Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Abelmoschus esculentus
(okra)

Toolbox

Datasheet

Abelmoschus esculentus (okra)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 09 February 2022
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Abelmoschus esculentus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • okra
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Abelmoschus esculentus is a herb extensively cultivated for its fruits that are consumed as vegetables. It is also used for fibre production and as a medicinal plant. This species has escaped cultivation and can be found naturalized in we...

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
A. esculentus: 1, flowering and fruiting shoot; 2, flower bud; 3, young fruit. 
Abelmoschus caillei: 4, flowering and fruiting shoot; 5, flower bud; 6, young fruit; 7, mature fruit.

Reproduced by kind permission of the PROSEA Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia.
TitleA. esculentus and A. callei - line drawing
CaptionA. esculentus: 1, flowering and fruiting shoot; 2, flower bud; 3, young fruit. Abelmoschus caillei: 4, flowering and fruiting shoot; 5, flower bud; 6, young fruit; 7, mature fruit. Reproduced by kind permission of the PROSEA Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia.
CopyrightPROSEA Foundation
A. esculentus: 1, flowering and fruiting shoot; 2, flower bud; 3, young fruit. 
Abelmoschus caillei: 4, flowering and fruiting shoot; 5, flower bud; 6, young fruit; 7, mature fruit.

Reproduced by kind permission of the PROSEA Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia.
A. esculentus and A. callei - line drawingA. esculentus: 1, flowering and fruiting shoot; 2, flower bud; 3, young fruit. Abelmoschus caillei: 4, flowering and fruiting shoot; 5, flower bud; 6, young fruit; 7, mature fruit. Reproduced by kind permission of the PROSEA Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia.PROSEA Foundation
Abelmoschus esculentus with flower in Malaysia.
TitleA. esculentus
CaptionAbelmoschus esculentus with flower in Malaysia.
CopyrightCTC/Zeneca
Abelmoschus esculentus with flower in Malaysia.
A. esculentusAbelmoschus esculentus with flower in Malaysia.CTC/Zeneca
Abelmoschus esculentus with flower in Malaysia.
TitleA. esculentus
CaptionAbelmoschus esculentus with flower in Malaysia.
CopyrightCTC/Zeneca
Abelmoschus esculentus with flower in Malaysia.
A. esculentusAbelmoschus esculentus with flower in Malaysia.CTC/Zeneca
Abelmoschus esculentus with fruit in Malaysia.
TitleA. esculentus
CaptionAbelmoschus esculentus with fruit in Malaysia.
CopyrightCTC/Zeneca
Abelmoschus esculentus with fruit in Malaysia.
A. esculentusAbelmoschus esculentus with fruit in Malaysia.CTC/Zeneca

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Abelmoschus esculentus

Preferred Common Name

  • okra

Other Scientific Names

  • Hibiscus esculentus

International Common Names

  • English: lady's finger
  • Spanish: quimbombo
  • French: gombo
  • Portuguese: quiabo

Local Common Names

  • Italy: bammia d'Egitto; corna dei Greci; ocra
  • Netherlands: malve, eetbare
  • Sweden: gronsakhibisk

EPPO code

  • ABMES (Abelmoschus esculentus)

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page

Abelmoschus esculentus is a herb extensively cultivated for its fruits that are consumed as vegetables. It is also used for fibre production and as a medicinal plant. This species has escaped cultivation and can be found naturalized in weedy fields near cultivation, abandoned farms, disturbed fields and meadows. It has been listed as invasive in Anguilla and in Costa Rica, but there is no information available about its ecological or economic impacts.

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Malvales
  •                         Family: Malvaceae
  •                             Genus: Abelmoschus
  •                                 Species: Abelmoschus esculentus

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page

Abelmoschus esculentus (2n = 130) is probably an amphidiploid (allotetraploid), derived from A. tuberculatus Pal & Singh (2n = 58), a wild species from India, and a still unknown species with 2n = 72 chromosomes.

Another edible okra species occurs in the humid parts of West and central Africa. Described originally as a botanical variety (Hibiscus manihot L. var. caillei A. Chev.), it has been recognized as a distinct species (A. caillei (A. Chev.) Stevels). There are no apparent differences in use between the ordinary (A. esculentus) and West African okra (A. caillei), which is why they are often lumped together. Morphologically the West African okra differs in several respects, but its epicalyx offers the best discriminating characteristics with 5-10 free ovate segments, 10-35 mm x 4-13 mm. The plant is more robust than A. esculentus, and crop duration may exceed 12 months. It has very many chromosomes (2n = approximately 192 (184-200)) and it might be an allohexaploid, A. esculentus being one of the parents. There are many cultivars of okra. Some of the better known are 'Clemson Spineless' (USA) and 'Pusa Sawani' (India).

Description

Top of page

Stout, erect, annual herb, up to 4 m tall. Leaves spirally arranged, leaf-blade up to 50 cm in diameter, more or less deeply 3-, 5- or 7-lobed; petiole up to 50 cm long, stipules filiform, up to 20 mm long, often split to the base. Flowers solitary in the leaf axils or in pseudoracemes by reduction of the upper leaves, yellow, self-fertile; pedicel up to 3 cm long in flower, up to 7 cm long in fruit; epicalyx of 7-15 free, linear segments, 5-25 mm x 0.5-3 mm; calyx spathaceous, 2-6 cm long, splitting on one side during the expansion of the corolla, adnate to and falling with the corolla; corolla with 5 obovate petals, each about 3-7 cm long and wide, yellow with a dark purple centre. Fruit a cylindrical to pyramidal capsule, 5-35 cm long, 1-5 cm in diameter, completely, partially or not loculicidal, green, greenish-purple or completely purple when young, brownish when mature. Seeds numerous, globose, 3-6 mm in diameter, blackish. Germination is epigeal.

Distribution

Top of page

The genus Abelmoschus originated in South-East Asia. A. esculentus, however, is a cultigen of uncertain origin. It is now widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions, but is particularly popular in India, West Africa and Brazil. Okra is common in the Philippines, Malaysia, Thailand and Vietnam, but of little importance in Indonesia and Papua New Guinea.

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 21 Jul 2022
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

BeninPresentOkra production (2008) 48,060 MT
Burkina FasoPresentOkra production (2008) 27,000 MT (F)
CameroonPresentOkra production (2008) 35,000 MT (F)
Congo, Republic of thePresentOkra production (2008) 900 MT (F)
Côte d'IvoirePresentOkra production (2008) 115,867 MT
DjiboutiPresentOkra production (2008) 20 MT (F)
EgyptPresentOkra production (2008) 107,000 MT (F)
EritreaPresent
GhanaPresentOkra production (2008) 108,000 MT (F)
KenyaPresentOkra production (2008) 5,000 MT (F)
MauritiusPresentOkra production (2008) 1,270 MT
NigeriaPresentOkra production (2008) 1,039,000 MT
SenegalPresentOkra production (2008) 12,000 MT (F)
SudanPresentOkra production (2008) 223,650 MT
TanzaniaPresent
ZimbabwePresentIntroduced1933

Asia

BahrainPresentOkra production (2008) 895 MT (F)
BangladeshPresent
BhutanPresentIntroduced1991
BruneiPresentOkra production (2008) 343 MT (F)
ChinaPresent
-BeijingPresent
-HainanPresent
IndiaPresentOkra production (2008) 3,497,200 MT (F)
-Andhra PradeshPresent
-ChhattisgarhPresent
-Himachal PradeshPresent
-KarnatakaPresent
-KeralaPresent
-MaharashtraPresent
-OdishaPresent
-PunjabPresent
-Tamil NaduPresent
-Uttar PradeshPresent
-West BengalPresent
IranPresent
IraqPresentOkra production (2008) 141,000 MT (F)
JapanPresent
JordanPresentOkra production (2008) 5,550 MT
KuwaitPresentOkra production (2008) 2,500 MT (F)
LebanonPresentOkra production (2008) 2,800 MT (F)
OmanPresentOkra production (2008) 4,736 MT (F)
PakistanPresentOkra production (2008) 114,657 MT
PhilippinesPresentOkra production (2008) 29,485 MT
QatarPresentOkra production (2008) 550 MT (F)
Saudi ArabiaPresentOkra production (2008) 46,000 MT (F)
South KoreaPresent
Sri LankaPresent
SyriaPresentOkra production (2008) 15,290 MT (F)
TurkeyPresentOkra production (2008) 37,543 MT
United Arab EmiratesPresentOkra production (2008) 1,500 MT (F)
VietnamPresent
YemenPresentOkra production (2008) 19,000 MT (F)
-SocotraPresentIntroduced2003

Europe

AlbaniaPresentOkra production (2008) 8,000 MT (F)
CyprusPresentOkra production (2008) 2,336 MT
FrancePresent
GreecePresent
-CretePresent
ItalyPresent

North America

BarbadosPresentOkra production (2008) 650 MT (F)
BelizePresentOkra production (2008) 30 MT
GuatemalaPresentOkra production (2008) 6,375 MT (F)
JamaicaPresentOkra production (2008) 3,432 MT
MexicoPresentOkra production (2008) 35,711 MT
Puerto RicoPresentOkra production (2008) 110 MT (F)
United StatesPresentOkra production (2008) 10,000 MT (F)
-FloridaPresent
-GeorgiaPresent
-TexasPresent

Oceania

FijiPresentOkra production (2008) 1,100 MT (F)

South America

BrazilPresent
-AmazonasPresent
-Espirito SantoPresent
GuyanaPresentOkra production (2008) 4,200 MT (F)

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

Top of page
Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Cucumis (melons, cucuimbers, gerkins)CucurbitaceaeUnknown

Biology and Ecology

Top of page

Growth and development

Okra usually flowers within 40-90 days after sowing; its cropping period rarely exceeds 6 months. Self-pollination and flower opening take place in the early morning. Partial cross-pollination by insects may take place. For vegetable use, the fruits are picked about one week after anthesis. It takes about 1 month from anthesis to mature fruit. In the seed crop, vegetative growth stops soon after anthesis, all assimilates being partitioned to the reproductive plant parts. In the vegetable crop, the picking of young fruits permits sustained vegetative growth, prolonging the harvest.

Ecology

A. esculentus needs temperatures above 20°C for normal growth and development. Germination percentage and speed of emergence are optimal at 30-35°C. Flower initiation and flowering are delayed at higher temperatures (positive correlation between temperature and number of vegetative nodes). A. esculentus is a short-day plant, but its wide geographical distribution (up to latitudes of 35-40°) indicates that cultivars differ markedly in sensitivity. Flower initiation and flowering are hardly affected by daylength in popular subtropical cultivars such as 'Clemson Spineless' and 'Pusa Sawani'. Most tropical cultivars show quantitative short-day responses, but qualitative responses also occur. The shortest reported critical daylength is 12.5 hours. The West African okra is considerably more sensitive to photoperiod. This partly explains its limited geographical distribution (up to latitudes of 10-15°) and longer life-cycle. The shortest reported critical daylength is 12.25 hours. Okra does well on fertile light or heavy soils if well drained.

Uses

Top of page

Okra is a popular and important food worldwide. Its tender fruits are used in making many dishes. It is eaten as a vegetable, raw, boiled, steamed, fried and stir-fried and is a common ingredient as a thickening agent in soups and in gumbo (thick soup, containing vegetables including okra, and meat, originally from Africa). The mature fruit (a beaked capsule) can have a high mucilaginous content, depending on cultivar. Mature capsules are dried and stored in parts of Africa for local use in the high temperature season for the preparation of soups and stews. Because of the mucilaginous properties of the plant, the fruits are also used. To preserve okra, it is dried, canned, powdered, pickled, or frozen.

Mature seeds yield edible oil, which is used as a salad oil. The seeds can be baked and ground into meal for use as a coffee substitute. The leaves are sometimes used as a cooked green vegetable or as feed for cattle. The fibre of mature okra stems is sometimes processed into rope and paper. Okra gum is used industrially. The yield in oil, the quality of its proteins and the use of the stem in paper-making reveal that okra has economic potential for cultivation. In Asian medicine the fruit of the okra plant A. esculentus is used as a mucilaginous food additive against gastric irritative and inflammatory diseases (Elzebroek and Wind, 2008; George, 2010; Maiti et al., 2012).

Uses List

Top of page

Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Fodder/animal feed

Human food and beverage

  • Beverage base
  • Flour/starch
  • Oil/fat
  • Spices and culinary herbs
  • Vegetable

Materials

  • Fibre

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Bibliography

Top of page
Bautista ODK & Cadiz TG, 1967. Okra. In: Knott JE & Deanon Jr JR (eds). Vegetable production in South-East Asia. University of the Philippines Press, Los Banos, the Philippines, 263-268.

Charrier A, 1984. Genetic resources of Abelmoschus (okra). International Board for Plant Genetic Resources (IBPGR), Rome, Italy.
IBPGR, 1991. Report of an international workshop on okra genetic resources, held at the National Bureau for Plant Genetic Resources (NBPGR), New Delhi, India, 8-12 October 1990. International Crop Network Series. 5. International Board for Plant Genetic Resources (IBPGR), Rome, Italy.

Markose BL & Peter KV, 1990. Okra. Review of research on vegetables and tuber crops. Technical Bulletin 16. Kerala Agricultural University Press, Mannuthy, Kerala, India.

Martin FW & Rubert R, 1978. Vegetables for the hot humid tropics. Part 2. Okra, Abelmoschus esculentus. Mayaguez Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Puerto Rico, United States.

Siemonsma JS, 1982. West African okra - morphological and cytogenetical indications for the existence of a natural amphidiploid of Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench and A. manihot (L.) Medikus. Euphytica 31:241- 252.

Siemonsma JS, 1982. La culture du gombo (Abelmoschus spp.), l gume-fruit tropical (avec référence spéciale à la Côte d'Ivoire) [Cultivation of the tropical fruit-vegetable okra (Abelmoschus spp.), with special reference to Ivory Coast]. Thesis, Wageningen Agricultural University, the Netherlands.

References

Top of page

Elzebroek, T.; Wind, K., 2008. Guide to cultivated plants., Guide to cultivated plants:vii-xi + 516 pp.

FAO http://faostat3.fao.org/home/E

George, R. A. T., 2010. Tropical vegetable production., Tropical vegetable production:x + 202 pp. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20103382703

Gilligan, T.M.; Passoa, S.C., 2014. GELECHIIDAE - Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders). LepIntercept - an identification resource for intercepted Lepidoptera larvae. Fort Collins, USA: Colorado State University

Maiti, R.; Satya, P.; Rajkumar, D.; Ramaswamy, A., 2012. Crop plant anatomy., Crop plant anatomy:viii + 317 pp. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20123295452

Pitchay, D.S.; Díaz-Pérez, J.C.; Muthi, E.; Kennedy, S.; Lewis, S.; Reddy, C., 2010. Identifying critical stages of macro and micronutrient deficiency disorders in okra and eggplant. Poster presentation, XXVIII International Horticultural Congress, Lisbon, Portugal, 22-27 August 2010 [http://research.ipni.net/research/nap.nsf/0/5fbc57b63cabec6585257bce005beb77/$FILE/TN-20%201203%20Mineral%20Nutrition%20of%20eggplant.pdf]

Vafaei, S. H., Mahmoodi, M., 2017. Presence of recombinant strain of Cucurbit aphid borne yellows virus in Iran. Iranian Journal of Biotechnology, 15(4), 289-295. doi: 10.15171/ijb.1541

Distribution References

Abbas G, Arif M J, Muhammad Ashfaq, Muhammad Aslam, Shafqat Saeed, 2010. Host plants distribution and overwintering of cotton mealybug (Phenacoccus solenopsis; Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). International Journal of Agriculture and Biology. 12 (3), 421-425. http://www.fspublishers.org/ijab/past-issues/IJABVOL_12_NO_3/20.pdf

Abkhoo J, 2015. Powdery mildews causing fungi in Iran. Mycopath. 13 (1), 51-55. http://111.68.103.26/journals/index.php/mycopath/article/viewFile/673/354

Alaserhat İ, Canbay A, Özdemir I, 2021. Aphid species, their natural enemies in vegetables from erzincan, Turkey: first record of the parasitoid wasp Aphelinus Mali (haldeman) parasitizing Lipaphis erysimi (kaltenbach). Tarim Bilimleri Dergisi. 27 (1), 16-25. DOI:10.15832/ankutbd.574812

Ali H B, Agarwala B K, Kaddou I K, 2012. New records of aphids of the Subfamily Aphidinae (Homoptera: Aphididae) infested herbaceous plants and shrubs for Iraqi aphid fauna. Advances in Bio Research. 3 (4), 66-75. http://www.soeagra.com/abr/abrdec_2012/12.pdf

Amponsah N T, Nutsugah S K, 2010. Nematodes associated with soils and roots of field crops in northern Ghana. Pakistan Journal of Nematology. 28 (1), 65-73.

Badii K B, Billah M K, Afreh-Nuamah K, Obeng-Ofori D, 2015. Species composition and host range of fruit-infesting flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in northern Ghana. International Journal of Tropical Insect Science. 35 (3), 137-151. http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayJournal?jid=JTI

Basu M, Patro B, 2007. New records of host plants and natural enemies of Aphis gossypii Glover (Aphididae: Homoptera) from Orissa, India. Journal of Plant Protection and Environment. 4 (2), 74-80.

Beshr S M, Badr S A, Ahmad A A, Mohamed G H, 2016. New record of host plants of invasive mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Tinsley, 1898), (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Alexandria and Behaira governorates. Journal of Entomology. 13 (4), 155-160. http://scialert.net/fulltext/?doi=je.2016.155.160&org=10

Bilal Ahmed, Babar Khan, Ghazanfar M U, Rajput N A, Amir Saleem, Abdul Jabbar, Waqar Ahmed, Madassar Walait, 2017. Occurrence and distribution of vegetables seed-borne mycoflora in Punjab Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology. 29 (2), 265-271. DOI:10.33866/phytopathol.029.02.0405

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Choi I Y, Kim J H, Uhm M J, Cho S E, Shin H D, 2018. First report of powdery mildew caused by Podosphaera xanthii on okra in Korea. Plant Disease. 102 (8), 1663. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-01-18-0028-PDN

Culik M P, Martins D dos S, Zanuncio Junior J S, Fornazier M J, Ventura J A, Peronti A L B G, Zanuncio J C, 2013. The invasive hibiscus mealybug Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) and its recent range expansion in Brazil. Florida Entomologist. 96 (2), 638-640. DOI:10.1653/024.096.0234

Fan C, Cui H, Ding Z, Gao P, Luan F, 2019. First report of powdery mildew caused by Podosphaera xanthii on okra in China. Plant Disease. 103 (5), 1027-1027. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-09-18-1543-PDN

Farrag E S H, 2011. First record of Cercospora leaf spot disease on okra plants and its control in Egypt. Plant Pathology Journal (Faisalabad). 10 (4), 175-180. DOI:10.3923/ppj.2011.154.160

Fernando T H P S, Silva W P K, Nishantha N, 2013. First report of target leaf spot of okra by Corynespora cassiicola in Sri Lanka. Journal of the Rubber Research Institute of Sri Lanka. 118-119. http://www.sljol.info/index.php/JRRISL

Frisullo S, Contursi M, Prudente L, Ferrara P, 2013. Report of wilt caused by Verticillium dahliae on okra (Albemoschus esculentus) in Italy [Conference poster]. In: 11th International Verticillium Symposium, Georg-August-Universität, Göttingen, Germany, 5-8 May 2013 [11th International Verticillium Symposium, Georg-August-Universität, Göttingen, Germany, 5-8 May 2013.], [ed. by Koopman B, Tiedemann A von]. Braunschweig, Germany: Deutsche Phytomedizinische Gesellschaft e.V. Verlag. 135.

Galanihe L D, Jayasundera M U P, Vithana A, Asselaarachchi N, Watson G W, 2010. Occurrence, distribution and control of papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), an invasive alien pest in Sri Lanka. Tropical Agricultural Research and Extension. 13 (3), 81-86. http://www.sljol.info/index.php/TARE/article/view/3143/2522

Gasparotto L, Kano C, Ceresini P, Pereira J, Cardoso M, Pereira D, Castroagudín V, 2017. Web blight (Thanatephorus cucumeris): a new disease on leaves of okra plants. Arquivos do Instituto Biológico (São Paulo). e0252016. http://www.scielo.br/pdf/aib/v84/1808-1657-aib-84-e0252016.pdf

Ghabeish I, Sweiss M, Anfoka G, 2021. Updated status of whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in Jordan with emphasis on the Bemisia tabacispecies complex. Revista Colombiana de Entomología. 47 (1), DOI:10.25100/socolen.v47i1.8944

Götz M, Winter S, 2016. Diversity of Bemisia tabaci in Thailand and Vietnam and indications of species replacement. Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology. 19 (2), 537-543. DOI:10.1016/j.aspen.2016.04.017

Gracy R G, Shivalingaswamy T M, Satpathy S, Rai A B, 2011. Okra shoot and fruit borer, Earias vittella (F.), a new host record for the egg parasitoid, Trichogramma chiloraeae Nagaraja and Nagarkatti from India. Journal of Biological Control. 25 (2), 146-147. http://journalofbiologicalcontrol.com/index.php/jbc/article/view/54329

Hernandez-Zepeda C, Isakeit T, Scott A Jr, Brown J K, 2010. First report of Okra yellow mosaic mexico virus in okra in the United States. Plant Disease. 94 (7), 924. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-94-7-0924B

Hoddle M S, Triapitsyn S V, Morgan D J W, 2003. Distribution and plant association records for Homalodisca coagulata (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in Florida. Florida Entomologist. 86 (1), 89-91. http://www.fcla.edu/FlaEnt/ DOI:10.1653/0015-4040(2003)086[0089:DAPARF]2.0.CO;2

Hussain M, Anwar S A, Sehar S, Zia A, Kamran M, Mehmood S, Ali Z, 2015. Incidence of plant-parasitic nematodes associated with okra in District Layyah of the Punjab, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Zoology. 47 (3), 847-855. http://www.zsp.com.pk/pdf47/847-855%20(31)%20PJZ-1540-13%207-5-15%20final.pdf

Hussein E, Ziedan E, 2013. First report of pod blight of okra caused by Choanephora cucurbitarum in Egypt. International Journal of Agricultural Technology. 9 (1), 135-140. http://www.ijat-aatsea.com/pdf/v9_n1_13_January/12_IJAT_2013_9(1)_Ziedan%202012%20okra%20(final%20correction)-Plant%20Pathology-confirmed.pdf

Idris A, Al-Saleh M, Amer M, Abdalla O, Brown J, 2014. Introduction of Cotton leaf curl Gezira virus into the United Arab Emirates. Plant Disease. 98 (11), 1593. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-08-14-0838-PDN

Jabbar Khan, Rehana Gul, Khan M A, Khan I U, Khan S N, 2015. Survey of plant parasitic nematodes in different regions of Khyber-Pakhtun-Khwa. Pakistan Journal of Zoology. 47 (4), 1201-1204. http://www.zsp.com.pk/pdf47/1181-1204%20%20(36)%20Short%20communications%2047%20(4)%202015.pdf

Jallow M F A, Matsumura M, Suzuki Y, 2001. Oviposition preference and reproductive performance of Japanese Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Applied Entomology and Zoology. 36 (4), 419-426. DOI:10.1303/aez.2001.419

Kajita H, 2000. Geographical distribution and species composition of parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) of Trialeurodes vaporariorum and Bemisia tabaci-complex (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) in Japan. Applied Entomology and Zoology. 35 (1), 155-162. DOI:10.1303/aez.2000.155

Khuhro S N, Kalroo A M, Mahmood R, 2011. Present status of mealy bug Phenacoccus solenopsis (Tinsley) on cotton and other plants in Sindh (Pakistan). In: World Cotton Research Conference-5, Mumbai, India, 7-11 November 2011 [World Cotton Research Conference-5, Mumbai, India, 7-11 November 2011.], [ed. by Kranthi K R, Venugopalan M V, Balasubramanya R H, Kranthi S, Singh S, Blaise]. New Delhi, India: Excel India Publishers. 268-271. http://icac.org/meetings/wcrc/wcrc5/Proceedings.pdf

Kök Ș, Kasap İ, Özdemİr I, 2016. Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) species determined in Çanakkale Province with a new record for the aphid fauna of Turkey. Türkiye Entomoloji Dergisi. 40 (4), 397-412. http://dergipark.ulakbim.gov.tr/entoted/article/view/5000199653/5000176936

Kondaiah R H, Sreeramulu A, 2014. Survey on fungal diseased crops in Cuddapah District of Andhra Pradesh. Indian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Life Sciences. 4 (1), 244-251. http://www.cibtech.org/J%20LIFE%20SCIENCES/PUBLICATIONS/2014/Vol-4-No-1/JLS-040-078-SREERAMULU-SURVEY-PRADESH.pdf

Lalitha N, Kumar M V S, Saha A K, Kumar S N, 2015. Report of papaya mealy bug, Paracoccus marginatus in mulberry in West Bengal. Current Biotica. 9 (1), 82-85. http://www.currentbiotica.com/CB/Journals9-Issue-I/CB-9-1-Short-note-3.pdf

Li B J, Guo M Y, Chai A L, 2016. First report of Fusarium solani causing fusarium root rot on okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) in China. Plant Disease. 100 (2), 526-527. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-05-15-0588-PDN

Ligoxigakis E K, 2000. Hosts of Verticillium dahliae in Kriti (Greece). Bulletin OEPP. 30 (2), 235-238. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2338.2000.tb00886.x

Lokeshwari D, Kumar N K K, Manjunatha H, 2015. Molecular diversity of the Aphis gossypii (Hemiptera: Aphididae): a potential vector of potyviruses (Potyviridae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 108 (4), 621-633. DOI:10.1093/aesa/sav034

Lonagre S G, Kolhe A V, Borkar A N, Undirwade D B, 2020. Assessment of inter and intra distribution pattern of okra aphid Aphis gossypii at different phenological growth stages of crop. Trends in Biosciences. 13 (7), 383-387. http://trendsinbiosciencesjournal.com/upload/01-11560_(S_G__Lonagre).pdf

Mahdizadeh V, Safaie N, Aghajani M A, 2011. New hosts of Macrophomina phaseolina in Iran. Journal of Plant Pathology. 93 (4, Supplement), S4.70. http://sipav.org/main/jpp/index.php/jpp/issue/view/118

Mahdizadeh V, Safaie N, Goltapeh E M, Mayek-Perez N, 2012. Intraspecies diversity of Macrophomina phaseolina in Iran. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection. 45 (8), 963-976. DOI:10.1080/03235408.2012.655146

Malgwi M A, Onu I, 2013. Alternate host plants, hibernation sites and survival strategy of Cylas puncticollis Boh.: a new pest of cotton. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare. 3 (2), 9-22. http://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/JBAH/article/view/4293/4361

Mansoor S, Amin I, Hussain M, Zafar Y, Bull S, Briddon R W, Markham P G, 2001. Association of a disease complex involving a Begomovirus, DNA 1 and a distinct DNA beta with leaf curl disease of okra in Pakistan. Plant Disease. 85 (8), 922. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2001.85.8.922B

Matny O N, 2013. First report of damping-off of okra caused by Phytophthora nicotianae in Iraq. Plant Disease. 97 (4), 558. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-08-12-0735-PDN

Mazed M A, Alam M Z, Miah M R U, Hossain M S, Mian M I H, 2016. Identification of okra shoot and fruit borer infesting okra and their distribution in Bangladesh. Bangladesh Journal of Agricultural Research. 41 (4), 657-665. DOI:10.3329/bjar.v41i4.30698

Medhanie E, Mussie G, Selamawit A, Rao G S, Danish N S, 2017. Occurrence and identification of rhizosphere mycoflora of selected vegetable crops grown in zoba Anseba, Eritrea. Trends in Biosciences. 10 (33), 7099-7104. http://trendsinbiosciencesjournal.com/upload/17-8942_(E__MEDHANIE).pdf

Mohammad A, Alam S N, Miah M R U, Amin M R, Smriti R S, 2019. Population fluctuation of jassid, and shoot and fruit borer of okra. Bangladesh Journal of Agricultural Research. 44 (3), 493-499. DOI:10.3329/bjar.v44i3.43480

Moparthi S, Bradshaw M, Frost K, Hamm P B, Buck J W, 2018. First report of powdery mildew caused by Golovinomyces spadiceus on okra in the United States. Plant Disease. 102 (8), 1664. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-01-18-0179-PDN

Mware B, Olubayo F, Narla R, Songa J, Amata R, Kyamanywa S, Ateka E M, 2010. First record of spiraling whitefly in coastal Kenya: emergence, host range, distribution and association with cassava brown streak virus disease. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology. 12 (3), 411-415. http://www.fspublishers.org/ijab/past-issues/IJABVOL_12_NO_3/18.pdf

Patil K P, Awadhiya G K, Pandey S R, 2017. Occurrence of powdery mildew on some plants from Raipur of Chhattisgarh state. Trends in Biosciences. 10 (32), 6818-6829. http://trendsinbiosciencesjournal.com/upload/23-8868_(K_P__Patila).pdf

Quénéhervé P, Godefroid M, Mège P, Marie-Luce S, 2011. Diversity of Meloidogyne spp. parasitizing plants in Martinique Island, French West Indies. Nematropica. 41 (2), 191-199. http://journals.fcla.edu/nematropica/article/view/76630/74240

Rashtra Vardhana, 2017. Plant's diseases of district Ghaziabad and adjacent areas. Plant Archives. 17 (1), 727-732. http://www.plantarchives.org/PDF%2017-1/727-732%20(3511).pdf

Sakthivel P, Karuppuchamy P, Kalyanasundaram M, Srinivasan T, 2012. Host plants of invasive papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus (Williams and Granara de Willink) in Tamil Nadu. Madras Agricultural Journal. 99 (7/9), 615-619. https://doc-00-7g-docsviewer.googleusercontent.com/viewer/securedownload/dsn1aovipa7l846lsfcf94nedj8q2p4u/qo3phtufamvk9q39umu888pbj4t4kkc6/1348647300000/c2l0ZXM=/AGZ5hq8BgbJY1gwaOYx83cPOdNw6/WkdWbVlYVnNkR1J2YldGcGJud3hNWFJvWlcxaFpISmhjMkZuY21samRXeDBkWEpoYkdwdmRYSnVZV3g4WjNnNk56WmpPREk1WXpBd01XWTNZelZrWkE=?a=gp&filename=99-7-9-615-619.pdf&chan=EQAAAOqeu1nfMdjbyOfMSElqQCfRbAOx1kCMBqnRUfeLUnjy&docid=0508176bd4abbdc3e7017b1a89751bc3%7C9c9df36583445f1fe402a841b5e1963b&sec=AHSqidZmGWqJKVKwfKsaqtFstCH

Samina S, Erum Y I, 2019. Nematode fauna of Kurram Agency, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Nematology. 37 (1), 1-20. DOI:10.18681/pjn.v37.i01.p1-20

Seebens H, Blackburn T M, Dyer E E, Genovesi P, Hulme P E, Jeschke J M, Pagad S, Pyšek P, Winter M, Arianoutsou M, Bacher S, Blasius B, Brundu G, Capinha C, Celesti-Grapow L, Dawson W, Dullinger S, Fuentes N, Jäger H, Kartesz J, Kenis M, Kreft H, Kühn I, Lenzner B, Liebhold A, Mosena A (et al), 2017. No saturation in the accumulation of alien species worldwide. Nature Communications. 8 (2), 14435. http://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms14435

Séka K, Ouattara A, Assiri K P, Kra K D, Hoareau M, Lefeuvre P, Diallo H A, Lett J M, 2016. First reports of Cotton leaf curl Gezira virus and Okra yellow crinkle virus associated with okra leaf curl disease in Cote d'Ivoire. New Disease Reports. 8. DOI:10.5197/j.2044-0588.2016.034.008

Shahid M, Rehman A U, Khan A U, Mahmood A, 2007. Geographical distribution and infestation of plant parasitic nematodes on vegetables and fruits in the Punjab province of Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Nematology. 25 (1), 59-67.

Shahina F, Erum Y I, 2007. Distribution of cyst nematodes in Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Nematology. 25 (1), 29-35.

Simón B, Cenis J L, Beitia F, Saif Khalid, Moreno I M, Fraile A, García-Arenal F, 2003. Genetic structure of field populations of begomoviruses and of their vector Bemisia tabaci in Pakistan. Phytopathology. 93 (11), 1422-1429. DOI:10.1094/PHYTO.2003.93.11.1422

Srivastava D S, Sehgal M, Kumar A, Verma S, Dwivedi B K, Singh S P, 2012. Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with tomato and okra fields of Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh, India. Pakistan Journal of Nematology. 30 (2), 157-167.

Tajebe L S, Boni S B, Guastella D, Cavalieri V, Lund O S, Rugumamu C P, Rapisarda C, Legg J P, 2015. Abundance, diversity and geographic distribution of cassava mosaic disease pandemic-associated Bemisia tabaci in Tanzania. Journal of Applied Entomology. 139 (8), 627-637. DOI:10.1111/jen.12197

Tharmila C J, Jeyaseelan E C, Ihsan U, Wetten A C, Costa D M de, Shaw M W, 2017. First report on association of okra yellow vein mosaic virus with yellow vein mosaic disease of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) in Sri Lanka. Plant Disease. 101 (7), 1335-1336. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-10-16-1492-PDN

Vafaei S H, Mahmoodi M, 2017. Presence of recombinant strain of Cucurbit aphid borne yellows virus in Iran. Iranian Journal of Biotechnology. 15 (4), 289-295. DOI:10.15171/ijb.1541

Vijay Singh, Usha Chauhan, 2014. Diversity of mite (Acari) fauna associated with vegetables and ornamental plants in mid-hill conditions of Himachal Pradesh, India. Journal of Biological Control. 28 (2), 75-80. http://journalofbiologicalcontrol.com/index.php/jbc/article/view/58331/45592

Yan WenXue, Shi YanXia, Chai ALi, Xie XueWen, Guo MenYan, Li BaoJu, 2018. Verticillium wilt of okra caused by Verticillium dahliae Kleb. in China. Mycobiology. 46 (3), 254-259. DOI:10.1080/12298093.2018.1505246

Zhai W B, Zhang M Z, Gao H, Meng J, Shi J Y, Zhang W W, Qi F J, 2019. Occurrence of Verticillium wilt caused by Verticillium dahliae on okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) in North China. Plant Disease. 103 (6), 1413-1414. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-07-18-1279-PDN

Zhao Qian, Chai ALi, Shi YanXia, Xie XueWen, Li BaoJu, 2016. First report of grey mould disease on Abelmoschus esculentus caused by Botrytis cinerea in China. Journal of Phytopathology. 164 (5), 354-357. DOI:10.1111/jph.12424

Zia-ur-Rehman M, Hameed U, Ali C A, Haider M S, Brown J K, 2017. First report of Chickpea chlorotic dwarf virus infecting okra in Pakistan. Plant Disease. 101 (7), 1336. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-11-16-1626-PDN

Ziedan E S H E S, 2012. First report of Alternaria pod blight of okra in Egypt. International Journal of Agricultural Technology. 8 (7), 2239-2243. http://www.ijat-aatsea.com/pdf/v8_n7_12_December/8_IJAT_2012_8(7)_El-%20Sayed%20Hussein%20-%20Plant%20Pathology.pdf

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map
Select a dataset
Map Legends
  • CABI Summary Records
Map Filters
Extent
Invasive
Origin
Third party data sources: