Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Drymaria cordata
(tropical chickweed)

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Datasheet

Drymaria cordata (tropical chickweed)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 19 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Drymaria cordata
  • Preferred Common Name
  • tropical chickweed
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • D. cordata is a vigorous fast-growing herb included in the Global Compendium of Weeds (Randall, 2012) and listed a...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Drymaria cordata (tropical chickweed); habit, with foliage and flowers.
TitleHabit
CaptionDrymaria cordata (tropical chickweed); habit, with foliage and flowers.
Copyright©Smithsonian Institution/Pedro Acevedo-Rodriguez
Drymaria cordata (tropical chickweed); habit, with foliage and flowers.
HabitDrymaria cordata (tropical chickweed); habit, with foliage and flowers.©Smithsonian Institution/Pedro Acevedo-Rodriguez
Drymaria cordata (tropical chickweed); close-up of foliage and flowers.
TitleFoliage and flowers
CaptionDrymaria cordata (tropical chickweed); close-up of foliage and flowers.
Copyright©Smithsonian Institution/Pedro Acevedo-Rodriguez
Drymaria cordata (tropical chickweed); close-up of foliage and flowers.
Foliage and flowersDrymaria cordata (tropical chickweed); close-up of foliage and flowers.©Smithsonian Institution/Pedro Acevedo-Rodriguez
General view of leaf and flowers.
TitleLeaf and flowers
CaptionGeneral view of leaf and flowers.
Copyright©Chris Parker/Bristol, UK
General view of leaf and flowers.
Leaf and flowersGeneral view of leaf and flowers.©Chris Parker/Bristol, UK
TitleMature plant
Caption
CopyrightJohn T. Swarbrick
Mature plantJohn T. Swarbrick
Seedlings of D. cordata (note Australian 20 cent coin for scale).
TitleSeedlings
CaptionSeedlings of D. cordata (note Australian 20 cent coin for scale).
CopyrightJohn T. Swarbrick
Seedlings of D. cordata (note Australian 20 cent coin for scale).
SeedlingsSeedlings of D. cordata (note Australian 20 cent coin for scale).John T. Swarbrick

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Drymaria cordata (L.) Willd ex Roem. & Schult.

Preferred Common Name

  • tropical chickweed

Other Scientific Names

  • Alsine rotundifolia Stokes
  • Bufonia rotundifolia Buch. Ham. Ex Steud.
  • Drymaria adenophora Urb
  • Drymaria adenophora Urban
  • Drymaria diandra Blume.
  • Drymaria procumbens Rose
  • Drymaria sessilifolia Fiori
  • Holosteum cordatum L.
  • Holosteum diandrum Sw.
  • Stellaria adenophora (Urb.) Leon

International Common Names

  • English: chickweed; heartleaf drymary (USA); West Indian chickweed (USA)
  • Spanish: hierba del rayo (Spain); malva perulera (Nicaragua); petalillo (Honduras)
  • French: mouron blanc

Local Common Names

  • : golondrina
  • Brazil: estrelinha; jaboticaa; mastruco de brejo; pego pinto
  • Colombia: golondrina; nervillo; pajarera
  • El Salvador: chischina
  • Honduras: palitaria
  • India: laijabori; mecanachil; thei phelwangi
  • Indonesia: jukutibun; rond nu-nut; tjebungan
  • Madagascar: anatarika
  • Philippines: bakalanga; kamra-kamra
  • Puerto Rico: drimaria; yerba de estrella
  • Trinidad and Tobago: chickweed
  • USA: whitesnow
  • USA/Hawaii: drymaria
  • Venezuela: chicharillo

EPPO code

  • DRYCO (Drymaria cordata)

Summary of Invasiveness

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D. cordata is a vigorous fast-growing herb included in the Global Compendium of Weeds (Randall, 2012) and listed as one of the most aggressive weeds invading moist habitats in tropical and subtropical regions of the world (Holm et al., 1997; USDA-ARS, 2014). It is listed as a weed in 31 crops in more than 45 countries within and outside its native distribution range. D. cordata produces large amount of seeds (> 600 seeds/plants) and also spreads vegetatively rooting from the nodes, which is a trait that enable plants to multiply rapidly and colonize large areas very quickly. It has the potential to harm other plants by smothering them under a solid blanket of leaves and by climbing into the bushes (Holm et al., 1997).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Caryophyllales
  •                         Family: Caryophyllaceae
  •                             Genus: Drymaria
  •                                 Species: Drymaria cordata

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The genus Drymaria contains 48 species, mostly from the western USA, Central and South America. D. cordata is the main weed in the genus, and has spread throughout the tropics and subtropics. The generic name Drymaria derives from the Greek drymos (a wood) and indicates the generally shade-tolerant nature of the first species to be described within the genus (others occur in rangelands and deserts); cordata (= heart-shaped) refers to the shape of the leaves. Some Drymaria species are specialized in desert environments while D. cordata thrives mostly in moist environments (Holm et al., 1997).

 The chromosome number reported for D. cordata is 2n=24 (Morton, 1993).

Description

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D. cordata is a weak prostrate or creeping annual, or less commonly perennial, herb up to 50 cm across or tall, usually with a mass of extensively branched, trailing stems which may root at the nodes.

Roots are fibrous, shallow, mainly from the base of the stem but also from the lower nodes where the soil is moist.

Stems are weak, trailing or ascending, usually extensively branched to form a dense mat in the centre of the plant, smooth and slender, sometimes hairy, with swollen nodes.

Leaves in opposite pairs on slender 3-10 mm long petioles, round to heart-shaped or oval with rounded bases, smooth margins and rounded or bluntly pointed tips, 5-25 mm long and wide, hairless, weakly three-nerved, and paler below. Very short stipules persist at the bases of the petioles.

Flowers in small repeatedly forked terminal or axillary clusters (cymes), on slender, densely hairy, 5-15 mm long pedicels. The flowers consist of five narrow green sepals 2-4 mm long, five, deeply forked, white petals which are shorter than the sepals, and two or three stamens surrounding the deeply divided style. The fruit is a papery capsule 2-3 mm across, splitting at maturity into three parts to release the 5-10 small reddish tuberculate flattened seeds.

The seedlings have epigeal germination. The hypocotyls are slender, erect, and about 5 mm long, the cotyledons resemble the adult leaves, and the first leaves develop in tight clusters in their axils.

Distribution

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D. cordata originates from tropical America (Holm et al., 1997), but is now widely distributed throughout the tropics and subtropics.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

BhutanPresentIntroducedParker, 1992; USDA-ARS, 2014Weed
CambodiaPresentIntroducedHolm et al., 1997
ChinaPresentHolm et al., 1991
-FujianPresentIntroduced Invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014Noxious weed
-GuangdongPresentIntroduced Invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014Noxious weed
-GuangxiPresentIntroduced Invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014Noxious weed
-GuizhouPresentIntroduced Invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014Noxious weed
-HainanPresentIntroduced Invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014Noxious weed
-HunanPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-SichuanPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-TibetPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-YunnanPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-ZhejiangPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
IndiaWidespreadHolm et al., 1991; Holm et al., 1997
-AssamPresentRupa and Phukan, 2007
-KarnatakaPresentIntroducedKorikanthimath and Venugopal, 1986; India Biodiversity, 2014Cultivated and naturalized
-KeralaPresentIntroducedIndia Biodiversity, 2014Cultivated and naturalized
-MeghalayaPresentMisra et al., 1992
-Tamil NaduPresentIntroducedIlango and Sreedhar, 2001; India Biodiversity, 2014Cultivated and naturalized
-West BengalPresentYonzone and Mandal, 1988; Kabir et al., 1991
IndonesiaWidespreadKostermans et al., 1987; Holm et al., 1991; Holm et al., 1997; USDA-ARS, 2014
-JavaPresent
-SumatraPresentMurdiati and Stoltz, 1987
JapanPresentIntroducedHolm et al., 1991; USDA-ARS, 2014
-Ryukyu ArchipelagoPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-ARS, 2014
LaosPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014Weed
NepalPresentIntroducedHolm et al., 1991; USDA-ARS, 2014Weed
PhilippinesPresentHolm et al., 1991; Holm et al., 1997; USDA-ARS, 2014
SingaporePresentIntroduced Invasive Chong et al., 2009Weed
Sri LankaPresentHolm et al., 1991
TaiwanPresentKao and Rin, 1977; Holm et al., 1991; Holm et al., 1997; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
ThailandPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-ARS, 2014Weed
VietnamPresentIntroduced Invasive Holm et al., 1991; USDA-ARS, 2014

Africa

AngolaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014
BurundiPresentIntroducedHolm et al., 1997
CameroonPresentIntroducedHutchinson and Dalziel, 1954; USDA-ARS, 2014
Central African RepublicPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014Weed
ComorosPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-ARS, 2014
CongoPresentHolm et al., 1991; Holm et al., 1997; USDA-ARS, 2014
Congo Democratic RepublicPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014
Côte d'IvoirePresentIntroducedHutchinson and Dalziel, 1954; USDA-ARS, 2014
Equatorial GuineaPresent
EthiopiaPresentIntroducedStroud and Parker, 1989; USDA-ARS, 2014
GabonPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014
GhanaPresentHolm et al., 1991
GuineaPresentIntroducedHutchinson and Dalziel, 1954; USDA-ARS, 2014
KenyaPresentIntroducedHolm et al., 1991; Holm et al., 1997
LiberiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014
MadagascarIntroduced, not establishedHolm et al., 1997; USDA-ARS, 2014
MalawiPresentIntroducedWild, 1961; USDA-ARS, 2014
MauritiusPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-ARS, 2014
MayottePresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-ARS, 2014
MozambiquePresentIntroducedWild, 1961; USDA-ARS, 2014
NigeriaPresentIntroducedHutchinson and Dalziel, 1954; USDA-ARS, 2014
RwandaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014Weed
SeychellesPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-ARS, 2014
Sierra LeonePresentIntroducedHutchinson and Dalziel, 1954; USDA-ARS, 2014
South AfricaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014Weed
SudanPresentIntroducedHolm et al., 1991; Holm et al., 1997
TanzaniaPresentIntroducedHolm et al., 1991; Holm et al., 1997
UgandaPresentIntroducedHolm et al., 1991; USDA-ARS, 2014Weed
ZambiaPresentIntroducedWild, 1961; USDA-ARS, 2014Weed
ZimbabwePresentIntroducedWild, 1961; Holm et al., 1991; USDA-ARS, 2014

North America

MexicoPresentNativeHolm et al., 1991; Holm et al., 1997; Valdes and Franco, 1998; USDA-ARS, 2014
USAPresentHolm et al., 1991; Holm et al., 1997
-AlabamaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014
-FloridaPresentIntroducedAnon, 1997a; USDA-ARS, 2014
-GeorgiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedHASELWOOD and MOTTER, 1966; Higaki, 1973; Holm et al., 1997; Wagner et al., 1999
-LouisianaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014
-MississippiPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014
-TexasPresentAnon, 1997a

Central America and Caribbean

Antigua and BarbudaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
BahamasPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
BelizePresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
Costa RicaPresentNativeHolm et al., 1991; Blanco and Hilje, 1995; Echegoyen et al., 1996; USDA-ARS, 2014
CubaPresentIntroducedHolm et al., 1997; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
DominicaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
El SalvadorPresentNativeHolm et al., 1991; USDA-ARS, 2014
GrenadaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
GuadeloupePresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
GuatemalaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
HaitiPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
HondurasPresentNativeHolm et al., 1991; Holm et al., 1997; USDA-ARS, 2014
JamaicaPresentIntroducedHammerton, 1973; Holm et al., 1991; Holm et al., 1997; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
MartiniquePresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
MontserratPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
NicaraguaPresentHolm et al., 1997
PanamaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
Puerto RicoPresentIntroduced Invasive Holm et al., 1991; Holm et al., 1997; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
SabaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
Saint Kitts and NevisPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
Saint LuciaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
Trinidad and TobagoPresentIntroducedHolm et al., 1991; Holm et al., 1997
United States Virgin IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012St. Thomas, St. Croix

South America

ArgentinaPresentNativeHolm et al., 1997; Zuloaga et al., 2008Catamarca, Cordoba, Jujuy, La Rioja, Misiones, Salta, Santiago del Estero, Tucuman
BoliviaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
BrazilWidespreadLorenzi, 1982; Holm et al., 1991; Holm et al., 1997
-AcrePresentIntroducedCarneiro, 2014Naturalized
-AmazonasPresentIntroducedCarneiro, 2014Naturalized
-BahiaPresentIntroducedCarneiro, 2014Naturalized
-CearaPresentIntroducedCarneiro, 2014Naturalized
-Espirito SantoPresentIntroducedCarneiro, 2014Naturalized
-MaranhaoPresentIntroducedCarneiro, 2014Naturalized
-Minas GeraisPresentIntroducedCarneiro, 2014Naturalized
-ParaPresentIntroducedCarneiro, 2014Naturalized
-ParaibaPresentIntroducedCarneiro, 2014Naturalized
-ParanaPresentIntroducedCarneiro, 2014Naturalized
-PernambucoPresentIntroducedCarneiro, 2014Naturalized
-Rio de JaneiroPresentIntroducedCarneiro, 2014Naturalized
-Rio Grande do SulPresentIntroducedCarneiro, 2014Naturalized
-Santa CatarinaPresentIntroducedCarneiro, 2014Naturalized
-Sao PauloPresentIntroducedCarneiro, 2014Naturalized
-SergipePresentIntroducedCarneiro, 2014Naturalized
ChilePresentNativeZuloaga et al., 2008II Region
ColombiaPresentNativeHolm et al., 1991; Holm et al., 1997; USDA-ARS, 2014
EcuadorPresentNativeHolm et al., 1991; Holm et al., 1997; USDA-ARS, 2014
-Galapagos IslandsPresentUSDA-ARS, 2014
French GuianaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
GuyanaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
ParaguayPresentHolm et al., 1997; Zuloaga et al., 2008
PeruPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
SurinamePresentNativeHolm et al., 1991; USDA-ARS, 2014
UruguayPresentNativeHolm et al., 1997; Zuloaga et al., 2008
VenezuelaPresentHolm et al., 1991; Holm et al., 1997; Hokche et al., 2008

Oceania

AustraliaPresentHolm et al., 1991; Holm et al., 1997
-New South WalesPresentIntroduced Invasive Doust, 1990; Hnatiuk, 1990Noxious weed
-QueenslandPresentIntroduced Invasive Hawton et al., 1975; Stanley and Ross, 1983; Doust, 1990; Hnatiuk, 1990
FijiPresentIntroduced Invasive Smith, 1981
French PolynesiaPresentIntroduced Invasive Florence et al., 2013
New CaledoniaPresentIntroducedMacKee, 1985
Papua New GuineaPresentIntroduced Invasive Anon, 1997c; Henty and Pritchard, 1975

History of Introduction and Spread

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D. cordata has been introduced intentionally in tropical and subtropical region of the world to be used as fodder and to control soil erosion in degraded areas and gardens (USDA-ARS, 2014). However, the most likely means of introduction of this species into new habitat could be associated with human-related activities. Seeds and plant fragments may have been introduced as a contaminant of hay, fodder, grasses and crop seeds (Holm et al., 1997; USDA-ARS, 2014). In the USA, D. cordata was first collected in Florida in the early 1900s (Hartman, 2005). In the Caribbean, the first collections date from the late 1800’s (i.e., 1870 from Trinidad, 1883 from St. Thomas, and 1884 from Puerto Rico). In 1902 it was collected in Cuba, and in 1903 in Jamaica (US National Herbarium). D. cordata has dispersed broadly throughout the Caribbean and by 1903 it was reported as “common” in Puerto Rico, Cuba, Jamaica, Hispaniola, St Croix, Guadeloupe, and St Vincent, Barbados, and Grenada (Urban, 1905).

Habitat

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D. cordata is an aggressive, shade tolerant, weed of gardens, agriculture, pasture and disturbed land in moist tropical and subtropical areas. It can also be found growing along roadsides and in seminatural areas such as riverbanks, ditches, secondary forests, and forest edges (Smith, 1981; MacKee, 1994; Holm et al., 1997). It tolerates light to medium shade and germinates quickly after cultivation and other soil disturbance.

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Cultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Natural
Protected agriculture (e.g. glasshouse production) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Protected agriculture (e.g. glasshouse production) Present, no further details Natural
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Natural
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Riverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Riverbanks Present, no further details Natural

Hosts/Species Affected

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D. cordata almost certainly occurs in a much wider range of plantation and vegetable crops than indicated in the host list. It is also a weed in moist lawns, gardens, pastures, roadsides, riverbanks, ditches, around houses, and in all other moist, disturbed, cultivated and uncultivated areas. It is considered to be a weed of 31 crops in more than 45 countries around the world.

Biology and Ecology

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D. cordata is an annual species, reproducing by seed. Misra et al. (1992) studied the population dynamics of D. cordata in northeast Indian potato fields, and found that under those conditions there were three main germinations in each autumn and each summer crop. The first cohort showed greater mortality than the last, possibly due to more frequent cultivation early in the life of the crop. Large seed banks built up quickly in the soil, since seed rain exceeded seed losses and germination. Holm et al. (1997) report that at 25°C, D. cordata flowers 110-160 days after germination when exposed to 16 hour days and 125-190 days after germination when exposed to 10 hour days. Korikanthimath and Venugopal (1986) also give some information on flowering and fruiting periods.

D. cordata grows best in moist and shaded habitats at low to middle elevations (from 10 to 2000 m). It istolerant to a wide range of soil textures including sandy, loam and clay soils with pH ranging from 6.1 to 7.8, and to seasonal waterlogging (Holm et al., 1997).

The chromosome number reported for D. cordata is 2n=24 (Morton, 1993).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
BS - Steppe climate Tolerated > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers

Notes on Natural Enemies

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No natural enemies have been identified for D. cordata.

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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D. cordata spreads by seeds and by rooting nodes. Seeds are small and can be dispersed by wind and by water. Seeds and plant fragments can also be dispersed as contaminants of hay, fodder, forage, soil, and grass and crop seeds. Livestock can move seeds from one area to another attached to hair. Equipment and vehicles driven through infested areas can also disperse seeds and plant fragments (Holm et al., 1997; USDA-ARS, 2014).

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Positive and negative

Economic Impact

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D. cordata is a common and often abundant, though low-growing, weed in a wide range of crops and pastures throughout the moist tropics and subtropics. It competes with seedlings and with low- and slow-growing crops for light and nutrients, raises the humidity around the bases of crop plants and interferes with management.

The plant is also potentially poisonous to cattle; Murdiati and Stoltz (1987) have shown it to contain alkaloid-like chemicals, and consider that its poisonous properties need further investigation.

Environmental Impact

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D. cordata is an aggressive, shade tolerant, fast-growing weed with the potential to outcompete and completely replace native vegetation. It inhibits the germination and establishment of native plants because it grows forming a dense mat at ground level that covers and kills all other plants (Holm et al., 1997).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Invasive in its native range
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Fast growing
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Altered trophic level
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of hydrology
  • Modification of nutrient regime
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Monoculture formation
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Negatively impacts animal health
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
  • Damages animal/plant products
Impact mechanisms
  • Allelopathic
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - smothering
  • Poisoning
  • Rapid growth
  • Rooting
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant

Uses

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In comparison with bare soil, a cover of D. cordata has been shown to delay and reduce the incidence of Bemisia tabaci and associated virosis in tomatoes in Costa Rica (Blanco and Hilje, 1995).

Yonzone and Mandal (1988) have shown that the plant has medicinal value in West Bengal, India. A number of studies have reported anti-inflammatory effects.  A number of biologically active compounds have been isolated from the leaves of this taxon including drymaritin which exhibits anti HIV properties.

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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Drymaria villosa is a very similar plant which occurs as a weed in dryland rice in Indonesia (Soerjani et al. 1987). It may be distinguished from D. cordata by its more open growth habit, only slightly hairy pedicels, and usually has more than 10 seeds per fruit.

Drymaria arenarioides is a poisonous plant which occurs in Mexican and southern USA rangelands (Sanchez-Munoz et al., 1978), but has not been recorded as a weed of crops.

 

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Cultural Control

Hawton et al. (1975) showed that dry season cultivation gives effective control of D. cordata in tropical pastures, but that germination occurs in the following wet season unless there is an effective stand of vigorous grasses and legumes. Hand slashing is used to give temporary control in tea (Kabir et al., 1991).

Chemical Control

Kabir et al. (1991) showed that D. cordata can be effectively controlled under tea with glyphosate or oxyfluorfen. Kao and Rin (1977) achieved control on bare soil with 2, 4-D and showed that mixing the herbicide with bark increased its period of activity. In Hawaiian anthuriums growing in tree fern chips, Higaki (1973) discovered that both diuron and linuron gave good control of D. cordata. Henty and Pritchard (1975) record susceptibility to paraquat and to 2,4-D.

In pastures, 2,4-D + 2,3,6-TBA + mecoprop provided good control in Jamaica (Hammerton, 1973), as did 2,4-D + dicamba + mecoprop.

Biological Control

There have been no attempts at biological control of D. cordata.

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P; Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Anon., 1997. Atlas of Florida vascular Plants: On-line Version. World Wide Web page at http://www.//cyber.acomp.usf.edu/Architext/isb/projects/atlas/dic-bc.

Anon., 1997. List from the Jimi-Ramu. World Wide Web page at http://www.datec.com.pg/CRC/ramu/16-7plant.

Anon., 1997. Weeds of the Southern United States. World Wide Web page at http://www.//leviathan.tamu.edu/1s/pubs/Weeds.

Blanco J; Hilje L, 1995. The effect of soil covers on the abundance of Bemisia tabaci and the incidence of tomato virosis. Manejo Integrado de Plagas, No. 35:1-10; 35 ref.

Carneiro CE, 2014. Caryophyllaceae in Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil (Caryophyllaceae in list of species of the flora of Brazil). Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro. http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/jabot/floradobrasil/FB6704

Chong KY; Tan HTW; Corlett RT, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species., Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore, 273 pp.

Doust A, 1990. Drymaria cordata. New South Wales Flora Online. http://plantnet.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au/cgi-bin/NSWfl.pl?page=nswfl&lvl=sp&name=Drymariãcordata

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Links to Websites

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GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Contributors

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26/03/14 Updated by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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