Duponchelia fovealis (Southern European marshland pyralid)
- Summary of Invasiveness
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Distribution Table
- Risk of Introduction
- Habitat List
- Hosts/Species Affected
- Host Plants and Other Plants Affected
- Growth Stages
- List of Symptoms/Signs
- Biology and Ecology
- Means of Movement and Dispersal
- Plant Trade
- Wood Packaging
- Impact Summary
- Detection and Inspection
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Links to Websites
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Duponchelia fovealis Zeller
Preferred Common Name
- Southern European marshland pyralid
Other Scientific Names
- Duponchelia canuisalis Milliere
- DUPOFO (Duponchelia fovealis)
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Metazoa
- Phylum: Arthropoda
- Subphylum: Uniramia
- Class: Insecta
- Order: Lepidoptera
- Family: Pyralidae
- Genus: Duponchelia
- Species: Duponchelia fovealis
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page
DescriptionTop of page
Newly-hatched larvae are approximately 1.5 mm long, with a shiny black head and a salmon-pink body with numerous grey spots at the base of short hairs. Larvae grow to eventually become 17-19 mm. From the initial pale pink colour of the body, it becomes creamy or dirty white with age, often shiny and partly translucent. The colour of the larvae varies depending on the host plant, although they almost always have a conspicuous black head and distinctive grey-brown spots all over the body, each surrounding a short dark brown hair. Trematerra (1990) provides a detailed description of the larvae, together with a description of the arrangement of the hairs (setulae) and how the arrangement varies between instars. Depending on environmental conditions, larvae are fully grown after about 4 weeks. They pupate in an oval cocoon, 15-19 mm long, composed of soil or other detritus, bound with white silk.
Pupae are 9-10 mm long, pale yellow-brown, becoming darker closer to emergence. Cocoons may be found in the soil, in a web between leaves, or in other hidden places within the vicinity of the plant. Adults emerge in 7-14 days depending on temperature, and live for 2 or 3 weeks.
The adult moths have a wingspan of 19-21 mm and a relatively long, narrow abdomen of 9-12 mm. At rest they have a characteristic posture with the wings held slightly apart and the end of the abdomen curled upwards, sometimes at almost 90° from the horizontal. The forewings are pale olivaceous-umbrose/olive-brown, with two narrow cream/honey-coloured vertical lines. The line nearest the wing tip forms a distinctive U-shaped marking near the centre of the wing, and in the male moth, the line nearest the body ends in a cream coloured wedge shaped fovea/triangular marking. The cilia are irregularly coloured umbrose and pale hazel. The hindwings are pale olive-brown, each with a cream coloured central wavy line and cream-coloured wing fringe. The head, antennae and body are olive brown with each body segment having cream-coloured rings. The legs are pale brown. The male is distinguished from the female by the evident fovea present on the forweings and the slightly longer taped body (Trematerra, 1990).
Trematerra (1990) provides photographs of eggs, larvae and adults, with detailed descriptions and illustrations of male and female genitalia.
DistributionTop of page
In continental Europe, D. fovealis occurs outdoors in mainland Spain, for example in Castellon Province (Spuler, 1910) and in some departments of France, for example, Var and Alpes Maritimes (Marion, 1973). Farther north in Europe, D. fovealis is restricted to artificial environments such as glasshouses, especially those that grow aquatic plants, for example in Belgium (Faquaet, 2000), Denmark, Finland (Kyrki and Itaemies, 1984) Germany (Billen, 1993) and Sweden (Svensson, 1999). In The Netherlands, D. fovealis was first identified when a single male was caught in a light trap in 1992 (Huisman and Koster, 1995), although damage caused by the then unidentified larvae had been known since 1989 (Romeijn, 1994). Since 1992, D. fovealis has spread widely in The Netherlands amongst protected cultivation, and it has been found in plastic polytunnels as well as in glasshouses (Romeijn, 1994, 1996; Huisman and Koster, 1995). In the UK, D. fovealis was first recorded from Norwich in 1996 (Hipperson, 1996) and has been reported on a number of occasions since then. Other findings have been from southern England (Essex and Hampshire - Goodey, 1998; Musgrove, 2000), northern England (for example, in Greater Manchester - Cleary-Pugh, 1999) and as far north as south Mainland, Shetland Isles (Goodey, 2000).
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 30 Jun 2021
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|Denmark||Absent, Intercepted only|
|Hungary||Present, Few occurrences|
|Netherlands||Absent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)|
|-Canary Islands||Present, Widespread||Native|
|Canada||Absent, Intercepted only|
|-Ontario||Absent, Intercepted only|
|United States||Present, Transient under eradication|
Risk of IntroductionTop of page
HabitatTop of page
Habitat ListTop of page
Hosts/Species AffectedTop of page
In addition to the hosts listed, D. fovealis causes economic damage on Bacopa, Cryptocoryne and Echinodorus tropica. Other hosts include Ficus triangulatus and species of Cuphea, Heuchera, Lisianthus and Ophiopogon, and the wild species Malva sylvestris, Mentha pulegium and Oxalis acetosella.
Host Plants and Other Plants AffectedTop of page
Growth StagesTop of page
SymptomsTop of page
List of Symptoms/SignsTop of page
|Growing point / external feeding|
|Growing point / frass visible|
|Growing point / internal feeding; boring|
|Inflorescence / external feeding|
|Inflorescence / frass visible|
|Inflorescence / webbing|
|Leaves / external feeding|
|Leaves / frass visible|
|Leaves / webbing|
|Leaves / wilting|
|Roots / internal feeding|
|Stems / internal feeding|
|Stems / lodging; broken stems|
|Whole plant / cut at stem base|
|Whole plant / external feeding|
|Whole plant / frass visible|
|Whole plant / internal feeding|
|Whole plant / plant dead; dieback|
Biology and EcologyTop of page
After about 4 weeks, larvae are fully developed and form pupae in earthen cells in the soil, or within the protection of a spun web between leaves in the canopy. Pupae in the soil are covered with soil debris and frass. After 1 or 2 weeks the adult emerges. Adults quickly mate and females can lay eggs within 24 hours of emergence (Romeijn, 1996).
There are no reports of cold tolerance or any type of diapause in any life stage. In warm conditions such as in the Canary Isles, there are two generations per year, the first emerging in early summer (April to May) and the second in late summer (August to September) (Spuler, 1910). In northern Europe there is one generation per year.
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page
D. fovealis is not recorded as a vector of any pathogen.
Movement in trade
The occurrence of D. fovealis in glasshouses in northern Europe suggests that the exchange and trade of host plants in commercial trade provides a mechanism for the spread of this pest. In fact, D. fovealis has been detected in consignments of Heuchera and Sambucus plants for planting exported from The Netherlands to the UK (EPPO, 1999a, b). Three of the findings of D. fovealis within the UK have been from within private dwellings (houses), providing circumstantial evidence that the pest was moved with houseplants (Musgrove, 2000).
In spring, 2005, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency confirmed the presence of D. fovealis in three Ontario cut flower production greenhouses. All three facilities were known to have imported propagative plant material from countries where the insect is known to occur (Miller-Cormier, 2005).
Plant TradeTop of page
|Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transport||Pest stages||Borne internally||Borne externally||Visibility of pest or symptoms|
|Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx||larvae||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye|
|Fruits (inc. pods)||larvae||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye|
|Growing medium accompanying plants||eggs; pupae||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye|
|Leaves||eggs; larvae||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye|
|Roots||larvae||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually invisible|
|Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches||larvae||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually invisible|
Wood PackagingTop of page
|Wood Packaging not known to carry the pest in trade/transport|
|Loose wood packing material|
|Processed or treated wood|
|Solid wood packing material with bark|
|Solid wood packing material without bark|
Impact SummaryTop of page
|Fisheries / aquaculture||None|
ImpactTop of page
In 1984, D. fovealis was found causing damage to an ornamental crop in a glasshouse in Finland. It was the first record of damage in northern Europe (Kyrki and Itaemies, 1984). Since then it has been reported causing damage to protected crops in Denmark, France, Germany and also The Netherlands (Trematerra, 1990), where it is a serious pest of Eustoma grandiflorum, Kalanchoe, Cyclamen and Begonia (Messelink and van Wensveen, 2003).
In The Netherlands, the moth was first identified in 1989 at a water-plant nursery, where the grower said it had occurred each autumn for a number of years previously on plants imported from the Canary Isles (Romeijn, 1996). Within The Netherlands, D. fovealis has spread widely and has spread into vegetable crops such as Capsicum (sweet peppers) and lettuce growing under glass (Romeijn, 1996). Exports of sweet peppers from The Netherlands to the USA have been hampered by the presence of D. fovealis larvae in the fruit (Romeijn, 1996).
German glasshouses growing aquatic plants (in Berlin and Stuttgart) have also suffered from D. fovealis damage (Huisman and Koster, 1995). In 1998, D. fovealis was recorded in the Czech Republic for the first time as a troublesome pest of aquatic plants cultivated under glass (Marek and Bartova, 1998).
Detection and InspectionTop of page
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.
Once a pest population has been detected, larvae can be targeted by foliar applications of insecticides. The insect growth regulator teflubenzuron can provide effective control. However, control may be difficult as caterpillars inside stems will be protected from treatment. Indeed, Trematerra (1990) suggested that intervention to control the pest may be futile; instead, young plants that are infested should be pricked out (roguing).
In lettuce in The Netherlands, good control was reported using Bacillus thuringiensis, but control has not been as good in other crops. The use of entomopathogenic nematodes, i.e. Steinernema sp., is also reported as a useful treatment, particularly under conditions of high humidity, since the nematodes may be able to locate the concealed larvae (Jackel et al., 1994).
In laboratory trials, the soil-dwelling mites Hypoaspis miles and H. aculeifer, as well as the staphilinid beetle Atheta coriaria, provided excellent control of eggs and first-instar larvae (Messelink and van Wensveen, 2003).
ReferencesTop of page
Billen W, 1993. On the harmfulness of Duponchelia fovealis (Zeller, 1847) in Germany (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae). Nota Lepidopterol, 16: 3-4, p. 212
Bradley JD, 2000. Checklist of Lepidoptera recorded from the British Ises, Second Edition (revised)
Clark JS, 2000. Duponchelia fovealis arriving on imported plant material, Atropos 10:20-21
Cleary-Pugh P, 1999. A further record of Duponchelia fovealis, Atrpos, 8:54
Efil L, Efil F, Atay E, 2011. New pest Duponchelia fovealis Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in peanut field. Journal of Applied Biological Sciences, 5(3):65-67. http://www.nobel.gen.tr/Makaleler/JABS-Issue%203-85-2012.pdf
EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm
Faquaet M, 2000. Duponchelia fovealis, een nieuwe soort voor de Belgische fauna (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Phegea 28:(1)
Goodey B, 1998. Second British record of Duponchelia fovealis, Atropos, 5:70
Goodey B, 2000. Duponchelia fovealis resident in Essex? e-message UK-Leps bulletin board (http://www.egroups.co.jp/message/uk-leps/555)
Greib G, 1996. Auch in rheinischen Zierpflanzenbetrieben beobachet: neuer Schadschmetterling (Duponchelia fovealis). Rheinische Monatsschrift fur Gemuse-, Obst- und Zierpflanzen, 532-533
Guda Cdalla, Capizzi A, Trematerra P, 1988. Symptoms of damage on Eustoma grandiflorum (Raf.) Shinn. caused by the pyralid Duponchelia fovealis (Zeller). Annali dell'Istituto Sperimentale per la Floricoltura, 19(1):3-11
Hipperson D, 1996. The first British record of Duponchelia fovealis, Atrpos, 3
Huisman KJ, Koster JC, 1995. New and interesting Microlepidoptera from The Netherlands (Lepidoptera) in the year 1992. Entomologische Berichten (Amsterdam) 55(4):53-67
Jackel B, Kummer B, Kurzhals M, 1994. Problemschadling Duponchelia, De Ga Pflanzenschultz, 31:1698-1700
Kyrki J, Itaemies J, 1984. Duponchelia fovealis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) introduced into Finland. Nota Entomol., 64(2):80
Lee YoungSu, Park YoungMi, Lee GwanSeok, Lee HeeA, Min HeeOk, Lee HyunJu, 2018. The European pepper moth, Duponchelia fovealis Zeller (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) discovered in Gyeonggi-do, Korea. Korean Journal of Applied Entomology, 57(1), 53-54. http://ocean.kisti.re.kr/IS_mvpopo213L.do?ResultTotalCNT=10&pageNo=1&pageSize=10&method=view&acnCn1=&poid=entomo&kojic=OOGCBV&sVnc=v57n1&id=9&setId=&iTableId=&iDocId=&sFree=&pQuery=%28kojic%3AOOGCBV%29+AND+%28voliss_ctrl_no%3Av57n1%29
Leraut P, 1980. Systematic and synonymic list of the Lepidoptera of France, Belgium and Corsica. Liste systematique et synonymique des Lepidopteres de France, Belgique et Corse. Societe Entomologique de France. Paris France, 334 pp
Marion H, 1973. Revision des Pyraustidae de France (suite). Alexanor, 8:139-136
Menezes, C. W. G. de, Stein, H. B., Moreno Shilap, A. V., Carvalho, G. A., Tavares, W. de S., Pereira, A. I. de A., Zanuncio, J. C., 2019. First record of Duponchelia fovealis (Crambidae) as a pest of commercial crops of strawberry in Campo das Vertentes, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society, 73(2), 131-134. doi: 10.18473/lepi.73i2.a8
Messelink G, van Wensveen W, 2003. Biocontrol of Duponchelia fovealis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) with soil-dwelling predators in potted plants. Proceedings of the 55th International Symposium on Crop Protection, Ghent, May 6th 2003. Communications in Agricultural And Applied Biological Sciences, Ghent University 68(4a):159-165
Miller-Cormier D, 2005. Duponchelia fovealis - Finding in Ontario Cut Flower Production Facilities. Official Pest Reports for Canada, 07/15/2005 http://www.pestalert.org/notifications.cfm?region=Canada#146
Musgrove A, 2000. Another indoor record of Duponchelia fovealis, Atropos, 9:82-83
NAPPO, 2010. Phytosanitary Alert System: Thirteen new state detections of Duponchelia fovealis, United States. NAPPO. http://www.pestalert.org/oprDetail.cfm?oprID=466
Pencheva A, Shahanova M, Yovkova M, Kabatliiska Z, 2012. Species composition and importance of insect pests on plant species used in interior vertical gardens. Acta Entomologica Bulgarica, 15(1/2):107-115. http://www.pensoft.net/book/10129/acta-entomologica-bulgarica
Romeijn G, 1994. Duponchelia fovealis: A new pest in glasshouses. Plant Protection Service Annual Report 1992, 50
Romeijn G, 1996. [Duponchelia fovealis (Zeller): the new hazard]. Groenten + Fruit, Dec 13 1996: 12-13
Spuler A, 1910. Die Schmetterlinge Europas. Kleinschmetterlinge, 1-523, Stuttgart, Germany
Szaboky C, 1994. New data for the Hungarian Microlepidoptera fauna: The Hungarian distribution of Anchia species and the first Hungarian record of Duponchelia fovealis Zeller, 1847. Folia Entomologica Hungarica, 55:406-407
Arzone A, Demichelis S, 1989. Duponchelia fovealis (Zeller) on Eustoma grandiflorum (Raf.) Shinn. in Liguria (Lepidoptera Pyraustidae). (Duponchelia fovealis (Zeller) su Eustoma grandiflorium (Raf.) Shinn. in Liguria (Lepidoptera Pyraustidae).). In: Giornata di Studio sul Lisianthus, 5 pp.
Billen W, 1993. On the harmfulness of Duponchelia fovealis (Zeller, 1847) in Germany (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae). In: Nota Lepidopterol, 16 3-4, 212.
Bradley JD, 2000. Checklist of Lepidoptera recorded from the British Ises, Second Edition (revised).,
CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI
CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI
Clark JS, 2000. Duponchelia fovealis arriving on imported plant material. In: Atropos, 10 20-21.
Efıl L, Efıl F, Atay E, 2011. New pest Duponchelia fovealis Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in peanut field. Journal of Applied Biological Sciences. 5 (3), 65-67. http://www.nobel.gen.tr/Makaleler/JABS-Issue%203-85-2012.pdf
Faquaet M, 2000. (Duponchelia fovealis, een nieuwe soort voor de Belgische fauna (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)). In: Phegea, 28 (1)
Greib G, 1996. (Auch in rheinischen Zierpflanzenbetrieben beobachet: neuer Schadschmetterling (Duponchelia fovealis)). In: Rheinische Monatsschrift fur Gemuse-, Obst- und Zierpflanzen, 532-533.
Guda C dalla, Capizzi A, Trematerra P, 1988. Symptoms of damage on Eustoma grandiflorum (Raf.) Shinn. caused by the pyralid Duponchelia fovealis (Zeller). (Segnalazione di danni su Eustoma grandiflorum (Raf.) Shinn. provocati dal lepidottero piralide Duponchelia fovealis (Zeller).). Annali dell'Istituto Sperimentale per la Floricoltura. 19 (1), 3-11.
Huisman K J, Koster J C, 1995. Interesting Microlepidoptera from the Netherlands (Lepidoptera) in the year 1992. (Interessante Microlepidoptera uit Nederland in het jaar 1992 (Lepidoptera).). Entomologische Berichten. 55 (4), 53-67.
Jackel B, Kummer B, Kurzhals M, 1994. (Problemschadling Duponchelia). In: De Ga Pflanzenschultz, 31 1698-1700.
Kyrki J, Itaemies J, 1984. Duponchelia fovealis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) introduced into Finland. In: Nota Entomol, 64 (2) 80.
Lee YoungSu, Park YoungMi, Lee GwanSeok, Lee HeeA, Min HeeOk, Lee HyunJu, 2018. The European pepper moth, Duponchelia fovealis Zeller (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) discovered in Gyeonggi-do, Korea. Korean Journal of Applied Entomology. 57 (1), 53-54. http://ocean.kisti.re.kr/IS_mvpopo213L.do?ResultTotalCNT=10&pageNo=1&pageSize=10&method=view&acnCn1=&poid=entomo&kojic=OOGCBV&sVnc=v57n1&id=9&setId=&iTableId=&iDocId=&sFree=&pQuery=%28kojic%3AOOGCBV%29+AND+%28voliss_ctrl_no%3Av57n1%29
Marek J, Bártová E, 1998. Duponchelia fovealis Zeller, 1847, a new pest of glasshouse plants in the Czech Republic. (Duponchelia fovealis Zeller, 1847, nový škůdce skleníkových rostlin v České republice (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae, Pyraustinae).). Plant Protection Science. 34 (4), 151-152.
Marion H, 1973. (Revision des Pyraustidae de France (suite)). In: Alexanor, 8 139-136.
Menezes C W G de, Stein H B, Moreno Shilap A V, Carvalho G A, Tavares W de S, Pereira A I de A, Zanuncio J C, 2019. First record of Duponchelia fovealis (Crambidae) as a pest of commercial crops of strawberry in Campo das Vertentes, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society. 73 (2), 131-134. DOI:10.18473/lepi.73i2.a8
Miller-Cormier D, 2005. Duponchelia fovealis - Finding in Ontario Cut Flower Production Facilities. In: Official Pest Reports for Canada, 07/15/2005, http://www.pestalert.org/notifications.cfm?region=Canada#146
NAPPO, 2010. Phytosanitary Alert System: Duponchelia fovealis found in California. In: Phytosanitary Alert System: Duponchelia fovealis found in California. NAPPO. http://www.pestalert.org/oprDetail.cfm?oprID=441
NAPPO, 2010a. Phytosanitary Alert System: Thirteen new state detections of Duponchelia fovealis, United States., NAPPO. http://www.pestalert.org/oprDetail.cfm?oprID=466
Pencheva A, Shahanova M, Yovkova M, Kabatliiska Z, 2012. Species composition and importance of insect pests on plant species used in interior vertical gardens. Acta Entomologica Bulgarica. 15 (1/2), 107-115. http://www.pensoft.net/book/10129/acta-entomologica-bulgarica
Pirovani V D, Pratissoli D, Tibúrcio M O, Carvalho J R de, Damascena A P, Faria L V, 2017. Trichogramma galloi and Trichogramma pretiosum for the management of Duponchelia fovealis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in strawberry plants. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira. 52 (8), 690-693. DOI:10.1590/s0100-204x2017000800015
Romeijn G, 1994. Duponchelia fovealis: A new pest in glasshouses. In: Plant Protection Service Annual Report 1992, 50
Trematerra P, 1990. Morphological aspects of Duponchelia fovealis (Zeller) (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae). (Aspetti morfologici di Duponchelia fovealis (Zeller) (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae).). Redia. 73 (1), 41-51.
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