Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Diaphania nitidalis
(cucumber worm)

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Datasheet

Diaphania nitidalis (cucumber worm)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Diaphania nitidalis
  • Preferred Common Name
  • cucumber worm
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
TitleThird instar D. nitidalis larva within cucumber fruit
Caption
CopyrightD. Michael Jackson
Third instar D. nitidalis larva within cucumber fruitD. Michael Jackson

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Diaphania nitidalis (Stoll)

Preferred Common Name

  • cucumber worm

Other Scientific Names

  • Eudioptis nitidalis
  • Glyphodes nitidalis Stoll
  • Margaronia nitidalis Cramer
  • Palpita nitidalis Stoll
  • Phacellura nitidalis Cramer, 1781
  • Phakellura nitidalis
  • Phalaena nitidalis Stoll
  • Zinckenia nitidalis Stoll

International Common Names

  • English: pickle worm; pickleworm
  • Spanish: barrenador del pepino (Mexico); gusano de los zapallos; gusano del pepino; oruga barrenadora de las guias y frutos; perforador del pepino
  • French: pyrale du concombre
  • Portuguese: broca das hastes; broca dos frutos das curcubitaceas

EPPO code

  • DPHNNI (Diaphania nitidalis)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Lepidoptera
  •                         Family: Crambidae
  •                             Genus: Diaphania
  •                                 Species: Diaphania nitidalis

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 26 May 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

North America

BelizePresentCABI and EPPO (2000); EPPO (2020)
BermudaPresentCABI and EPPO (2000); EPPO (2020)
CanadaPresent, Few occurrencesQuaintance (1901); CABI (Undated);
Costa RicaPresentCABI and EPPO (2000); EPPO (2020)
DominicaPresentCABI and EPPO (2000); EPPO (2020)
HondurasPresentManley (1983); CABI and EPPO (2000); EPPO (2020)
MexicoPresentCABI (Undated a)
PanamaPresentDUPREE et al. (1955)
Puerto RicoPresentWolcott (1924); DUPREE et al. (1955); Acosta et al. (1986); Jansson and Pena (1990); CABI and EPPO (2000); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
Saint Kitts and NevisPresentJansson and Pena (1990); EPPO (2020)
Trinidad and TobagoPresentCABI and EPPO (2000); EPPO (2020)
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentBland (1984); Jansson and Pena (1990)
United StatesPresent, LocalizedCABI and EPPO (2000); EPPO (2020)
-AlabamaPresentQuaintance (1901); ARANT (1940); ARANT (1941); ARANT (1942); Canerday and Dilbeck (1968); CABI and EPPO (2000); EPPO (2020)
-ArkansasPresentVan Balen (1976); CABI and EPPO (2000); EPPO (2020)
-ConnecticutPresentBritton (1932); Britton (1935); Stefferud (1952); Reid and Cuthbert (1953); Reid and Cuthbert (1961); CABI and EPPO (2000); EPPO (2020)
-DelawarePresent, Few occurrencesQuaintance (1901); Van Balen (1976)
-FloridaPresentQuaintance (1901); Watson and Tissot (1942); Kelsheimer (1949); CABI and EPPO (2000); EPPO (2020)
-GeorgiaPresentQuaintance (1899); Quaintance (1901); Van Haltern (1928); DUPREE et al. (1955); CABI and EPPO (2000); EPPO (2020)
-IllinoisPresent, Few occurrencesWalsh and Riley (1869); Quaintance (1901); Stefferud (1952)
-IndianaPresentDavis (1940); Van Balen (1976); CABI and EPPO (2000); EPPO (2020)
-IowaPresentStefferud (1952); Reid and Cuthbert (1953); Van Balen (1976); CABI and EPPO (2000); EPPO (2020)
-KansasPresent, Few occurrencesQuaintance (1901); Stefferud (1952); Reid and Cuthbert (1953); Van Balen (1976)
-KentuckyPresentVan Balen (1976)
-LouisianaPresentVan Balen (1976); CABI and EPPO (2000); EPPO (2020)
-MarylandPresentVan Balen (1976); CABI and EPPO (2000); EPPO (2020)
-MichiganPresent, Few occurrencesWalsh and Riley (1869); Quaintance (1901)
-MississippiPresentLyle (1945); Van Balen (1976); CABI and EPPO (2000); EPPO (2020)
-MissouriPresentWalsh and Riley (1869); Sullivan (1924); Haseman (1937); Stefferud (1952); CABI and EPPO (2000); EPPO (2020)
-NebraskaPresentReid and Cuthbert (1961); Van Balen (1976); CABI and EPPO (2000); EPPO (2020)
-New JerseyPresent, Few occurrencesCABI (Undated)Original citation: Merrill and Pepper (1956)
-New YorkPresent, Few occurrencesReid and Cuthbert (1953); Van Balen (1976); CABI and EPPO (2000); EPPO (2020)
-North CarolinaPresentQuaintance (1901); Smith (1908); Smith (1910); Smith (1911); Fulton (1936); Brimley (1938); Van Balen (1976); CABI and EPPO (2000); EPPO (2020)
-OhioPresentVan Balen (1976); CABI and EPPO (2000); EPPO (2020)
-OklahomaPresentReid and Cuthbert (1961); CABI and EPPO (2000)
-PennsylvaniaPresent, Few occurrencesVan Balen (1976)
-Rhode IslandPresent, Few occurrencesVan Balen (1976)
-South CarolinaPresentQuaintance (1901); Reid and Cuthbert (1953); REID and CUTHBERT (1956); Van Balen (1976); CABI and EPPO (2000); EPPO (2020)
-TennesseePresentQuaintance (1901); Sherbakoff and Stanley (1943); Van Balen (1976)
-TexasPresentStefferud (1952); Reid and Cuthbert (1953); Van Balen (1976)
-VirginiaPresentQuaintance (1901); BODENSTEIN (1944); Van Balen (1976); CABI and EPPO (2000); EPPO (2020)
-West VirginiaPresentVan Balen (1976)
-WisconsinPresent, Few occurrencesVan Balen (1976)

South America

ArgentinaPresentCABI and EPPO (2000); EPPO (2020)
BrazilPresent, LocalizedQuaintance (1901); DUPREE et al. (1955); Lara et al. (1977); Fornazier et al. (1982); CABI and EPPO (2000); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-BahiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2000); EPPO (2020)
-Minas GeraisPresentCABI and EPPO (2000); EPPO (2020)
-ParanaPresentCABI and EPPO (2000); EPPO (2020)
-Rio Grande do SulPresentCABI and EPPO (2000); EPPO (2020)
-Sao PauloPresentChagas et al. (1979); CABI and EPPO (2000); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
ChilePresentCABI and EPPO (2000); EPPO (2020)
ColombiaPresentQuaintance (1901); DUPREE et al. (1955); Posada and Garcia (1976); Jansson and Pena (1990)
French GuianaPresent, Few occurrencesQuaintance (1901); DUPREE et al. (1955)
PeruPresentWille (1943); DUPREE et al. (1955); Sarmiento M. and Zarate (1973); CABI and EPPO (2000); EPPO (2020)
SurinamePresentSegeren (1983); CABI and EPPO (2000); EPPO (2020)
VenezuelaPresentCapote Luna et al. (2019)

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / frass visible
Fruit / internal feeding
Inflorescence / external feeding
Inflorescence / internal feeding
Leaves / external feeding
Leaves / frass visible
Leaves / webbing
Stems / internal feeding
Stems / visible frass
Whole plant / external feeding
Whole plant / internal feeding
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Agrypon caribbaeum Parasite Larvae
Apanteles Parasite Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis thuringiensis Pathogen Larvae
Cardiochiles diaphaniae Parasite Larvae
Casinaria infesta Parasite Larvae USA; Florida Cucurbitaceae
Hypomicrogaster diaphaniae Parasite Larvae USA; Florida Cucurbitaceae
Petrargyrops punctiger Parasite Larvae
Polycyrtus Parasite
Pristomerus spinator Parasite Larvae USA; Florida Cucurbitaceae
Spilochalcis diaphaniae Parasite
Steinernema carpocapsae Parasite
Trichogramma Parasite Eggs
Trichogramma exiguum Parasite Eggs

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Fruits (inc. pods) larvae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Growing medium accompanying plants
Leaves
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

References

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Acosta N; Cruz C; Negron J, 1986. Insect and nematode control in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) in Puerto Rico. Journal of Agriculture of the University of Puerto Rico, 70(1):19-24

Adlerz WC, 1977. Pickleworm control on cantaloupe and summer squash. Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society, 90:399-400.

Anderson LD; Hofmaster; RN, 1948. Control of pickleworm on cucumbers and cantaloupes. Journal of Economic Entomology, 41:334-335.

Anon., 1931. Pickleworm. U. S. Department of Agriculture, Insect Pest Survey Bulletin 11.

Anon., 1943. Nicotine, pyrethrum, and cryolite in pickleworm control. North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station, Annual Report, 66:66-67.

Arant FS, 1940. A progress report on the use of rotenone dusts for the control of the pickleworm and the melonworm in Alabama. Journal of Economic Entomology, 33:840-843.

Arant FS, 1941. Rate of application of derris-talc dusts for pickleworm control. Journal of Economic Entomology, 34:520-521.

Arant FS, 1942. Effectiveness of derris and cube in pickleworm control. Journal of Economic Entomology, 35:870-872.

Ashmead WH, 1887. The squash borer. U. S. Department of Agriculture, Division of Entomology, Bulletin No. 14.

Ba-Angood SAS, 1978. People's Democratic Republic of Yemen-outbreak of the melon worm, Diaphania indica Saund. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, 26(1):31-32

Ba-Angood SAS, 1979. Bionomics of the melon worm Palpita (Diaphania) indica (Saund) (Pyralidae: Lepidoptera) in PDR of Yemen. Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Entomologie, 88(3):332-336

Baldin ELL; Lara FM, 1998. Interaction of squash genotypes with insecticide in the control of the pickleworm Diaphania nitidalis Cr. Anais da Sociedade Entomolo^acute~gica do Brasil, 27(4):621-626; 11 ref.

Banadyga AA; Covington HM; Ellis DE; Garriss HR; Brett CH; Scott HE; Harward ME; Abshier GS, 1954. Cucumber production in North Carolina. North Carolina Agricultural Extension Service, Extension Circular 383.

Bennett FD; Capinera JL, 1994. Biological control of miscellaneous pests. Pest management in the subtropics: biological control - a Florida perspective. Rosen D, Bennett FD, Capinera JL, eds. Andover, UK: Intercept Limited, 123-145

Bland RG, 1984. Agrypon caribbaeum, a new species of ichneumon wasp (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) from the U. S. Virgin Islands. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 77:29-31.

Bodenstein OF, 1944. Control of the pickleworm on squash and cucumber. Journal of Economic Entomology, 37:534-536.

Botelho PSM; Nakano O; Rodella RJ, 1975. Action of some insecticides on the cucurbit borer Margaronia nitidalis (Cramer, 1782). Revista de Agricultura, Piracicaba, 50(3/4):157-161

Brauer F; Bergenstamm JE, 1895. Die Zeeiflugler des Kaiserlichen Museums zu Wien. VII. Vorarbeiten zu einer Monographie der Muscaria Schizometopa (exclusive Anthomyidae). Pars IV. K. Akad. Der Wiss. Wien, Math.-Nat. Cl. Denkschr., 61:537-624.

Brett CH; McCombs CL; Daugherty DM, 1961. Resistance of squash varieties to the pickleworm and the value of resistance to insecticidal control. Journal of Economic Entomology, 54:1191-1197.

Brett CH; McCombs CL; Henderson WR; Rudder JD, 1965. Carbohydrate concentration as a factor in the resistance of squash varieties to the pickleworm. Journal of Economic Entomology, 58:893-896.

Brett CH; Sullivan; MJ, 1970. Use of resistant varieties and other cultural control practices for control of insects on cucumbers in North Carolina. North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station, Bulletin 443.

Brewer MJ; Story RN, 1987. Larval spatial patterns and sequential sampling plan for pickleworm, Diaphania nitidalis (Stoll) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), on summer squash. Environmental Entomology, 16(2):539-544

Brimley CS, 1938. The Insects of North Carolina. North Carolina Department of Agriculture, Division of Entomology, Raleigh, N.C.

Britton WE, 1932. The pickleworm in Connecticut (Diaphania nitidalis (Stoll)). Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin, 338:449-603.

Britton WE, 1935. Summer squash injury by pickleworm. Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin, 368:149-262.

Brooks JW; Anderson LD, 1947. Toxicity tests of some new insecticides. Journal of Economic Entomology, 40:220-228.

Busoli AC; Lara FM; Silveira Neto S, 1981. Population fluctuations of some pests of the families Pyralidae, Sphingidae, Artiidae and Gelechiidae, (Lepidoptera), in the region of Jaboticabal, SP, and the influence of meteorological factors. Anais da Sociedade Entomologica do Brasil, 10(1):27-41

CABI/EPPO, 2000. Diaphania nitidalis. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, Map No. 611. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Canerday TD, 1966. Varietal resistance or insecticides for pickleworm control on cantaloupes? Highlights of Agricultural Research, No. 13.

Canerday TD, 1967. Control of pickleworm on cucurbits. Journal of Economic Entomology, 60:1705-1708.

Canerday TD, 1967. Evaluation of cantaloupe varieties for resistance to the pickleworm. Journal of Economic Entomology, 60:1463-1464.

Canerday TD; Dilbeck JD, 1968. The pickleworm: Its control on cucurbits in Alabama. Bulletin, Agricultural Experiment Station, Auburn University, 381:27 pp.

Chagas EF; Coelho IP; Silveira Neto S; Dias JFS; Fazolin M, 1979. Faunistic analysis of the family Pyralidae (Lepidoptera) through light-trap surveys in Piracicaba, Sao Paulo. Anais da Sociedade Entomologica do Brasil, 8(2):281-294

Chalfant RB; Jaworski CA; Johnson AW; Sumner DR, 1977. Reflective film mulches, millet barriers and pesticides: effects on watermelon mosaic virus, insects, nematodes, soil-borne fungi, and yield of yellow summer squash. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 102(1):11-15

Chittenden FH, 1899. Some insects injurious to garden and orchard crops. U. S. Department of Agriculture, Division of Entomology, Bulletin No. 19 (new series).

Clavijo AJ; Munroe E; Arias CQ, 1995. The genus Diaphania Hnbner (Lepidoptera: Cramibidae); key to the economically important species. Agronomi^acute~a Tropical (Maracay), 45(3):347-358; 6 ref.

Corley WL, 1973. Response of muskmelon botanical varieties to pickleworm infestation. HortScience, 8:326-328.

Creighton CS; Fassuliotis G, 1985. Heterorhabditis sp. (Nematoda: Heterorhabditidae): a nematode parasite isolated from the banded cucumber beetle Diabrotica balteata. Journal of Nematology, 17(2):150-153.

Creighton CS; McFadden TL; Schalk JM, 1980. Toxicity of dietary rose bengal to larvae of the cabbage looper, corn earworm and pickleworm. Journal of the Georgia Entomological Society, 15(1):66-68

Davis JJ, 1940. Fighting insects in the vegetable garden. Purdue University, Extension Bulletin No. 186 (5th Rev. Ed.).

Day A; Nugent PE; Robinson JF, 1961. Resistance of squash varieties to the pickleworm and the value of resistance to insecticide control. Journal of Economic Entomology, 54:1191-1197.

Day A; Nugent PE; Robinson JF, 1978. Variation of pickleworm feeding and oviposition on muskmelon and cucumbers. HortScience, 13:286-287.

Day A; Robinson JF, 1981. Comparative survival, development, and fecundity of the pickleworm reared on an artificial diet and three cucurbit hosts. Journal of the Georgia Entomological Society, 16(4):518-521

Delplanque A; Gruner L, 1975. The use of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner against some Lepidoptera injurious to vegetable crops in the Antilles. Nouvelles Agronomiques des Antilles et de la Guyane, No. 1:71-82

Dhillon NPS; Wehner TC, 1991. Host-plant resistance to insects in cucurbits germplasm resources, genetics and breeding. Tropical Pest Management, 37(4):421-428

Dilbeck JD; Canerday TD, 1968. Resistance of Cucurbita to the pickleworm. Journal of Economic Entomology, 61:1410-1413.

Dilbeck JD; Todd JW; Canerday TD, 1974. Pickleworm resistance in Cucurbita. Florida Entomologist, 57(1):27-32

Dougherty DE; Schuster DJ, 1985. Compatibility of fungicide-insecticide combinations for disease and pickleworm control on honeydew melon. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting, Florida State Horticultural Society, 97:205-208.

Dupree M, 1948. Control of pickleworm on cucurbits. Georgia Agricultural Experiment Station Annual Report, 135.

Dupree M, 1973. The effects of reflective aluminum foils and polyethylene films on two insect pests of summer squash. [Diaphalia nitidalis, Melittia cucurbitae]. Journal of the Georgia Entomological Society, 8:146-148.

Dupree M; Beckham CM, 1950. Progress report on the control of pickleworm on cucurbits. Georgia Experiment Station Mimeo Series 15.

Dupree M; Bissell TL; Beckham CM, 1955. The pickleworm and its control. Georgia Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin (New Series), 5:1-34.

Elsey KD, 1980. Pickleworm: effect of temperature on development, fecundity, and survival. Environmental Entomology, 9(1):101-103

Elsey KD, 1980. Pickleworm: mortality on cucumbers in the field. Environmental Entomology, 9(6):806-809

Elsey KD, 1981. Pickleworm: survival, development, and oviposition on selected hosts. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 74(1):96-99

Elsey KD, 1982. Effect of extreme temperatures on pickleworm larvae and adults (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Florida Entomologist, 65(4):471-477

Elsey KD, 1982. Photoperiod and temperature effects on the occurrence and periodicity of mating in pickleworm moths (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Florida Entomologist, 65(4):466-471

Elsey KD, 1985. Resistance mechanisms in Cucurbita moschata to pickleworm and melonworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 78(5):1048-1051

Elsey KD, 1989. Insect resistance in the Cucurbits: Status and potential. In: Thomas CE, ed. Proceedings, Cucurbitaceae 89: Evaluation and Enhancement of Cucurbit Germplasm, Charleston, South Carolina, Nov. 29-Dec. 2, 1989, 49-59.

Elsey KD; Brower J, 1984. Sterilization of the pickleworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) by ionizing radiation or heat. Journal of Economic Entomology, 77(5):1236-1239

Elsey KD; Klun JA; Schwartz M, 1989. Pickleworm sex pheromone: potential for use in cucumber pest management. Journal of Agricultural Entomology, 6(4):275-282

Elsey KD; Klun JA; Schwarz M, 1991. Forecasting pickleworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larval infestations using sex pheromone traps. Journal of Economic Entomology, 84(6):1837-1841

Elsey KD; McFadden TL, 1981. Pickleworm: oviposition on an artificial surface treated with cucurbit extract. Journal of Economic Entomology, 74(4):473-474

Elsey KD; McFadden TL; Cuthbert RB, 1984. Improved rearing system for pickleworm and melonworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 77(4):1070-1072

Elsey KD; Pena J; Peterson J; Wehner T, 1985. Recent advances in research on control and biology of pickleworm and melonworm. Proceedings Caribbean Food Crop Society Annual Meeting. Bridgetown, Barbados: The Eastern Caribbean Center and the Caribbean Food Crops Society (20th), 100-102, 313, 324.

Elsey KD; Pena JE; Waddill VH, 1985. Suitability of potential wild hosts of Diaphania species in southern Florida. Florida Entomologist, 68:682-686.

Elsey KD; Wann EV, 1982. Differences in infestation of pubescent and glabrous forms of cucumber by pickleworms and melonworms. HortScience, 17(2):253-254

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Figueiredo Jr ER; Andrade AN, 1943. A broca das nossas cucurbitßceas Diaphania nitidalis (Cram.). Biol=gico, 9(2):35-38.

Filho JUTB; de Albuquerque FA; Callegari O, 1997. Controle da "broca das cucurbitaceas" (Diaphania nitidalis Cramer, 1782) na cultura do melao (Cucumis melo L.), em ambiente protegido. Revista UNIMAR, 19(3):701-708.

Floyd EH; Becnel IJ; Eddy CO, 1942. Free nicotine in arsenical and cryolite dust mixtures. Journal of Economic Entomology, 35:620-623.

Fornazier MJ; Yabase LK; Degrande PE; Nakano O, 1982. Control of the cucurbit pickleworm (Diaphania nitidalis) in a watermelon culture (preliminary results) [Sao Paulo State, Brazil]. Controle da broca das cucurbitaceas, Diaphania nitidalis, em cultura de melancia (Resultados proliminares). Proceedings Tropical Region, American Society Horticultural Science, Annual Meeting, Campinas, Brasil, 25:347-349.

Franca FH; Cordeiro CMT; Giordano L de B, 1985. Control of Diaphania on cucumber. Controle da broca das cucurbitaceas em pepino. Hort. Bras., 3(2):52.

Franca FH; Cordeiro CMT; Maluf WR, 1985. Control of Diaphania on squash. Controle da broca das cucurbitaceas em abobrinha italiana. Hort. Bras., 3(2):50.

Fulton BB, 1936. Melon and pickleworm. North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station, 59th Annual Report, 70.

Fulton BB, 1937. Pickle and melon worm. North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station, 60th Annual Report.

Fulton BB, 1938. Studies of the pickleworm and its control. North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station, 61st Annual Report, 53.

Fulton BB, 1947. Biology and control of the pickleworm. North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station Technical Bulletin, 85:1-27.

Gautney TL; Norton JD, 1982. Muskmelon pickleworm resistance Diaphania nitidalis. HortScience, 17:404-405.

Genug WG, 1949. Dithane dust indicates effective control of melonworm and pickleworm. Proceedings Florida State Horticultural Society, 62:130-132.

Genug WG, 1953. Cooperative Economic Insect Report, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, 3(8):119-120.

Gordh G, 1988. A new species of Gonzius Foerster from India (Hymentoptera: Behtylidae) used in biological control of Diaphania (Saunders) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Pan Pacific Entomologist, 64(2):173-182.

Guo BS, 1982. A preliminary study on Diaphania glaueulalis (Guenee). (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in Yunnan Province China. Lin Yeh Hsueh Sci. Silvae Sin., 18(1):103-106.

Harris Jr ED, 1976. Pickleworm. University of Georgia, Cooperative Extension Service, Leaflet 84(rev).

Haseman L, 1937. Controlling insect pests of melons, cucumbers and related crops. Missouri Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin, 391:19.

Hayslip NC; Genung WG, 1950. Insect pests and their control. Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Annual Report 1950.

Hughes GR; Averre CW; Sorensen KA, 1974. Growing pickling cucumbers in North Carolina. North Carolina Agricultural Extension Service Circular, 593.

Hughes GR; Averre CW; Sorensen KA, 1983. Growing pickling cucumbers in North Carolina. North Carolina Agricultural Extension Service.

Hyslop JA, 1941. Insects and the weather. In: Climate and Man. The Yearbook of Agriculture, 1941. U. S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C., 503-507.

Jackson DM; Klun JA; Khrimian AP; Simmons AM; Sorensen KA, 1998. Monitoring pickleworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) moths with pheromone-baited traps. Journal of Economic Entomology, 91(4):950-956; 17 ref.

Jansson RK; Pena JE, 1990. Pests of Vegetables. In: Habeck DH, Bennett FD, Frank JH, eds. Classical Biological Control in the Southern United States. Southern Cooperative Series Bulletin No. 355, 87-100.

Jimenez RM; Gallo DP; Silva VE, 1989. Susceptibility of various species of lepidopterous larvae to the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsp. IDESIA, 11:49-51

Kaplan K, 1989. Less pickleworm pesticide. Agricultural Research, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, 37(6):19.

Kelsheimer EG, 1949. Control of insect pests of cucumber and squash. Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin, 465.

Klun JA; Leonhardt BA; Schwarz M; Day A; Raina AK, 1986. Female sex pheromone of the pickleworm, Diaphania nitidalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Journal of Chemical Ecology, 12(1):239-249

Krombein KV; Hurd PD Jr; Smith DR, 1979. Catalog of Hymenoptera in America north of Mexico. Volume 3. Indexes. Catalog of Hymenoptera in America north of Mexico. Volume 3. Indexes. Smithsonian Institution Press. Washington, D.C. USA, xxx + 2211-2735 pp.

Lara FM; Silveira Neto S; Busoli AC, 1977. Influence of the height of installation of light-traps on the catches of various lepidopterous pests. Anais da Sociedade Entomologica do Brasil, 6(2):194-202

Link D; Costa EC, 1989. Effectiveness of light traps for the control of the cucurbit borer Diaphania spp. (Lepidoptera; Pyralidae) in Santa Maria, RS. Revista do Centro de Ciencias Rurais, 19(4):311-315

Lower RL, 1971. Screening cucumbers for resistance to cucumber beetle and pickleworm. HortScience, 6:276.

Lower RL, 1972. Effect of surrounding cultivar when screening cucumber for resistance to cucumber beetle and pickleworm. Journal of the American Society of Horticultural Science, 97:616-618.

Lyle C, 1945. Pickleworm. U. S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, E-644u.

Lynch TP, 1999. Improved trapping methods for the capture of male pickleworm moths. M. S. Thesis, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, N. C.

Manley GV, 1983. Insects associated with tomatoes and cucumbers in the Upper Aguan Valley of Honduras. Turrialba, 33(4):409-415

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