Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Drymaria cordata
(tropical chickweed)

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Datasheet

Drymaria cordata (tropical chickweed)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Drymaria cordata
  • Preferred Common Name
  • tropical chickweed
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • D. cordata is a vigorous fast-growing herb included in the Global Compendium of Weeds (Randall, 2012) and listed a...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Drymaria cordata (tropical chickweed); habit, with foliage and flowers.
TitleHabit
CaptionDrymaria cordata (tropical chickweed); habit, with foliage and flowers.
Copyright©Smithsonian Institution/Pedro Acevedo-Rodriguez
Drymaria cordata (tropical chickweed); habit, with foliage and flowers.
HabitDrymaria cordata (tropical chickweed); habit, with foliage and flowers.©Smithsonian Institution/Pedro Acevedo-Rodriguez
Drymaria cordata (tropical chickweed); close-up of foliage and flowers.
TitleFoliage and flowers
CaptionDrymaria cordata (tropical chickweed); close-up of foliage and flowers.
Copyright©Smithsonian Institution/Pedro Acevedo-Rodriguez
Drymaria cordata (tropical chickweed); close-up of foliage and flowers.
Foliage and flowersDrymaria cordata (tropical chickweed); close-up of foliage and flowers.©Smithsonian Institution/Pedro Acevedo-Rodriguez
General view of leaf and flowers.
TitleLeaf and flowers
CaptionGeneral view of leaf and flowers.
Copyright©Chris Parker/Bristol, UK
General view of leaf and flowers.
Leaf and flowersGeneral view of leaf and flowers.©Chris Parker/Bristol, UK
TitleMature plant
Caption
CopyrightJohn T. Swarbrick
Mature plantJohn T. Swarbrick
Seedlings of D. cordata (note Australian 20 cent coin for scale).
TitleSeedlings
CaptionSeedlings of D. cordata (note Australian 20 cent coin for scale).
CopyrightJohn T. Swarbrick
Seedlings of D. cordata (note Australian 20 cent coin for scale).
SeedlingsSeedlings of D. cordata (note Australian 20 cent coin for scale).John T. Swarbrick

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Drymaria cordata (L.) Willd ex Roem. & Schult.

Preferred Common Name

  • tropical chickweed

Other Scientific Names

  • Alsine rotundifolia Stokes
  • Bufonia rotundifolia Buch. Ham. Ex Steud.
  • Drymaria adenophora Urb
  • Drymaria adenophora Urban
  • Drymaria diandra Blume.
  • Drymaria procumbens Rose
  • Drymaria sessilifolia Fiori
  • Holosteum cordatum L.
  • Holosteum diandrum Sw.
  • Stellaria adenophora (Urb.) Leon

International Common Names

  • English: chickweed; heartleaf drymary (USA); West Indian chickweed (USA)
  • Spanish: hierba del rayo (Spain); malva perulera (Nicaragua); petalillo (Honduras)
  • French: mouron blanc

Local Common Names

  • : golondrina
  • Brazil: estrelinha; jaboticaa; mastruco de brejo; pego pinto
  • Colombia: golondrina; nervillo; pajarera
  • El Salvador: chischina
  • Honduras: palitaria
  • India: laijabori; mecanachil; thei phelwangi
  • Indonesia: jukutibun; rond nu-nut; tjebungan
  • Madagascar: anatarika
  • Philippines: bakalanga; kamra-kamra
  • Puerto Rico: drimaria; yerba de estrella
  • Trinidad and Tobago: chickweed
  • USA: whitesnow
  • USA/Hawaii: drymaria
  • Venezuela: chicharillo

EPPO code

  • DRYCO (Drymaria cordata)

Summary of Invasiveness

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D. cordata is a vigorous fast-growing herb included in the Global Compendium of Weeds (Randall, 2012) and listed as one of the most aggressive weeds invading moist habitats in tropical and subtropical regions of the world (Holm et al., 1997; USDA-ARS, 2014). It is listed as a weed in 31 crops in more than 45 countries within and outside its native distribution range. D. cordata produces large amount of seeds (> 600 seeds/plants) and also spreads vegetatively rooting from the nodes, which is a trait that enable plants to multiply rapidly and colonize large areas very quickly. It has the potential to harm other plants by smothering them under a solid blanket of leaves and by climbing into the bushes (Holm et al., 1997).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Caryophyllales
  •                         Family: Caryophyllaceae
  •                             Genus: Drymaria
  •                                 Species: Drymaria cordata

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The genus Drymaria contains 48 species, mostly from the western USA, Central and South America. D. cordata is the main weed in the genus, and has spread throughout the tropics and subtropics. The generic name Drymaria derives from the Greek drymos (a wood) and indicates the generally shade-tolerant nature of the first species to be described within the genus (others occur in rangelands and deserts); cordata (= heart-shaped) refers to the shape of the leaves. Some Drymaria species are specialized in desert environments while D. cordata thrives mostly in moist environments (Holm et al., 1997).

 The chromosome number reported for D. cordata is 2n=24 (Morton, 1993).

Description

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D. cordata is a weak prostrate or creeping annual, or less commonly perennial, herb up to 50 cm across or tall, usually with a mass of extensively branched, trailing stems which may root at the nodes.

Roots are fibrous, shallow, mainly from the base of the stem but also from the lower nodes where the soil is moist.

Stems are weak, trailing or ascending, usually extensively branched to form a dense mat in the centre of the plant, smooth and slender, sometimes hairy, with swollen nodes.

Leaves in opposite pairs on slender 3-10 mm long petioles, round to heart-shaped or oval with rounded bases, smooth margins and rounded or bluntly pointed tips, 5-25 mm long and wide, hairless, weakly three-nerved, and paler below. Very short stipules persist at the bases of the petioles.

Flowers in small repeatedly forked terminal or axillary clusters (cymes), on slender, densely hairy, 5-15 mm long pedicels. The flowers consist of five narrow green sepals 2-4 mm long, five, deeply forked, white petals which are shorter than the sepals, and two or three stamens surrounding the deeply divided style. The fruit is a papery capsule 2-3 mm across, splitting at maturity into three parts to release the 5-10 small reddish tuberculate flattened seeds.

The seedlings have epigeal germination. The hypocotyls are slender, erect, and about 5 mm long, the cotyledons resemble the adult leaves, and the first leaves develop in tight clusters in their axils.

Plant Type

Top of page Annual
Herbaceous
Seed propagated
Vegetatively propagated

Distribution

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D. cordata originates from tropical America (Holm et al., 1997), but is now widely distributed throughout the tropics and subtropics.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AngolaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2014)
BurundiPresentIntroducedHolm et al. (1997)
CameroonPresentIntroducedHutchinson and Dalziel (1954); USDA-ARS (2014)
Central African RepublicPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2014)Weed
ComorosPresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-ARS (2014)
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2014)
Congo, Republic of thePresentHolm et al. (1991); Holm et al. (1997); USDA-ARS (2014)
Côte d'IvoirePresentIntroducedHutchinson and Dalziel (1954); USDA-ARS (2014)
Equatorial GuineaPresentCABI (Undated a)
EthiopiaPresentIntroducedStroud and Parker (1989); USDA-ARS (2014)
GabonPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2014)
GhanaPresentHolm et al. (1991)
GuineaPresentIntroducedHutchinson and Dalziel (1954); USDA-ARS (2014)
KenyaPresentIntroducedHolm et al. (1991); Holm et al. (1997)
LiberiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2014)
MadagascarPresentIntroducedHolm et al. (1997); USDA-ARS (2014)Not established
MalawiPresentIntroducedWild (1961); USDA-ARS (2014)
MauritiusPresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-ARS (2014)
MayottePresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-ARS (2014)
MozambiquePresentIntroducedWild (1961); USDA-ARS (2014)
NigeriaPresentIntroducedHutchinson and Dalziel (1954); USDA-ARS (2014)
RwandaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2014)Weed
SeychellesPresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-ARS (2014)
Sierra LeonePresentIntroducedHutchinson and Dalziel (1954); USDA-ARS (2014)
South AfricaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2014)Weed
SudanPresentIntroducedHolm et al. (1991); Holm et al. (1997)
TanzaniaPresentIntroducedHolm et al. (1991); Holm et al. (1997)
UgandaPresentIntroducedHolm et al. (1991); USDA-ARS (2014)Weed
ZambiaPresentIntroducedWild (1961); USDA-ARS (2014)Weed
ZimbabwePresentIntroducedWild (1961); Holm et al. (1991); USDA-ARS (2014)

Asia

BhutanPresentIntroducedParker (1992); USDA-ARS (2014)Weed
CambodiaPresentIntroducedHolm et al. (1997)
ChinaPresentHolm et al. (1991)
-FujianPresentIntroducedInvasiveCABI (Undated)Noxious weed; Original citation: Flora of China Editorial Committee (2014)
-GuangdongPresentIntroducedInvasiveCABI (Undated)Noxious weed; Original citation: Flora of China Editorial Committee (2014)
-GuangxiPresentIntroducedInvasiveCABI (Undated)Noxious weed; Original citation: Flora of China Editorial Committee (2014)
-GuizhouPresentIntroducedInvasiveCABI (Undated)Noxious weed; Original citation: Flora of China Editorial Committee (2014)
-HainanPresentIntroducedInvasiveCABI (Undated)Noxious weed; Original citation: Flora of China Editorial Committee (2014)
-HunanPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)Original citation: Flora of China Editorial Committee (2014)
-SichuanPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)Original citation: Flora of China Editorial Committee (2014)
-TibetPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)Original citation: Flora of China Editorial Committee (2014)
-YunnanPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)Original citation: Flora of China Editorial Committee (2014)
-ZhejiangPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)Original citation: Flora of China Editorial Committee (2014)
IndiaPresent, WidespreadHolm et al. (1991); Holm et al. (1997)
-AssamPresentRupa Phukan and Phukan (2007)
-KarnatakaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedIndia Biodiversity (2014); Korikanthimath and Venugopal (1986)Cultivated and naturalized
-KeralaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedIndia Biodiversity (2014)Cultivated and naturalized
-MeghalayaPresentMisra et al. (1992)
-Tamil NaduPresentIntroducedNaturalizedIndia Biodiversity (2014); Ilango and Sreedhar (2001)Cultivated and naturalized
-West BengalPresentKabir et al. (1991); CABI (Undated)
IndonesiaPresent, WidespreadKostermans et al. (1987); Holm et al. (1991); Holm et al. (1997); USDA-ARS (2014)
-JavaPresentCABI (Undated a)
-SumatraPresentMurdiati and Stoltz (1987)
JapanPresentIntroducedHolm et al. (1991); USDA-ARS (2014)
-Ryukyu IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-ARS (2014)
LaosPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2014)Weed
NepalPresentIntroducedHolm et al. (1991); USDA-ARS (2014)Weed
PhilippinesPresentHolm et al. (1991); Holm et al. (1997); USDA-ARS (2014)
SingaporePresentIntroducedInvasiveChong et al. (2009)Weed
Sri LankaPresentHolm et al. (1991)
TaiwanPresentKao and Rin (1977); Holm et al. (1991); Holm et al. (1997); CABI (Undated)
ThailandPresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-ARS (2014)Weed
VietnamPresentIntroducedInvasiveHolm et al. (1991); USDA-ARS (2014)

North America

Antigua and BarbudaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
BahamasPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
BelizePresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2014)
Bonaire, Saint Eustatius and Saba
-SabaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
Costa RicaPresentNativeHolm et al. (1991); Blanco and Hilje (1995); USDA-ARS (2014); CABI (Undated)
CubaPresentIntroducedHolm et al. (1997); Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
DominicaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
El SalvadorPresentNativeHolm et al. (1991); USDA-ARS (2014)
GrenadaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
GuadeloupePresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
GuatemalaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2014)
HaitiPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
HondurasPresentNativeHolm et al. (1991); Holm et al. (1997); USDA-ARS (2014)
JamaicaPresentIntroducedHammerton (1973); Holm et al. (1991); Holm et al. (1997); Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
MartiniquePresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
MexicoPresentNativeHolm et al. (1991); Holm et al. (1997); Valdes and Franco (1998); USDA-ARS (2014)
MontserratPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
NicaraguaPresentHolm et al. (1997)
PanamaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2014)
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedInvasiveHolm et al. (1991); Holm et al. (1997); Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
Saint Kitts and NevisPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
Saint LuciaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
Trinidad and TobagoPresentIntroducedHolm et al. (1991); Holm et al. (1997)
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasiveAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)St. Thomas, St. Croix
United StatesPresentHolm et al. (1991); Holm et al. (1997)
-AlabamaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2014)
-FloridaPresentIntroducedAnon (1997); USDA-ARS (2014)
-GeorgiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2014)
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedHigaki (1973); Holm et al. (1997); Wagner et al. (1999); CABI (Undated)
-LouisianaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2014)
-MississippiPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2014)
-TexasPresentAnon (1997)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentHolm et al. (1991); Holm et al. (1997)
-New South WalesPresentIntroducedInvasiveDoust (1990); Hnatiuk (1990)Noxious weed
-QueenslandPresentIntroducedInvasiveHawton et al. (1975); Stanley and Ross (1983); Doust (1990); Hnatiuk (1990)
FijiPresentIntroducedInvasiveSmith (1981)
French PolynesiaPresentIntroducedInvasiveFlorence et al. (2013)
New CaledoniaPresentIntroducedMacKee (1985)
Papua New GuineaPresentIntroducedInvasiveHenty and Pritchard (1975); CABI (Undated)

South America

ArgentinaPresentNativeZuloaga et al. (2008); Holm et al. (1997)Catamarca, Cordoba, Jujuy, La Rioja, Misiones, Salta, Santiago del Estero, Tucuman
BoliviaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2014)
BrazilPresent, WidespreadLorenzi (1982); Holm et al. (1991); Holm et al. (1997)
-AcrePresentIntroducedNaturalizedCarneiro (2014)Naturalized
-AmazonasPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCarneiro (2014)Naturalized
-BahiaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCarneiro (2014)Naturalized
-CearaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCarneiro (2014)Naturalized
-Espirito SantoPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCarneiro (2014)Naturalized
-MaranhaoPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCarneiro (2014)Naturalized
-Minas GeraisPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCarneiro (2014)Naturalized
-ParaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCarneiro (2014)Naturalized
-ParaibaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCarneiro (2014)Naturalized
-ParanaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCarneiro (2014)Naturalized
-PernambucoPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCarneiro (2014)Naturalized
-Rio de JaneiroPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCarneiro (2014)Naturalized
-Rio Grande do SulPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCarneiro (2014)Naturalized
-Santa CatarinaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCarneiro (2014)Naturalized
-Sao PauloPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCarneiro (2014)Naturalized
-SergipePresentIntroducedNaturalizedCarneiro (2014)Naturalized
ChilePresentNativeZuloaga et al. (2008)II Region
ColombiaPresentNativeHolm et al. (1991); Holm et al. (1997); USDA-ARS (2014)
EcuadorPresentNativeHolm et al. (1991); Holm et al. (1997); USDA-ARS (2014)
-Galapagos IslandsPresentUSDA-ARS (2014)
French GuianaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2014)
GuyanaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2014)
ParaguayPresentHolm et al. (1997); Zuloaga et al. (2008)
PeruPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2014)
SurinamePresentNativeHolm et al. (1991); USDA-ARS (2014)
UruguayPresentNativeHolm et al. (1997); Zuloaga et al. (2008)
VenezuelaPresentHolm et al. (1991); Holm et al. (1997); Hokche et al. (2008)

History of Introduction and Spread

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D. cordata has been introduced intentionally in tropical and subtropical region of the world to be used as fodder and to control soil erosion in degraded areas and gardens (USDA-ARS, 2014). However, the most likely means of introduction of this species into new habitat could be associated with human-related activities. Seeds and plant fragments may have been introduced as a contaminant of hay, fodder, grasses and crop seeds (Holm et al., 1997; USDA-ARS, 2014). In the USA, D. cordata was first collected in Florida in the early 1900s (Hartman, 2005). In the Caribbean, the first collections date from the late 1800’s (i.e., 1870 from Trinidad, 1883 from St. Thomas, and 1884 from Puerto Rico). In 1902 it was collected in Cuba, and in 1903 in Jamaica (US National Herbarium). D. cordata has dispersed broadly throughout the Caribbean and by 1903 it was reported as “common” in Puerto Rico, Cuba, Jamaica, Hispaniola, St Croix, Guadeloupe, and St Vincent, Barbados, and Grenada (Urban, 1905).

Habitat

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D. cordata is an aggressive, shade tolerant, weed of gardens, agriculture, pasture and disturbed land in moist tropical and subtropical areas. It can also be found growing along roadsides and in seminatural areas such as riverbanks, ditches, secondary forests, and forest edges (Smith, 1981; MacKee, 1994; Holm et al., 1997). It tolerates light to medium shade and germinates quickly after cultivation and other soil disturbance.

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Cultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Natural
Protected agriculture (e.g. glasshouse production) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Protected agriculture (e.g. glasshouse production) Present, no further details Natural
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Natural
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Riverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Riverbanks Present, no further details Natural

Hosts/Species Affected

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D. cordata almost certainly occurs in a much wider range of plantation and vegetable crops than indicated in the host list. It is also a weed in moist lawns, gardens, pastures, roadsides, riverbanks, ditches, around houses, and in all other moist, disturbed, cultivated and uncultivated areas. It is considered to be a weed of 31 crops in more than 45 countries around the world.

Biology and Ecology

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D. cordata is an annual species, reproducing by seed. Misra et al. (1992) studied the population dynamics of D. cordata in northeast Indian potato fields, and found that under those conditions there were three main germinations in each autumn and each summer crop. The first cohort showed greater mortality than the last, possibly due to more frequent cultivation early in the life of the crop. Large seed banks built up quickly in the soil, since seed rain exceeded seed losses and germination. Holm et al. (1997) report that at 25°C, D. cordata flowers 110-160 days after germination when exposed to 16 hour days and 125-190 days after germination when exposed to 10 hour days. Korikanthimath and Venugopal (1986) also give some information on flowering and fruiting periods.

D. cordata grows best in moist and shaded habitats at low to middle elevations (from 10 to 2000 m). It istolerant to a wide range of soil textures including sandy, loam and clay soils with pH ranging from 6.1 to 7.8, and to seasonal waterlogging (Holm et al., 1997).

The chromosome number reported for D. cordata is 2n=24 (Morton, 1993).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
BS - Steppe climate Tolerated > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free
  • seasonally waterlogged

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • shallow

Notes on Natural Enemies

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No natural enemies have been identified for D. cordata.

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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D. cordata spreads by seeds and by rooting nodes. Seeds are small and can be dispersed by wind and by water. Seeds and plant fragments can also be dispersed as contaminants of hay, fodder, forage, soil, and grass and crop seeds. Livestock can move seeds from one area to another attached to hair. Equipment and vehicles driven through infested areas can also disperse seeds and plant fragments (Holm et al., 1997; USDA-ARS, 2014).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
DisturbanceCommon weed in disturbed areas Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2014
Garden waste disposalPlanted as ground cover in gardens. Spreads by seeds and rotting nodes Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2014
Habitat restoration and improvementPlanted as ground cover to control soil erosion Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2014

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesSeeds and plant fragments Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2014
Machinery and equipment Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2014
Soil, sand and gravelSeeds and plant fragments Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2014
WaterSeeds Yes Yes Holm et al., 1997
WindSeeds Yes Yes Holm et al., 1997

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Positive and negative

Economic Impact

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D. cordata is a common and often abundant, though low-growing, weed in a wide range of crops and pastures throughout the moist tropics and subtropics. It competes with seedlings and with low- and slow-growing crops for light and nutrients, raises the humidity around the bases of crop plants and interferes with management.

The plant is also potentially poisonous to cattle; Murdiati and Stoltz (1987) have shown it to contain alkaloid-like chemicals, and consider that its poisonous properties need further investigation.

Environmental Impact

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D. cordata is an aggressive, shade tolerant, fast-growing weed with the potential to outcompete and completely replace native vegetation. It inhibits the germination and establishment of native plants because it grows forming a dense mat at ground level that covers and kills all other plants (Holm et al., 1997).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Invasive in its native range
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Fast growing
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Altered trophic level
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of hydrology
  • Modification of nutrient regime
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Monoculture formation
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Negatively impacts animal health
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
  • Damages animal/plant products
Impact mechanisms
  • Allelopathic
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - smothering
  • Poisoning
  • Rapid growth
  • Rooting
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant

Uses

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In comparison with bare soil, a cover of D. cordata has been shown to delay and reduce the incidence of Bemisia tabaci and associated virosis in tomatoes in Costa Rica (Blanco and Hilje, 1995).

Yonzone and Mandal (1988) have shown that the plant has medicinal value in West Bengal, India. A number of studies have reported anti-inflammatory effects.  A number of biologically active compounds have been isolated from the leaves of this taxon including drymaritin which exhibits anti HIV properties.

Uses List

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Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Fodder/animal feed
  • Forage

Environmental

  • Erosion control or dune stabilization
  • Ornamental
  • Soil conservation

Materials

  • Pesticide

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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Drymaria villosa is a very similar plant which occurs as a weed in dryland rice in Indonesia (Soerjani et al. 1987). It may be distinguished from D. cordata by its more open growth habit, only slightly hairy pedicels, and usually has more than 10 seeds per fruit.

Drymaria arenarioides is a poisonous plant which occurs in Mexican and southern USA rangelands (Sanchez-Munoz et al., 1978), but has not been recorded as a weed of crops.

 

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Cultural Control

Hawton et al. (1975) showed that dry season cultivation gives effective control of D. cordata in tropical pastures, but that germination occurs in the following wet season unless there is an effective stand of vigorous grasses and legumes. Hand slashing is used to give temporary control in tea (Kabir et al., 1991).

Chemical Control

Kabir et al. (1991) showed that D. cordata can be effectively controlled under tea with glyphosate or oxyfluorfen. Kao and Rin (1977) achieved control on bare soil with 2, 4-D and showed that mixing the herbicide with bark increased its period of activity. In Hawaiian anthuriums growing in tree fern chips, Higaki (1973) discovered that both diuron and linuron gave good control of D. cordata. Henty and Pritchard (1975) record susceptibility to paraquat and to 2,4-D.

In pastures, 2,4-D + 2,3,6-TBA + mecoprop provided good control in Jamaica (Hammerton, 1973), as did 2,4-D + dicamba + mecoprop.

Biological Control

There have been no attempts at biological control of D. cordata.

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P; Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Anon., 1997. Atlas of Florida vascular Plants: On-line Version. World Wide Web page at http://www.//cyber.acomp.usf.edu/Architext/isb/projects/atlas/dic-bc.

Anon., 1997. List from the Jimi-Ramu. World Wide Web page at http://www.datec.com.pg/CRC/ramu/16-7plant.

Anon., 1997. Weeds of the Southern United States. World Wide Web page at http://www.//leviathan.tamu.edu/1s/pubs/Weeds.

Blanco J; Hilje L, 1995. The effect of soil covers on the abundance of Bemisia tabaci and the incidence of tomato virosis. Manejo Integrado de Plagas, No. 35:1-10; 35 ref.

Carneiro CE, 2014. Caryophyllaceae in Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil (Caryophyllaceae in list of species of the flora of Brazil). Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro. http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/jabot/floradobrasil/FB6704

Chong KY; Tan HTW; Corlett RT, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species., Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore, 273 pp.

Doust A, 1990. Drymaria cordata. New South Wales Flora Online. http://plantnet.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au/cgi-bin/NSWfl.pl?page=nswfl&lvl=sp&name=Drymariãcordata

EchegoyTn PE; Valverde B; Garita I, 1996. Joint action of paraquat and 2,4-D on weeds associated with coffee in Costa Rica. Manejo Integrado de Plagas, No. 41:8-15; 14 ref.

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2014. Flora of North America North of Mexico. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1

Florence J; Chevillotte H; Ollier C; Meyer J-Y, 2013. Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP) (Botanical database of the Nadeaud Herbarium of French Polynesia). http://www.herbier-tahiti.pf

Hammerton JL, 1973. Weed control in progress at the University of the West Indies. Part 3. PANS, 19:383-388.

Haselwood EL; Motter GG, 1966. Handbook of Hawaiian weeds [ed. by Haselwood EL, Motter GG]. Honolulu, HI, USA: Experiment Station/Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, 479 pp.

Hawton D; Quinlan TJ; Shaw KA, 1975. Control of chickweed (Drymaria cordata) in declining tropical pastures. Tropical Grasslands, 9(3):229-233

Henty EE; Pritchard GH, 1975. Weeds of New Guinea and their Control. Lp, Papua New Guinea: Department of Forests, Division of Botany, Botany Bulletin No.7.

Higaki T, 1973. Chemical weed control in Anthurium. Research Report No. 212, Hawaii Agricultural Experiment Station. Honolulu, USA: University of Hawaii.

Hnatiuk RJ, 1990. Census of Australian Vascular Plants. Australian Flora and Fauna Series Number 11. Canberra, Australia: Australian Government Publishing Service.

Hokche O; Berry PE; Huber O, 2008. Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela (New catalogue of the vascular flora of Venezuela). Caracas, Venezuela: Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela, 860 pp.

Holm LG; Doll J; Holm E; Pancho JV; Herberger JP, 1997. World Weeds: Natural Histories and Distribution. New York, USA: John Wiley & Sons Inc.

Holm LG; Pancho JV; Herberger JP; Plucknett DL, 1991. A Geographic Atlas of World Weeds. Malabar, Florida, USA: Krieger Publishing Company.

Hutchinson J; Dalziel JM, 1954. Flora of West Tropical Africa, Volume 1, Part 1 (revised by Keay RWJ). London, UK: Crown Agents.

Ilango RVJ; Sreedhar C, 2001. Evaluation of glufosinate ammonium - a contact herbicide for weed control in tea (Camellia spp. L.). Indian Journal of Weed Science, 33(1/2):79-80.

India Biodiversity, 2014. Online Portal of India Biodiversity. http://indiabiodiversity.org/species/list

Kabir SE; Chaudhuri TC; Hajra NG, 1991. Evaluation of herbicides for weed control in Darjeeling tea. Indian Agriculturist, 35(3):179-185.

Kao PC; Rin UC, 1977. Weed control with 2,4-D + bark combination. Quarterly Journal of Chinese Forestry, 10(3):29-34

Korikanthimath VS; Venugopal MN, 1986. Some weeds of cardamom estates. Indian Journal of Weed Science, 17(3):59-60

Kostermans AJGH; Wirjahardja S; Dekker RJ, 1987. The weeds: description, ecology and control. Weeds of rice in Indonesia [edited by Soerjani, M.; Kostermans, A.J.G.H.; Tjitrosoepomo, G.] Jakarta, Indonesia; Balai Pustaka, 24-565

Lorenzi H, 1982. Weeds of Brazil, terrestrial and aquatic, parasitic, poisonous and medicinal. (Plantas daninhas de Brasil, terrestres, aquaticas, parasitas, toxicas e medicinais.) Nova Odessa, Brazil: H. Lorenzi, 425 pp.

MacKee HS, 1985. Les Plantes Introduites et Cultivees en Nouvelle-Caledonie. Volume hors series, Flore de la Nouvelle-Caledonie et Dependances. Paris, France: Museum Nationelle d'Histoire Naturelle.

MacKee HS, 1994. Catalogue of introduced and cultivated plants in New Caledonia. (Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie.) Paris, France: Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, unpaginated.

Misra J; Pandey HN; Tripathi RS; Sahoo UK, 1992. Weed population dynamics under 'jhum' (slash and burn agriculture) and terrace cultivation in northeast India. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 41(3/4):285-295

Morton JK, 1993. Chromosome numbers and polyploidy in the flora of Cameroon Mountain. Opera Botanica, 121:159-172.

Murdiati T; Stoltz DR, 1987. Investigation of suspected plant poisoning of North Sumatran cattle. Penyakit Hewan, 19(34):101-105; 22 ref.

Parker C, 1992. Weeds of Bhutan. Weeds of Bhutan., vi + 236 pp.

Randall RP, 2012. A Global Compendium of Weeds. Perth, Australia: Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia, 1124 pp. http://www.cabi.org/isc/FullTextPDF/2013/20133109119.pdf

Rupa Phukan; Phukan SN, 2007. Weed flora of low land rice fields of Lakhimpur district of Assam and their economic significance. Journal of Living World, 14(2):16-19.

Sanchez-Munoz A; Morton HL; Gonzalez M-H; Hull HM; Jabalera-Ramos J, 1978. Ecology of alfombrilla. Proceedings of the First International Rangeland Congress, Denver, Colorado, USA. Denver, Colorado, USA: Society for Range Management, 370-372.

Smith AC, 1981. Flora Vitiensis nova: a new flora of Fiji (spermatophytes only). Volume 2. 1981, 818 pp.; many pl. (8 col.).

Soedarsan A; Rifai M, 1975. 50 Gulma di Perkebunan (Fifty Weeds of Estate Crops). Bogor, Java, Indonesia: Gabungan Perusahaan Perkebunan, 18-19.

Stanley TD; Ross EM, 1983. Flora of South-eastern Queensland. Volume 1. Brisbane, Australia: Queensland Department of Primary Industries, 113.

Stroud A; Parker C, 1989. A Weed Identification Guide for Ethiopia. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization.

Sudhendu Mandal; Ranjana Yonzone, 1988. Ethnobotanical studies on some plants of Darjeeling, India. Environment and Ecology, 6(4):849-854; 10 ref.

Urban I, 1905. Symbolae Antillanae. Volumen IV. Berlin, Germany: Fratres Borntraeger, 771 pp.

USDA-ARS, 2014. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

Valdes OT; Franco GF, 1998. Listados Floristicos de Mexico XII. Flora de la reserva Ecologica Sierra de San Juan, Nayarit, Mexico. World Wide Web Page at http://www.ibiologia.unam.mx/publicacaiones/lf112.

Wagner WL; Herbst DR; Sohmer SH, 1999. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii. Revised edition. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: University of Hawaii Press/Bishop Museum Press, 1919 pp.

Wild H, 1961. 21. Caryophyllaceae. In: Exell AW, Wild H, eds. Flora Zambesiaca. London, UK: Crown Agents, 337-358.

Zuloaga FO; Morrone O; Belgrano MJ; Marticorena C; Marchesi E, 2008. [English title not available]. (Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur (Argentina, Sur de Brasil, Chile, Paraguay y Uruguay).) Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden, 107:1-3348.

Distribution References

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Anon, 1997. Weeds of the Southern United States., http://www.//leviathan.tamu.edu/1s/pubs/Weeds

Blanco J, Hilje L, 1995. The effect of soil covers on the abundance of Bemisia tabaci and the incidence of tomato virosis. (Efecto de coberturas al suelo sobre la abundancia de Bemisia tabaci y la incidencia de virosis en tomate.). Manejo Integrado de Plagas. 1-10.

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Carneiro CE, 2014. Caryophyllaceae in list of species of the flora of Brazil. (Caryophyllaceae in Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil)., Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro. http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/jabot/floradobrasil/FB6704

Chong KY, Tan HTW, Corlett RT, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species., Singapore, Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore. 273 pp.

Doust A, 1990. Drymaria cordata. In: New South Wales Flora Online, http://plantnet.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au/cgi-bin/NSWfl.pl?page=nswfl&lvl=sp&name=Drymariãcordata

Florence J, Chevillotte H, Ollier C, Meyer J-Y, 2013. Nadeaud botanical database of the Herbarium of French Polynesia. (Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP))., https://nadeaud.ilm.pf/

Hammerton JL, 1973. Weed control in progress at the University of the West Indies. Part 3. In: PANS, 19 383-388.

Hawton D, Quinlan T J, Shaw K A, 1975. Control of chickweed (Drymaria cordata) in declining tropical pastures. Tropical Grasslands. 9 (3), 229-233.

Henty E E, Pritchard G H, 1975. Weeds of New Guinea and their control. In: Weeds of New Guinea and their control. Lae, Papua New. Guinea: 180 pp.

Higaki T, 1973. Chemical weed control in Anthurium. In: Research Report, Hawaii Agricultural Experiment Station, 11 pp.

Hnatiuk R J, 1990. Census of Australian vascular plants. In: Census of Australian vascular plants. Canberra, Australia: Australian Government Publishing Service (AGPS). xvi + 650 pp.

Hokche O, Berry PE, Huber O, 2008. New catalogue of the vascular flora of Venezuela. (Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela)., Caracas, Venezuela: Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela. 860 pp.

Holm L G, Pancho J V, Herberger J P, Plucknett D L, 1991. A geographic atlas of world weeds. Malabar, Florida, USA: Krieger Publishing Co. 391 pp.

Holm L, Doll J, Holm E, Pancho J, Herberger J, 1997. World weeds: natural histories and distribution. New York, USA: John Wiley and Sons. xv + 1129 pp.

Hutchinson J, Dalziel J M, 1954. Flora of West Tropical Africa, Volume 1, Part 1. [ed. by Keay R W J]. London, UK: Crown Agents.

Ilango R V J, Sreedhar C, 2001. Evaluation of glufosinate ammonium - a contact herbicide for weed control in tea (Camellia spp. L.). Indian Journal of Weed Science. 33 (1/2), 79-80.

India Biodiversity, 2014. Online Portal of India Biodiversity., http://indiabiodiversity.org/species/list

Kabir S E, Chaudhuri T C, Hajra N G, 1991. Evaluation of herbicides for weed control in Darjeeling tea. Indian Agriculturist. 35 (3), 179-185.

Kao P C, Rin U C, 1977. Weed control with 2,4-D + bark combination. Quarterly Journal of Chinese Forestry. 10 (3), 29-34.

Korikanthimath V S, Venugopal M N, 1986. Some weeds of cardamom estates. Indian Journal of Weed Science. 17 (3), 59-60.

Kostermans A J G H, Wirjahardja S, Dekker R J, 1987. The weeds: description, ecology and control. In: Weeds of rice in Indonesia. [ed. by Soerjani M, Kostermans AJGH, Tjitrosoepomo G]. Jakarta, Indonesia: Balai Pustaka. 24-565.

Lorenzi H, 1982. Plantas daninhas de Brasil, terrestres, aquaticas, parasitas, toxicas e medicinais. Nova Odessa, Brazil: H. Lorenzi. 425 pp.

MacKee HS, 1985. (Les Plantes Introduites et Cultivees en Nouvelle-Caledonie. Volume hors series, Flore de la Nouvelle-Caledonie et Dependances)., Paris, France: Museum Nationelle d'Histoire Naturelle.

Misra J, Pandey H N, Tripathi R S, Sahoo U K, 1992. Weed population dynamics under 'jhum' (slash and burn agriculture) and terrace cultivation in northeast India. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment. 41 (3/4), 285-295. DOI:10.1016/0167-8809(92)90116-S

Murdiati T, Stoltz D R, 1987. Investigation of suspected plant poisoning of North Sumatran cattle. Penyakit Hewan. 19 (34), 101-105.

Parker C, 1992. Weeds of Bhutan. Thimphu, Bhutan: National Plant Protection Centre. vi + 236 pp.

Rupa Phukan, Phukan S N, 2007. Weed flora of low land rice fields of Lakhimpur district of Assam and their economic significance. Journal of Living World. 14 (2), 16-19.

Smith A C, 1981. Flora Vitiensis nova: a new flora of Fiji (spermatophytes only). Volume 2. In: Flora Vitiensis nova: a new flora of Fiji (spermatophytes only). Volume 2. Kauai, Hawaii, USA: Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden. 818 pp.

Stanley TD, Ross EM, 1983. Flora of South-eastern Queensland., 1 Brisbane, Australia: Queensland Department of Primary Industries. 113.

Stroud A, Parker C, 1989. A weed identification guide for Ethiopia. In: A weed identification guide for Ethiopia. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization. 278 pp.

USDA-ARS, 2014. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

Valdes OT, Franco GF, 1998. (Listados Floristicos de Mexico XII). In: Flora de la reserva Ecologica Sierra de San Juan, Nayarit, Mexico, http://www.ibiologia.unam.mx/publicacaiones/lf112

Wagner W L, Herbst D R, Sohmer S H, 1999. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawai'i, Vols. 1 & 2. Honolulu, USA: University of Hawai'i Press/Bishop Museum Press. 1918 + [1] pp.

Wild H, 1961. Caryophyllaceae. In: Flora Zambesiaca, [ed. by Exell AW, Wild H]. London, UK: Crown Agents. 337-358.

Zuloaga FO, Morrone O, Belgrano MJ, Marticorena C, Marchesi E, 2008. [English title not available]. (Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur (Argentina, Sur de Brasil, Chile, Paraguay y Uruguay)). In: Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden, 107 1-3348.

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Contributors

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26/03/14 Updated by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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