Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Duranta erecta
(golden dewdrop)

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Datasheet

Duranta erecta (golden dewdrop)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 11 February 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Duranta erecta
  • Preferred Common Name
  • golden dewdrop
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Duranta erecta is a vine-like, evergreen shrub, native to the Americas. It is widely cultivated as an ornamental and is also used as a hedge plant. The seeds of this species are dispersed naturally by birds tha...

  • Principal Source
  • Draft datasheet under review

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Duranta erecta (pigeonberry); flowering and fruiting habit Pukalani, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2009.
TitleHabit
CaptionDuranta erecta (pigeonberry); flowering and fruiting habit Pukalani, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2009.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Duranta erecta (pigeonberry); flowering and fruiting habit Pukalani, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2009.
HabitDuranta erecta (pigeonberry); flowering and fruiting habit Pukalani, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2009.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Duranta erecta (pigeonberry); flowering and fruiting habit Pukalani, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2009.
TitleHabit
CaptionDuranta erecta (pigeonberry); flowering and fruiting habit Pukalani, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2009.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Duranta erecta (pigeonberry); flowering and fruiting habit Pukalani, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2009.
HabitDuranta erecta (pigeonberry); flowering and fruiting habit Pukalani, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2009.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Duranta erecta (pigeonberry); flowers, fruits and foliage. Garden of Eden Keanae, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2011.
TitleHabit
CaptionDuranta erecta (pigeonberry); flowers, fruits and foliage. Garden of Eden Keanae, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2011.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2011 - CC BY 4.0
Duranta erecta (pigeonberry); flowers, fruits and foliage. Garden of Eden Keanae, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2011.
HabitDuranta erecta (pigeonberry); flowers, fruits and foliage. Garden of Eden Keanae, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2011.©Forest & Kim Starr-2011 - CC BY 4.0
Duranta erecta (pigeonberry); flowers and leaves. Maui, Hawaii, USA. January 2008.
TitleFlowers and leaves
CaptionDuranta erecta (pigeonberry); flowers and leaves. Maui, Hawaii, USA. January 2008.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2008 - CC BY 4.0
Duranta erecta (pigeonberry); flowers and leaves. Maui, Hawaii, USA. January 2008.
Flowers and leavesDuranta erecta (pigeonberry); flowers and leaves. Maui, Hawaii, USA. January 2008.©Forest & Kim Starr-2008 - CC BY 4.0
Duranta erecta (pigeonberry); flower and fruits. Home Depot Nursery, Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. January 2008.
TitleFlowers and fruits
CaptionDuranta erecta (pigeonberry); flower and fruits. Home Depot Nursery, Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. January 2008.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2008 - CC BY 4.0
Duranta erecta (pigeonberry); flower and fruits. Home Depot Nursery, Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. January 2008.
Flowers and fruitsDuranta erecta (pigeonberry); flower and fruits. Home Depot Nursery, Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. January 2008.©Forest & Kim Starr-2008 - CC BY 4.0
Duranta erecta (pigeonberry); fruiting habit. Haiku, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2009.
TitleFruiting habit
CaptionDuranta erecta (pigeonberry); fruiting habit. Haiku, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2009.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2009 - CC BY 4.0
Duranta erecta (pigeonberry); fruiting habit. Haiku, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2009.
Fruiting habitDuranta erecta (pigeonberry); fruiting habit. Haiku, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2009.©Forest & Kim Starr-2009 - CC BY 4.0
Duranta erecta (pigeonberry); fruiting habit. Haiku, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2009.
TitleFruiting habit
CaptionDuranta erecta (pigeonberry); fruiting habit. Haiku, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2009.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2009 - CC BY 4.0
Duranta erecta (pigeonberry); fruiting habit. Haiku, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2009.
Fruiting habitDuranta erecta (pigeonberry); fruiting habit. Haiku, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2009.©Forest & Kim Starr-2009 - CC BY 4.0
Duranta erecta (pigeonberry); close view of ripe fruits. Home Depot Nursery, Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. January 2008.
TitleFruits
CaptionDuranta erecta (pigeonberry); close view of ripe fruits. Home Depot Nursery, Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. January 2008.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2008 - CC BY 4.0
Duranta erecta (pigeonberry); close view of ripe fruits. Home Depot Nursery, Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. January 2008.
FruitsDuranta erecta (pigeonberry); close view of ripe fruits. Home Depot Nursery, Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. January 2008.©Forest & Kim Starr-2008 - CC BY 4.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Duranta erecta L.

Preferred Common Name

  • golden dewdrop

Other Scientific Names

  • Duranta angustifolia Salisb.
  • Duranta dentata Pers.
  • Duranta ellisiae Jacq.
  • Duranta inermis L.
  • Duranta integrifolia Tod.
  • Duranta latifolia Salisb.
  • Duranta microphylla Willd.
  • Duranta plumieri Jacq.
  • Duranta racemosa Mill.
  • Duranta repens L.
  • Duranta spinosa Mill.
  • Duranta turbinata Tod.
  • Duranta xalapensis Kunth
  • Ellisia acuta L.

International Common Names

  • English: angels whisper; Brazilian sky flower; duranta; forget-me-not tree; garden dew drop; golden eardrops; golden tears; pigeonberry; skyflower
  • Spanish: cuentas de oro; duranta; flor celeste; San Jacinto; tala blanco
  • French: durante dressée; durante; vanillier de Cayenne; vanillier marron
  • Chinese: jia lian qiao
  • Portuguese: duranta; fruta-de-jacú; pingo-de-ouro; violeteira
  • German: durante; taubenbeere

Local Common Names

  • Brazil: pingo-de-ouro; violeteira-dourada
  • Germany: durante
  • India: kata mehedi
  • Indonesia: sinyo nakal
  • Italy: duranta
  • Japan: deyuranta; harimatsuso; sinyo nakal; taiwan-rengiyô
  • Marshall Islands: jab meloklok
  • Mexico: xcambocoché
  • Philippines: dueanta
  • South Africa: vergeet-my-nie-boom
  • Sweden: duvbär
  • Thailand: thanh yod
  • Tonga: ‘olive; māvaetangi
  • Uganda: ekikomamahanga; kawololo; langwila
  • Vietnam: thanh quan

EPPO code

  • DUTPL (Duranta plumieri)

Summary of Invasiveness

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Duranta erecta is a vine-like, evergreen shrub, native to the Americas. It is widely cultivated as an ornamental and is also used as a hedge plant. The seeds of this species are dispersed naturally by birds that eat the fruits, and accidentally through garden waste disposal by humans. D. erecta is naturalized in Asia, Africa and Oceania. It is an invasive weed in China, Taiwan, Hawaii, Fiji, French Polynesia, Tonga and Australia. D. erecta is allelopathic and forms dense thickets, displacing native plants and associated organisms.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Lamiales
  •                         Family: Verbenaceae
  •                             Genus: Duranta
  •                                 Species: Duranta erecta

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The genus Duranta belongs to the family Verbenaceae and contains approximately 17 species native to the tropical Americas (Munir, 1995). The genus was named after Castore Durante, a sixteenth-century, Italian botanist (Andreu et al., 2010).

Historically, there has been a lot of confusion about the taxonomy of the species D. erecta, which has variously been known as D. erecta, D. plumieri or D. repens (Munir, 1995). D. erecta is now recognized as the accepted name, with D. plumieri and D. repens listed as synonyms (The Plant List, 2018). The common name, golden dewdrop, comes from of the appearance of the golden fruits hanging from the plant (Andreu et al., 2010).

Description

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D. erecta is a sprawling or vine-like tender evergreen shrub or small tree, growing up to 7 m tall and spreading to an equal width (Munir, 1995; Floridata, 2015). It typically grows in a clump with multiple branches that droop towards the ground (Floridata, 2015). The bark is light brown and slightly furrowed (Andreu et al., 2010). The stems of mature plants usually have sharp axillary thorns, which are absent in younger plants of this species (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2018). Leaves are ovate, paired, opposite, and between 2.5 and 7.6 cm long (Floridata, 2015). Flowers hang in long racemes (approx. 15 cm) and are small, tubular and range from purple and white to violet or blue (Andreu et al., 2010). The fruit is approximately 7-10 mm in diameter, subglobose or obpyriform and is orange-yellow in colour (Munir, 1995).

The following description is from the Flora of China (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2013):

Shrubs, often climbing. Branches spiny, pubescent when young. Petiole ca 1 cm, pubescent; leaf blade ovate to lanceolate, 2-6.5 x 1.5-3.5 cm, papery, base cuneate, margin entire to distally crenate, veins 6 pairs. Calyx pubescent on both surfaces. Corolla tube ca 7 mm. Stamens included. Ovary glabrous. Drupes ca 5 mm in diameter, shorter than calyx, shiny, glabrous.

Plant Type

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Shrub
Vegetatively propagated
Woody

Distribution

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D. erecta is native to Mexico, the Caribbean, Central America and much of South America (USDA-ARS, 2013). According to USDA-NRCS (2018), it is native to the states of Arizona, California, Florida, Louisiana and Texas in the USA. However, other records report that it is introduced in Florida and Texas (USDA-ARS, 2013). This species is widely cultivated across the world and, as a result, has become naturalized in parts of Asia, Africa, the islands of Mayotte and Reunion and much of Oceania (PIER, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2013; Flora of Zambia, 2015; Flora of Zimbabwe, 2015; Hyde et al., 2015; Witt and Luke, 2017). It is reported to be invasive in China, Taiwan, Hawaii (USA), Fiji, French Polynesia, Tonga and Australia (PIER, 2013; Weeds of Australia, 2016).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasivePlantedReferenceNotes

Asia

ChinaPresentIntroduced Invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2013; Weeds of Australia, 2016
-FujianPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2013
-GuangdongPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2013
-GuangxiPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2013
-HainanPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2013
-Hong KongPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedPIER, 2013
-HunanPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2013
-JiangxiPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2013
-ZhejiangPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2013
IndiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2013Naturalized
PhilippinesPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedPIER, 2013Cultivated for ornamental purposes
SingaporePresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedChong et al., 2009
TaiwanPresentIntroduced Invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2013; PIER, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2013

Africa

BotswanaPresentIntroducedWitt and Luke, 2017
EthiopiaPresentIntroducedWitt and Luke, 2017
KenyaPresentIntroducedWitt and Luke, 2017
MalawiPresentIntroducedWitt and Luke, 2017
MayottePresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2013Naturalized
MozambiquePresentIntroducedHyde et al, 2015
RéunionPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2013Naturalized
RwandaPresentIntroducedWitt and Luke, 2017
TanzaniaPresentIntroducedWitt and Luke, 2017
UgandaPresentIntroducedWitt and Luke, 2017
ZambiaPresentIntroducedFlora of Zambia, 2015; Witt and Luke, 2017
ZimbabwePresentIntroducedFlora of Zimbabwe, 2015; Witt and Luke, 2017

North America

MexicoPresentNative Natural USDA-ARS, 2013
USAPresentIntroducedPresent based on regional distribution.
-ArizonaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2018
-CaliforniaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2018
-FloridaPresent Natural USDA-ARS, 2013; USDA-NRCS, 2018Recorded as both native and introduced in this state
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2013Kaua‘i Island, O‘ahu Island
-LouisianaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2018
-TexasPresent Natural USDA-ARS, 2013; USDA-NRCS, 2018Recorded as both native and introduced in this state

Central America and Caribbean

Antigua and BarbudaPresentNative Natural USDA-ARS, 2013
BahamasPresentNative Natural USDA-ARS, 2013
BarbadosPresentNative Natural USDA-ARS, 2013
BelizePresentNative Natural USDA-ARS, 2013
British Virgin IslandsPresentNative Natural USDA-ARS, 2013Virgin Gorda
Costa RicaPresentNative Natural USDA-ARS, 2013
CubaPresentNative Natural USDA-ARS, 2013
Dominican RepublicPresentNative Natural USDA-ARS, 2013
El SalvadorPresentNative Natural USDA-ARS, 2013
GuadeloupePresentNative Natural USDA-ARS, 2013
GuatemalaPresentNative Natural USDA-ARS, 2013
HaitiPresentNative Natural USDA-ARS, 2013
HondurasPresentNative Natural USDA-ARS, 2013
JamaicaPresentNative Natural USDA-ARS, 2013
MartiniquePresentNative Natural USDA-ARS, 2013
MontserratPresentNative Natural USDA-ARS, 2013
NicaraguaPresentNative Natural USDA-ARS, 2013
PanamaPresentNative Natural USDA-ARS, 2013
Puerto RicoPresentNative Natural USDA-ARS, 2013
Saint Kitts and NevisPresentNative Natural USDA-ARS, 2013
Saint LuciaPresentNative Natural USDA-ARS, 2013
United States Virgin IslandsPresentNative Natural USDA-ARS, 2013St. Croix, St. Thomas

South America

ArgentinaPresentNative Natural USDA-ARS, 2013Buenos Aires, Chaco, Entre Rios, Formosa, Misiones, Santa Fe
BoliviaPresentNative Natural USDA-ARS, 2013
BrazilPresentNative Natural USDA-ARS, 2013
-BahiaPresentNative Natural USDA-ARS, 2013
-Espirito SantoPresentNative Natural USDA-ARS, 2013
-Minas GeraisPresentNative Natural USDA-ARS, 2013
-ParaibaPresentNative Natural USDA-ARS, 2013
-Rio de JaneiroPresentNative Natural USDA-ARS, 2013
-Sao PauloPresentNative Natural USDA-ARS, 2013
ColombiaPresentNative Natural USDA-ARS, 2013
EcuadorPresentNative Natural USDA-ARS, 2013
-Galapagos IslandsPresentNative Natural Jaramillo Díaz et al., 2018
ParaguayPresentNative Natural USDA-ARS, 2013
PeruPresentNative Natural USDA-ARS, 2013Cajamarca, Cuzco, Lambayeque, Lima, Piura, Puno
SurinamePresentNative Natural USDA-ARS, 2013
VenezuelaPresentNative Natural USDA-ARS, 2013

Oceania

American SamoaPresentIntroducedPIER, 2013Ta‘u Island, Tutuila Island. Also cultivated
AustraliaPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2013; Weeds of Australia, 2016
-New South WalesPresentIntroduced Invasive Weeds of Australia, 2016
-QueenslandPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2013; Weeds of Australia, 2016
Cook IslandsPresent only under cover/indoorsIntroducedPIER, 2013Rarotonga Island
FijiPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2013Vanua Levu Island, Vanua Mbalavu Island, Viti Levu Island. Also cultivated
French PolynesiaPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2013Mangareva (Gambier) Island, Hiva Oa Island, Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island, Moorea Island, Raiatea (Havai) Island, Tahiti Island. Also cultivated
GuamPresentIntroducedPIER, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2013Also cultivated
Marshall IslandsPresentIntroducedPIER, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2013Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll, Arno Atoll . Also cultivated
Micronesia, Federated states ofPresentIntroducedPIER, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2013Weno (Moen) Island, Kosrae Island, Pohnpei Island. Also cultivated
NauruPresentIntroducedPIER, 2013Also cultivated
New CaledoniaPresentIntroducedPIER, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2013Île Lifou, Île Grande Terre. Also cultivated
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentIntroducedPIER, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2013Aguijan (Agiguan, Aguihan) Island, Rota Island
PalauPresentIntroducedPIER, 2013Angaur (Ngeaur) Island, Babeldaob Island, Koror (Oreor) Island, Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island, Ngercheu Island, Ngerkebesang Island, Peleliu (Beliliou) Island, Sonsorol Island. Also cultivated
Papua New GuineaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2013Naturalized
SamoaPresentIntroducedPIER, 2013Savai‘i Island, Upolu Island. Also cultivated
TongaPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2013Lifuka and Foa Islands, ‘Eua Island, Tongatapu Island. Also cultivated
VanuatuPresentPIER, 2013
Wallis and Futuna IslandsPresentIntroducedPIER, 2013Wallis (‘Uvea) Island. Also cultivated

Risk of Introduction

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The risk of introduction of D. erecta is high because it is widely cultivated for ornamental use in gardens.

Habitat

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According to Floridata (2015), D. erecta occurs in scrub, open woodlands and disturbed areas. It is also associated with riparian habitats, coastal hills, grasslands, densely forested areas and roadsides (Little et al., 1974; Flora of Zimbabwe, 2015; Weeds of Australia, 2016).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Littoral/Coastal areas Present, no further details Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

Various chromosome numbers have been reported for D. erecta, ranging from 2n = 16 to 2n = 36 (Munir, 1995).

Reproductive Biology

D. erecta reproduces by seed but can also be propagated by cuttings (Floridata, 2015).

Physiology and Phenology

In Puerto Rico, it flowers and fruits in spring and summer (Little et al., 1974). However, ornamental plants flower and fruit throughout the year, with both flowers and fruit being present on the shrubs at the same time (Nelson, 1996).

Environmental Requirements

D. erecta tolerates acidic to slightly alkaline soils and is moderately salt tolerant (Floridata, 2015). It prefers well drained, fertile soils and partial shade (Floridata, 2015). In Puerto Rico, it grows from sea level to approximately 120 m (Little et al., 1974). According to Adams (1972), it can grow up to approximately 1600 m above sea level.

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
A - Tropical/Megathermal climate Preferred Average temp. of coolest month > 18°C, > 1500mm precipitation annually
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
B - Dry (arid and semi-arid) Tolerated < 860mm precipitation annually
BS - Steppe climate Tolerated > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
BW - Desert climate Tolerated < 430mm annual precipitation

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall750900mm; lower/upper limits

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • alkaline
  • neutral

Special soil tolerances

  • saline

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal

The seeds are most commonly dispersed by birds that eat the brightly coloured fruit (Weeds of Australia, 2016).

Accidental Introduction

D. erecta can be spread via dumped garden waste (Weeds of Australia, 2016).

Intentional Introduction

It is deliberately introduced into new areas as an ornamental plant.

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Garden waste disposal Yes Yes Weeds of Australia, 2016

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesSpreads via dumped garden waste Yes Yes Weeds of Australia, 2016

Environmental Impact

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D. erecta is a weed that is reported to invade riparian habitats and scrublands, causing changes to natural ecosystems (Weeds of Australia, 2016). It also allelopathic and forms dense thickets, displacing native plants and associated organisms (Witt and Luke, 2017). Thickets also restrict access to land and are reported to limit the productivity of managed grasslands (Weeds of Australia, 2016). In Australia it was listed as one of the 50 most invasive species in an environmental weed survey in New South Wales and one of the 100 most invasive plants in southeastern Queensland (Weeds of Australia, 2016).

Social Impact

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The leaves and fruits of D. erecta are poisonous to both people and animals (Weeds of Australia, 2016). They are reported to have caused poisoning in a number of domestic animals including dogs and cats (Scanlan et al., 2006).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Monoculture formation
  • Negatively impacts human health
  • Negatively impacts animal health
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Allelopathic
  • Competition - shading
  • Competition - smothering
  • Poisoning
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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D. erecta is cultivated as an ornamental and as a plant used in hedges and windbreaks (Floridata, 2015). It also has medicinal uses in China (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2013).

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Windbreak

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Ornamental

  • garden plant

References

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Adams, C. D., 1972. Flowering plants of Jamaica, Mona, Jamaica: University of the West Indies.848 pp.

Andreu MG, Friedman MH, McKenzie M, Quintana HV, Northrop RJ, 2010. Duranta erecta, Golden Dewdrop. Florida, USA: IFAS Extension, University of Florida.https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/FR/FR32700.pdf

Chong KY, Tan HTW, Corlett RT, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore.273 pp. https://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/app/uploads/2017/04/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2013. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Flora of Zambia, 2015. Flora of Zambia. https://www.zambiaflora.com/

Flora of Zimbabwe, 2015. Flora of Zimbabwe. http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/

Floridata, 2015. Floridata. https://floridata.com/home

Hyde MA, Wursten BT, Ballings P, Coates Palgrave M, 2015. Flora of Mozambique. http://www.mozambiqueflora.com/index.php

Jaramillo Díaz P, Guézou A, Mauchamp A, Tye A, 2018. CDF Checklist of Galapagos Flowering Plants. (FCD Lista de especies de Plants con flores Galápagos). In: Charles Darwin Foundation Galapagos Species Checklist [ed. by Bungartz F, Herrera H, Jaramillo P, Tirado N, Jiménez-Uzcátegui G, Ruiz D, Guézou A, Ziemmeck F]. Puerto Ayora, Galapagos, Ecuador: Charles Darwin Foundation.https://www.darwinfoundation.org/en/datazone/checklists/

Little, E. L., Jr., Woodbury, R. O., Wadsworth, F. H., 1974. Trees of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Second volume. In: Agriculture Handbook, US Department of Agriculture , (No. 449) . xiv + 1024 pp.

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2018. Tropicos database. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.http://www.tropicos.org/

Munir, A. A., 1995. A taxonomic revision of the genus Duranta L. (Verbenaceae) in Australia. Journal of the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, 16, 1-16.

Nelson G, 1996. The Shrubs and Woody Vines of Florida: A Reference and Field Guide, Sarasota, Florida, USA: Pineapple Press Inc.391 pp.

PIER, 2013. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii.http://www.hear.org/pier/index.htm

Scanlan, S. N. A., Eagles, D. A., Vacher, N. E., Irvine, M. A., Ryan, C. J., McKenzie, R. A., 2006. Duranta erecta poisoning in nine dogs and a cat. Australian Veterinary Journal, 84(10), 367-370. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/avj doi: 10.1111/j.1751-0813.2006.00039.x

The Plant List, 2018. The Plant List: a working list of all plant species. Version 1.1. London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.http://www.theplantlist.org

USDA-ARS, 2013. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory.http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl

USDA-NRCS, 2018. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center.http://plants.usda.gov/

Weeds of Australia, 2016. Weeds of Australia, Biosecurity Queensland Edition. http://keyserver.lucidcentral.org/weeds/data/03030800-0b07-490a-8d04-0605030c0f01/media/Html/search.html?zoom_query=

Witt, A., Luke, Q., 2017. Guide to the naturalized and invasive plants of Eastern Africa, [ed. by Witt, A., Luke, Q.]. Wallingford, UK: CABI.vi + 601 pp. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158959 doi:10.1079/9781786392145.0000

Principal Source

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Draft datasheet under review

Contributors

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20/04/15 Original text by:

Esther Arengo, National Agricultural Research Laboratories, Kampala, Uganda

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