Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Drosophila melanogaster
(fruit fly, common)

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Datasheet

Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly, common)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 03 December 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Vector of Animal Disease
  • Host Animal
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Drosophila melanogaster
  • Preferred Common Name
  • fruit fly, common
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Drosophila melanogaster (common fruit fly); adult, feeding on banana.
TitleAdult
CaptionDrosophila melanogaster (common fruit fly); adult, feeding on banana.
Copyright©Sanjay Acharya/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Drosophila melanogaster (common fruit fly); adult, feeding on banana.
AdultDrosophila melanogaster (common fruit fly); adult, feeding on banana.©Sanjay Acharya/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Drosophila melanogaster Meigen

Preferred Common Name

  • fruit fly, common

Other Scientific Names

  • Drosophila ampelophaga
  • Drosophila ampelophila Loew
  • Drosophila approximata Zetterstedt
  • Drosophila balteata Bergroth
  • Drosophila emulata Ray Chaudhuri & Mukherjee
  • Drosophila fasciata Meigen
  • Drosophila immatura Walker
  • Drosophila nigriventris Macquart
  • Drosophila pilosula Becker
  • Drosophila uvarum Rondani

International Common Names

  • English: common fruit fly; fruit fly, grape; grape fruit fly; vinegar fly, small
  • Spanish: mosquito del vinagre
  • French: moucheron des caves; moucheron du vinaigre

Local Common Names

  • Denmark: bananflue
  • Finland: banaanikärpänen
  • Germany: Essigfliege, Kleine; Fliege, Obst-; Fruchtfliege
  • Italy: moscerino del mosto; moscerino del vino; moscerino dell'aceto; moscerino delle fermentazioni
  • Norway: bananflue
  • Sweden: bananfluga

EPPO code

  • DROSME (Drosophila melanogaster)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Diptera
  •                         Family: Drosophilidae
  •                             Genus: Drosophila
  •                                 Species: Drosophila melanogaster

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresentBachli and Pite (1984)
BeninPresentGibert et al. (1998)
Central African RepublicPresentColby and Williams (1993)
Congo, Republic of thePresentFerveur and Jallon (1996)
Côte d'IvoirePresentFerveur and Jallon (1996)
EgyptPresentBachli and Pite (1984); Rosato et al. (1996)
KenyaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Takada et al.,1990
LibyaPresentBachli and Pite (1984)
MadagascarPresentMcEvey (1990)
MaliPresentGuerra et al. (2000)
MoroccoPresentBachli and Pite (1984)
NigeriaPresentWilliams and Banboye (1996)
TunisiaPresentBachli and Pite (1984); Delpuech et al. (1994)
UgandaPresentPool et al. (2006)
ZimbabwePresentBegun and Aquadro (1995)

Asia

ChinaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-FujianPresentLuo Jia and Zhuang QiuLin (2007)
-GansuPresentGuo JianMing (2007)
-HunanPresentWang ChuanCai and Ma Hui (2008)
GeorgiaPresentBachli and Pite (1984)
IndiaPresent, WidespreadParkash et al. (1991)
-HaryanaPresentParkash et al. (1991)
-Jammu and KashmirPresentOkada (1977); Parkash et al. (1991)
-KarnatakaPresentOkada (1977)
-MaharashtraPresentOkada (1977)
-ManipurPresentOkada (1977)
-OdishaPresentOkada (1977); CABI (Undated)
-Tamil NaduPresentOkada (1977)
-Uttar PradeshPresentOkada (1977); Parkash et al. (1991)
-West BengalPresentOkada (1977)
IndonesiaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-JavaPresentOkada (1977)
-SumatraPresentOkada (1977)
IranPresentBachli and Pite (1984)
IsraelPresentBachli and Pite (1984); Ringo et al. (1995)
JapanPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-HonshuPresentHosomi and Kusakari (1995)
-KyushuPresentHarada et al. (1991)
-Ryukyu IslandsPresentOkada (1977); CABI (Undated)
KazakhstanPresentBachli and Pite (1984)
KyrgyzstanPresentBachli and Pite (1984)
LebanonPresentBachli and Pite (1984)
MalaysiaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-SabahPresentOkada (1977)
MongoliaPresentBachli and Pite (1984); CABI (Undated)
MyanmarPresentToda (1991)
North KoreaPresentBachli and Pite (1984)
PhilippinesPresentOkada (1977)
SingaporePresentOkada (1977)
South KoreaPresentBachli and Pite (1984); CABI (Undated)
TaiwanPresentOkada (1977)
TajikistanPresentBachli and Pite (1984)
ThailandPresentOkada (1977)
TurkeyPresentBachli and Pite (1984)
TurkmenistanPresentBachli and Pite (1984)
UzbekistanPresentBachli and Pite (1984)
VietnamPresentOkada (1977); Colby and Williams (1993)

Europe

AustriaPresentBachli and Pite (1984)
BelarusPresentIlinsky and Zakharov (2007)
CzechoslovakiaPresentBachli and Pite (1984)
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresentProlić and Andelković (1992)
DenmarkPresentBachli and Pite (1984)
FinlandPresentBachli and Pite (1984)
FrancePresentBachli and Pite (1984); Laurent (1998)
GermanyPresentBachli and Pite (1984); Fleuriet (1996)
GreecePresentBachli and Pite (1984); Zabalou et al. (1994)
HungaryPresentBachli and Pite (1984); CABI (Undated)
IrelandPresentBachli and Pite (1984)
ItalyPresentBaser et al. (2015); Bachli and Pite (1984)Apulia
MoldovaPresentBachli and Pite (1984); Vereshchagina et al. (1994)
NetherlandsPresentBachli and Pite (1984); Kraaijeveld et al. (1994)
NorwayPresentBachli and Pite (1984)
PolandPresentBachli and Pite (1984)
PortugalPresentBachli and Pite (1984)
-MadeiraPresentBachli and Pite (1984)
RomaniaPresentBachli and Pite (1984)
RussiaPresentBachli and Pite (1984)
-Central RussiaPresentBachli and Pite (1984)
-Russian Far EastPresentBachli and Pite (1984)
-SiberiaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Furman & Bukharina, 1994
SpainPresentBachli and Pite (1984); CABI (Undated);
-Canary IslandsPresentBachli and Pite (1984)
SwedenPresentBachli and Pite (1984)
SwitzerlandPresentBachli and Pite (1984); CABI (Undated)
UkrainePresentBachli and Pite (1984)
United KingdomPresentBachli and Pite (1984)

North America

BahamasPresentBachli and Pite (1984)
CanadaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-ManitobaPresentLong and Singh (1995)
-OntarioPresentHughes and Sokolowski (1996)
MexicoPresentHedrick and King (1996)
PanamaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Sevenster & Alphen, 1993
United StatesPresent, WidespreadWheeler (1965)
-ArizonaPresentWakefield et al. (1993)
-CaliforniaPresentNunney (1996)
-FloridaPresentWindelspecht et al. (1995)
-GeorgiaPresentWilliams and Sokolowski (1992)
-HawaiiPresentCABI Data Mining (Undated); CABI (Undated);
-KansasPresentColby and Williams (1993)
-MainePresentEmerson et al. (2009)
-MarylandPresentBloomquist (1994)
-MichiganPresentBand (1995)
-MinnesotaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Colby & Williams,1993
-New YorkPresentLanciani et al. (1992)
-North CarolinaPresentColby and Williams (1993)
-OhioPresentGromko (1987)
-OregonPresentNagel and Grossbach (2000)
-PennsylvaniaPresentColby and Williams (1993)
-Rhode IslandPresentColby and Williams (1993)
-TexasPresentKoga et al. (1993)
-VirginiaPresentBand (1991)
-WashingtonPresentDillon et al. (2007)
-WisconsinPresentAronstein et al. (1995)

Oceania

AustraliaPresent, WidespreadAnderson and Gibson (1985); Davidson (1990); Worthen (1996)
-New South WalesPresentWorthen (1996)
-Northern TerritoryPresentDavidson (1990)
-QueenslandPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Worthen, 1990
-South AustraliaPresentAnderson and Gibson (1985)
-TasmaniaPresentWorthen (1996)
-VictoriaPresentWorthen (1996)

South America

BrazilPresentMizuguchi et al. (1985)
-GoiasPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Carvalho, 1988
-PernambucoPresentMontenegro et al. (2005)
-Sao PauloPresentMontenegro et al. (2000)
ChilePresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Godoy-Herrera, 1997
VenezuelaPresentBalakirev and Ayala (2003)

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Post-harvest

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / discoloration
Fruit / internal feeding
Fruit / ooze

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Acontiothespis perspicua Predator
Agonum dorsale Predator
Anelosimus eximius Predator
Anthocoris nemorum Predator
Araneus cucurbitinus Predator
Asobara persimilis Predator/parasite Larvae
Asobara rufescens Predator/parasite Larvae
Asobara tabida Predator/parasite Larvae
Chandipura virus Pathogen
Chrysoperla carnea Predator
Chrysoperla rufilabris Predator
Clubiona reichlini Predator
cricket paralysis virus Pathogen
Cyrtogaster vulgaris Parasite
Drosophila C virus Pathogen Larvae
Entomophthora muscae Pathogen
Flock House virus Pathogen
Ganaspis xanthopoda Parasite
Hypoaspis aculeifer Parasite
Hypoaspis solimani Parasite
Leptopilina boulardi Predator/parasite Larvae
Leptopilina heterometra Parasite
Leptopilina heterotoma Predator/parasite Larvae
Lycosa pseudoannulata Predator
Microvelia douglasi Predator
Nosema kingi Pathogen
Notonecta hoffmanni Predator
Oedothorax apicatus Predator
Pachycrepoideus dubius Predator/parasite
Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae Predator/parasite Pupae
Pardosa vancouverensis Predator
Pardosa vancouverensis Predator
Pergamasus longicornis Predator
Phidippus regius Predator
Philonthus alumnus Predator
Philonthus stragulatus Predator
Pirata subpiraticus Predator
Serratia marcescens Pathogen
sigma virus Pathogen
Siler cupreus Predator
small RNA viruses Pathogen
Tanycarpa punctata Predator/parasite Larvae
Tenodera angustipennis Predator
Tenodera sinensis Predator
Trichopria Predator/parasite Larvae
vesicular stomatitis virus Pathogen
virus-like particles
Xylocoris galactinus Predator
Zelus renardii Predator

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Containers and packaging - woodIf rotten fruit not cleared. Yes
Land vehiclesIf rotten fruit not cleared. Yes

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Fruits (inc. pods) eggs; larvae Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Growing medium accompanying plants
Leaves
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

References

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Afifi AI, 1989. Effect of low temperature on the egg hatchability and the survival rates of subsequent stages of the beetle, Philonthus stragulatus Er. (Coleoptera-Staphylinidae). Bulletin of Faculty of Agriculture, University of Cairo, 40(3):805-812

Anderson DG, Gibson JB, 1985. Variation in alcohol dehydrogenase activity in vitro in flies from natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetica, 67(1):13-19

Aparup Das, Dipika Tripathy, Parida BB, 1996. Intrapopulational variation for desiccation tolerance in Indian Drosophila melanogaster. Indian Journal of Genetics & Plant Breeding, 56(4):495-500; 15 ref

Aronstein K, Ode P, Ffrench-Constant RH, 1995. PCR based monitoring of specific Drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae) cyclodiene resistance alleles in the presence and absence of selection. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 85(1):5-9

Bachli G, Pite MTR, 1984. Family Drosophilidae. In: Soos A, Papp L, eds. Catalogue of Palaearctic Diptera. Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 10:186-220

Bachli G, Vilela CR, 1991. On the identity of Drosophila immatura Walker and Drosophila remota Walker (Diptera, Drosophilidae). Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellshaft, 64(1-2):27-31

Balakirev ES, Ayala FJ, 2003. Nucleotide variation of the Est-6 gene region in natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics, 165(4):1901-1914

Band HT, 1991. Acorns as breeding sites for Chymomyza amoena (Loew) (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in Virginia and Michigan. Great Lakes Entomologist, 24(1):45-50

Band HT, 1995. Frassy substrates as oviposition/breeding sites for drosophilids. Virginia Journal of Science, 46(1):11-23

Baser N, Ouantar M, Broutou O, Lamaj F, Verrastro V, Porcelli F, 2015. First finding of Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in Apulia, Italy, and its population dynamics throughout the year. Fruits (Paris), 70(4):225-230. http://www.fruits-journal.org/articles/fruits/abs/2015/04/fruits150016-s/fruits150016-s.html

Baum D, 1987. Importance of the vinegar fly (Drosophila melanogaster Megin.) in the spread of grape sour rot. Alon Hanotea, 41(10):1071-1075

Baum D, Ishaaya I, Yablonski S, 1988. Pyrethroids and benzoylphenylureas for controlling the vinegar fly Drosophila melanogaster Meign. Alon Hanotea, 42(11):1101-1107

Begun DJ, Aquadro CF, 1995. Molecular variation at the vermilion locus in geographically diverse populations of Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans. Genetics, 140(3):1019-1032; 46 ref

Bloomquist JR, 1994. Cyclodiene resistance at the least insect GABA receptor/chloride channel complex confers broad cross resistance to convulsants and experimental phenylpyrazole insecticides. Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology, 26(1):69-79

Bock IR, 1980. Current status of the Drosophila melanogaster species-group (Diptera). Systematic Entomology, 5:341-356

Bock IR, Wheeler MR, 1972. The Drosophila melanogaster species group. In: Wheeler MR, ed. Studies in Genetics. VII. Texas, USA: University of Texas, 7213:1-102

Carvalho S de, Cratz FL, 1988. Active dispersion in Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera; Drosophilidae). Revista Brasileira de Zoologia, 5(1):31-44

Colby C, Williams SM, 1993. The distribution and spreading of rare variants in the histone multigene family of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics, 135(1):127-133

Davidson JK, 1990. The genetic architecture of cold tolerance in natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans. Australian Journal of Zoology, 38(2):163-171

Delpuech JM, Frey F, Carton Y, 1994. Genetic and epigenetic variation in suitability of a Drosophila host to three parasitoid species. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 72(11):1940-1944

Dillon ME, Cahn LRY, Huey RB, 2007. Life history consequences of temperature transients in Drosophila melanogaster. Journal of Experimental Biology, 210(16):2897-2904. http://jeb.biologists.org/

Eisses KT, Santos M, 1998. Species distinction in abdominal pigmentation patterns between females of Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans, from a Spanish population. Entomological News, 109(1):56-60; 13 ref

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Ferveur JF, Jallon JM, 1996. Genetic control of male cuticular hydrocarbons in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetical Research, 67(3):211-218; 28 ref

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Furman DP, Bukharina TA, 1996. P-M hybrid dysgenesis in a natural population of Drosophila from the Altai. Genetika (Moskva), 32(8):1074-1079; 29 ref

Gibert P, Moreteau B, Moreteau JC, David JR, 1998. Genetic variability of quantitative traits in Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly) natural populations: analysis of wild-living flies and of several laboratory generations. Heredity, 80(3):326-335; 26 ref

Godoy-Herrera R, Bustamante M, Campos P, Cancino JL, 1997. The development of larval behaviours in sympatric Chilean populations of Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila simulans. Behaviour, 134(1/2):105-125; 33 ref

Gromko MH, 1987. Genetic constraint on the evolution of courtship behaviour in Drosophila melanogaster. Heredity, 58(3):435-441

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Harada K, Kusakabe S, Mukai T, 1991. Comparative study of P element activity in two natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster. Japanese Journal of Genetics, 66(6):725-737

Harrison RA, 1959. Acalypterate Diptera of New Zealand. Bulletin, New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research

Hedrick PW, King E, 1996. Genetics and the environment in interspecific competition: a study using the sibling species Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila simulans. Oecologia, 108(1):72-78; 24 ref

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Holcomb ML, 1977. Observations on the behavior of Philonthus alumnus Er. (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae, Staphylininp). Coleopterists Bulletin, 31(2):143-148

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Vereshchagina NM, Iliadi IK, Nikitich OA, 1994. Comparative studies of P- and hobo-element activity, fitness components and recombination parameters in two natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster in Moldova. Hereditas (Landskrona), 120(2):91-98

Wakefield J, Harris K, Markow TA, 1993. Parental age and developmental stability in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetica, 89(1/3):235-244

Wang ChuanCai, Ma Hui, 2008. Study on the damage made by Drosphila melanogaster to Dongkui Bayberry cultivar and its control. South China Fruits, No.4:54-55

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Williams GO, Banboye ERD, 1996. Genetic load in chromosomes 3 in a population of Drosophila melanogaster in Lagos, Nigeria. Hereditas (Landskrona), 125(1):83-87; 16 ref

Williams KD, Sokolowski MB, 1992. Diapause in Drosophila melanogaster females: a genetic analysis. Heredity, 71(3):312-317

Windelspecht M, Richmond RC, Cochrane BJ, 1995. Malathion resistance levels in sympatric populations of Drosophila simulans (Diptera: Drosophilidae) and D. melanogaster differ by two orders of magnitude. Journal of Economic Entomology, 88(5):1138-1143

Worthen WB, 1996. Latitudinal variation in developmental time and mass in Drosophila melanogaster. Evolution, 50(6):2523-2529; 24 ref

Zabalou S, Alahiotis SN, Yannopoulos G, 1994. A three-season comparative analysis of the chromosomal distribution of P and hobo mobile elements in a natural population of Drosophila melanogaster [in Greece]. Hereditas (Landskrona), 120(2):127-140

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