknown
                                                XylocarpusUnknown
                                                Zea mays (maize)PoaceaeMain
                                                Zingiber officinale (ginger)ZingiberaceaeMain
                                                Zingiber zerumbet (shampoo ginger)ZingiberaceaeUnknown
                                                • Matile-Ferrero and Étienne (2006)

                                                Growth Stages

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                                                Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Vegetative growing stage

                                                Symptoms

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                                                On pineapple:

                                                D. brevipes is common on the roots of pineapple and large colonies develop on the stems just above ground level. The mealybugs may spread upwards to feed in the floral cavities, on both small and mature fruit, and on the crown leaves. The symptoms of the wilt disease are preliminary reddening of leaves followed by a definite colour change from red to pink and an inward reflexing of the leaf margins; a general debility, loss of rigidity and wilted appearance, and finally a recovery state in which the plant grows fresh, apparently normal leaves (Rohrbach et al., 1988). Occasionally this wilting process can be very rapid. The severity of the wilt symptoms depends on the size of the mealybug population. Wilted plants have reduced weight, leaf surface area, number of leaves, leaf length and breadth and root length.

                                                Feeding in the blossom cavities causes wounds which sometimes become contaminated by fungal spores resulting in a disorder called black spot. The biparental form of D. brevipes (and D. neobrevipes) can also cause local green or chlorotic spotting of the foliage.

                                                On plants other than pineapple:

                                                Infestations of D. brevipes occur on the foliage, stems and fruit. This results in reduced vigour and general debility of the host plant, yellow spotting on the undersides of leaves which may be shed prematurely, dieback of stems and wilting. Honeydew deposited on the leaves and fruit by the mealybugs serves as a medium for the growth of black sooty moulds. The sooty moulds result in a reduction of photosynthetic area. Ornamental plants and produce lose their market value.

                                                List of Symptoms/Signs

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                                                SignLife StagesType
                                                Fruit / discoloration
                                                Fruit / external feeding
                                                Fruit / honeydew or sooty mould
                                                Fruit / honeydew or sooty mould
                                                Growing point / dead heart
                                                Growing point / external feeding
                                                Leaves / abnormal colours
                                                Leaves / honeydew or sooty mould
                                                Leaves / honeydew or sooty mould
                                                Leaves / honeydew or sooty mould
                                                Roots / external feeding
                                                Stems / discoloration
                                                Stems / external feeding
                                                Stems / honeydew or sooty mould
                                                Whole plant / discoloration
                                                Whole plant / external feeding

                                                Biology and Ecology

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                                                The biology of the biparental form of D. brevipes has been studied in West Malaysia by Lim (1973), where it was becoming increasingly important as a pest of pineapple. The females had three nymphal instars, lasting 10.0, 6.7 and 7.9 days, respectively. The males had two nymphal instars, a prepupal and pupal stage, lasting 9.9, 5.8, 2.5 and 3.7 days, respectively. Development from first instar to adult took about 24 days in both sexes. The adult females lived for 17-49 days, whereas the adult males lived for 1-3 days. When gravid, ovoviviparous females could give rise to 19-137 first instars, over a period of 9.1 days, beginning 14.6 days after adulthood was reached. The sex ratio was 1:1. The life-cycle of the biparental form of D. brevipes was shorter than that of the parthenogenetic form in Hawaii.

                                                The main dispersal stage of D. brevipes is the first instar which moves about actively for a short period, probably for no more than a day. The first instars may be dispersed by wind and animals. All life stages may be dispersed over longer distances in trade on consignments of plant material and fruit.

                                                The parthenogenetic form of D. brevipes is largely confined to the lower portions of the pineapple plant, near ground level or below, whereas the biparental form of D. brevipes, together with D. neobrevipes, occur primarily on the crown and developing fruit.

                                                Rohrbach et al. (1988) discussed the close association between pineapple wilt disease, mealybugs and ants on pineapple in Hawaii. Populations of the ant Pheidole megacephala and D. brevipes are mutually dependent. P. megacephala builds mud encasements around the mealybug colonies that afford protection from predation, parasitism, desiccation and adverse climatic conditions. The ants also remove the honeydew excreted by the mealybugs, thus preventing its accumulation and the potential growth of sooty mould, both of which can be harmful to the mealybugs. The ants also carry the mealybugs to new host plants, as they extend their territory.

                                                Natural enemies

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                                                Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
                                                Aenasius brasiliensis Parasite Hawaii apples
                                                Anagyrus ananatis Parasite Adults/Nymphs Hawaii apples
                                                Anagyrus coccidivorus Parasite Puerto Rico apples
                                                Anagyrus pseudococci Parasite Adults/Nymphs
                                                Anagyrus sp. nr. kivuensis Parasite Hawaii apples
                                                Arhopoideus peregrinus Parasite Hawaii apples
                                                Blepyrus propinquus Parasite Adults/Nymphs
                                                Blepyrus schwarzi Parasite Hawaii apples
                                                Cleothera bromelicola Predator Adults/Nymphs Hawaii apples
                                                Coccodiplosis formosana Predator Adults/Nymphs
                                                Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Predator Adults/Nymphs Mauritius; Philippines apples
                                                Diadiplosis abacaxii Predator Culik and Ventura (2013)
                                                Diadiplosis koebelei Predator Adults/Nymphs Philippines apples
                                                Diadiplosis pseudococci Predator Adults/Nymphs Hawaii apples; Pinus; sugarcane
                                                Dicrodiplosis guatemalensis Predator Adults/Nymphs Hawaii apples
                                                Diomus margipallens Predator Adults/Nymphs Hawaii apples
                                                Diomus neuenschwanderi Predator Adults/Nymphs Jamaica apples
                                                Exochomus concavus Predator Adults/Nymphs
                                                Hambeltonia pseudococcinna Parasite Adults/Nymphs
                                                Hambletonia pseudococcinna Parasite Florida; Hawaii; Puerto Rico apples
                                                Hyperaspis albicollis Predator Adults/Nymphs Hawaii apples
                                                Hyperaspis c-nigrum Predator Adults/Nymphs Hawaii apples
                                                Hyperaspis silvestrii Predator Adults/Nymphs Philippines apples
                                                Leptomastix dactylopii Parasite Hawaii apples
                                                Pseudaphycus angelicus Parasite Hawaii apples
                                                Pseudaphycus dysmicocci Parasite Hawaii apples
                                                Pseudaphycus malinus Parasite Hawaii apples
                                                Pseudiastata pseudococcivora Predator Adults/Nymphs Hawaii apples
                                                Rhyzobius ventralis Predator Adults/Nymphs
                                                Scymnus bilucernarius Predator Adults/Nymphs Hawaii apples
                                                Scymnus margipellens Predator Adults/Nymphs Philippines apples
                                                Scymnus quadrivittatus Predator Adults/Nymphs Hawaii apples
                                                Scymnus uncinatus Predator Adults/Nymphs
                                                Zaplatycerus fullawayi Parasite Hawaii apples

                                                Notes on Natural Enemies

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                                                Bartlett (1978) has given an account of the introduced parasitoids and predators used to control D. brevipes.

                                                Impact

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                                                D. brevipes is a cosmopolitan pest of pineapple and a vector of mealybug pineapple wilt disease which is a serious threat to commercial pineapple production. It was originally thought that the wilt disease was caused by the secretion of toxins from the mealybugs but a pineapple wilt-associated closterovirus has been isolated from infected plant material. The virus can be transmitted by low numbers of the pest. D. brevipes is also known to transmit the cocoa Trinidad virus (Diego Martin Valley isolate) in Trinidad (Williams and Granara de Willink, 1992). It is a pest of sugarcane (Williams and Granara de Willink, 1992), coffee (Le Pelley, 1968), plantain (Matile-Ferrero and Williams, 1995) and caused a yield loss of about 25% of groundnut in Tripura, India (Das, 1988).

                                                Threatened Species

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                                                Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
                                                Serianthes nelsoniiCR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesGuam; Northern Mariana IslandsPest and disease transmissionUS Fish and Wildlife Service (1994)

                                                Risk and Impact Factors

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                                                Impact mechanisms
                                                • Pest and disease transmission

                                                Detection and Inspection

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                                                Heavy infestations are conspicuous because of the white waxy adults which often occur at the growing points, around the stem nodes, on the undersides of leaves, on the fruit and on the roots.

                                                Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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                                                D. brevipes should be distinguished from D. neobrevipes which occurs in North America, the Caribbean and the tropical South Pacific. Adult female D. brevipes are distinguished by the presence of long setae above the anal ring on the dorsum of the abdomen and in the roughly quadrate form of the ventral anal lobe sclerotization. D. neobrevipes, on the other hand, has short setae above the anal ring, and the ventral anal lobe sclerotization is conspicuously long, being two or more times as long as wide.

                                                Beardsley (1959, 1965) discussed the important morphological characters that separated D. brevipes from closely-related species.

                                                Prevention and Control

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                                                Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

                                                Heat Treatment

                                                Heating pineapple crowns in a large water bath at 50°C for 30 minutes permitted 100% plant survival and rendered 100% of the plants free of pineapple wilt-associated virus (Ullman et al., 1991). Following heat treatment of pineapple crowns in Hawaii, pineapple wilt-associated closterovirus could not be detected and growth of the heat-treated plants was more rapid than that observed in non-heat-treated plants. The heat-treated plants were not readily colonized by mealybugs, nor did they show mealybug wilt even after more than 2 years from being planted in a commercial plant crop with severe mealybug pineapple wilt (Ullman et al., 1993).

                                                Regulatory Control

                                                Importation of pineapple plants for planting from countries where mealybug wilt of pineapple occurs should be prohibited.

                                                Biological Control

                                                The following species of parasites and predators have been introduced into Hawaii for the biological control of D. brevipes, and have become established: the encyrtid parasitoids Anagyrus ananatis, Euryrhopalus [Blepyrus] propinquus and Hambeltonia pseudococcinna; a cecidomyid predator Lobodiplosis [Diadiplosis] pseudococci, and the predatory coccinellids Nephus bilucenarius and Scymnus uncinatus (Rohrbach et al., 1988). Of these, the encyrtids and cecidomyid are the most effective. These natural enemies, however, do not control the mealybug colonies in the presence of ants and ant control is therefore important.

                                                Chemical Control

                                                Pineapple crowns and slips used for new plantings need to be dipped or fumigated before planting to prevent spreading infestations of the mealybug. In Brazil, fenitrothion and fenpropathrin (Santa Cecilia and Sousa, 1993) and diazinon (Cecilia and Rossi, 1991) have been found to be effective against D. brevipes on pineapple.

                                                References

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                                                Bartlett BR, 1978. Pseudococcidae. In: Clausen CP, ed. Introduced Parasites and Predators of Arthropod Pests and Weeds: a World Review. Agriculture Handbook No. 480, 137-170.

                                                BEARDSLEY jr., J. W. , 1966. Insects of Micronesia. Homoptera: Coccoidea. Insects of Micronesia, 6(7), 3+] 377-562 pp.

                                                Beardsley JW, 1959. On the taxonomy of Pineapple mealybugs in Hawaii, with a description of a previously unnamed species (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society, 17:29-37.

                                                Beardsley JW, 1965. Notes on the Pineapple Mealybug Complex, with descriptions of two new species (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society, 19:55-68.

                                                Ben-Dov Y, 1994. A systematic catalogue of the mealybugs of the world (Insecta: Homoptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae and Putoidae) with data on geographical distribution, host plants, biology and economic importance. Andover, UK; Intercept Limited, 686 pp.

                                                Bohlen E, 1973. Crop pests in Tanzania and their control. Berlin, Germany: Verlag Paul Parey.

                                                Botrel N, Siqueira DLde, 1993. Control of pineapple mealybug. Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira, 28(2):223-227

                                                Carabalí-Banguero, D. J., Wyckhuys, K. A. G., Montoya-Lerma, J., Kondo, T., Lundgren, J. G., 2013. Do additional sugar sources affect the degree of attendance of Dysmicoccus brevipes by the fire ant Solenopsis geminata?. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 148(1), 65-73. doi: 10.1111/eea.12076

                                                Cecflia LVCS, Rossi MM, 1991. Comparative efficiency of some insecticides and application methods for the control of pineapple mealybugs. Pesquisa Agropecua^acute~ria Brasileira, 26(6):843-848; 14 ref.

                                                CIE, 1972. Distribution Maps of Pests, Series A No. 50 (revised). Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

                                                CIE, 1972. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, No. 50. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

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