Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Dociostaurus maroccanus
(Moroccan locust)

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Datasheet

Dociostaurus maroccanus (Moroccan locust)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Dociostaurus maroccanus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Moroccan locust
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • The Moroccan locust is distributed in northern Africa, southern and eastern Europe, and western and central Asia. It swarms and migrates, but not over long distances (Anon., 2004a).

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
D. maroccanus egg pods. The eggs are whitish to pale yellow, elongated, stick-shaped, and arranged in three to four rows in egg-pods (oothecae).
TitleEgg pods
CaptionD. maroccanus egg pods. The eggs are whitish to pale yellow, elongated, stick-shaped, and arranged in three to four rows in egg-pods (oothecae).
CopyrightRadoslav Andreev/Agricultural University, Plovdiv, Bulgaria
D. maroccanus egg pods. The eggs are whitish to pale yellow, elongated, stick-shaped, and arranged in three to four rows in egg-pods (oothecae).
Egg podsD. maroccanus egg pods. The eggs are whitish to pale yellow, elongated, stick-shaped, and arranged in three to four rows in egg-pods (oothecae).Radoslav Andreev/Agricultural University, Plovdiv, Bulgaria
Newly-hatched larvae of D. maroccanus.
TitleNewly-hatched larvae
CaptionNewly-hatched larvae of D. maroccanus.
CopyrightRadoslav Andreev/Agricultural University, Plovdiv, Bulgaria
Newly-hatched larvae of D. maroccanus.
Newly-hatched larvaeNewly-hatched larvae of D. maroccanus.Radoslav Andreev/Agricultural University, Plovdiv, Bulgaria
Third-instar nymph of D. maroccanus on wild grasses. The third-instar nymphs have visible wing buds. They are olive-red with black spots on the head and body.
TitleThird-instar nymph
CaptionThird-instar nymph of D. maroccanus on wild grasses. The third-instar nymphs have visible wing buds. They are olive-red with black spots on the head and body.
CopyrightRadoslav Andreev/Agricultural University, Plovdiv, Bulgaria
Third-instar nymph of D. maroccanus on wild grasses. The third-instar nymphs have visible wing buds. They are olive-red with black spots on the head and body.
Third-instar nymphThird-instar nymph of D. maroccanus on wild grasses. The third-instar nymphs have visible wing buds. They are olive-red with black spots on the head and body.Radoslav Andreev/Agricultural University, Plovdiv, Bulgaria
Fourth-instar nymph of D. maroccanus on a leaf; note developing wing pads.
TitleFourth-instar nymph
CaptionFourth-instar nymph of D. maroccanus on a leaf; note developing wing pads.
CopyrightRadoslav Andreev/Agricultural University, Plovdiv, Bulgaria
Fourth-instar nymph of D. maroccanus on a leaf; note developing wing pads.
Fourth-instar nymphFourth-instar nymph of D. maroccanus on a leaf; note developing wing pads.Radoslav Andreev/Agricultural University, Plovdiv, Bulgaria
Male D. maroccanus on vine leaf.
TitleMale
CaptionMale D. maroccanus on vine leaf.
CopyrightRadoslav Andreev/Agricultural University, Plovdiv, Bulgaria
Male D. maroccanus on vine leaf.
MaleMale D. maroccanus on vine leaf.Radoslav Andreev/Agricultural University, Plovdiv, Bulgaria
Male D. maroccanus with stretched wings; set specimen.
TitleMale showing wings
CaptionMale D. maroccanus with stretched wings; set specimen.
CopyrightRadoslav Andreev/Agricultural University, Plovdiv, Bulgaria
Male D. maroccanus with stretched wings; set specimen.
Male showing wingsMale D. maroccanus with stretched wings; set specimen.Radoslav Andreev/Agricultural University, Plovdiv, Bulgaria
Female D. maroccanus; set specimen.
TitleFemale
CaptionFemale D. maroccanus; set specimen.
CopyrightRadoslav Andreev/Agricultural University, Plovdiv, Bulgaria
Female D. maroccanus; set specimen.
FemaleFemale D. maroccanus; set specimen.Radoslav Andreev/Agricultural University, Plovdiv, Bulgaria
Chorthippus brunneus - a similar species.
TitleSimilar species
CaptionChorthippus brunneus - a similar species.
CopyrightRadoslav Andreev/Agricultural University, Plovdiv, Bulgaria
Chorthippus brunneus - a similar species.
Similar speciesChorthippus brunneus - a similar species.Radoslav Andreev/Agricultural University, Plovdiv, Bulgaria
Chorthippus brunneus with similar white "X"-mark on pronotum.
TitleSimilar species
CaptionChorthippus brunneus with similar white "X"-mark on pronotum.
CopyrightRadoslav Andreev/Agricultural University, Plovdiv, Bulgaria
Chorthippus brunneus with similar white "X"-mark on pronotum.
Similar speciesChorthippus brunneus with similar white "X"-mark on pronotum.Radoslav Andreev/Agricultural University, Plovdiv, Bulgaria

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Dociostaurus maroccanus (Thunberg, 1815)

Preferred Common Name

  • Moroccan locust

Other Scientific Names

  • Dociostaurus cruciatus (Charpentier)
  • Dociostaurus maroccanus degeneratus Baranov
  • Dociostaurus vastator (Fischer-Waldheim)
  • Oedaleus infernalis pendulus (Steinmann, 1965)
  • Stauronotus cruciatus (Charpentier)
  • Stauronotus maroccanus (Thunberg)
  • Stauronotus vastator (Fischer-Waldheim)

International Common Names

  • English: Mediterranean locust
  • Spanish: langosta Marroquí; langosta Mediterránea
  • French: criquet Maroccain
  • Russian: kobilka Marokskaya; sarancha Marokskaya

Local Common Names

  • Bulgaria: Marokanski skakaletz
  • Croatia: Marokanski skakavac
  • Germany: heuschrecke, Marokkanische wander-; Marokkanische wanderheuschrecke
  • Hungary: Marokkói sáska
  • Italy: cavalletta crociata; grillastro crociato
  • Romania: lacusta Marocana
  • Turkey: fas çekirgesi

EPPO code

  • DICIMA (Dociostaurus maroccanus)

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page The Moroccan locust is distributed in northern Africa, southern and eastern Europe, and western and central Asia. It swarms and migrates, but not over long distances (Anon., 2004a).

The scale and intensity of infestations are variable from one year to the next and outbreaks can last several years. The wingless hopper stage (lasting 27 to 36 days) can cause intense damage, but only during outbreak periods, when the eggs have been laid in or near cultivated land. However, the winged adults may migrate up to 100 km, sometimes causing damage to maturing crops late in the season, before laying eggs which will be the source of infestations in the following year (FAO, 2003).

The Moroccan locust was traditionally considered as one of the most dangerous agricultural pests in the Mediterranean zone. Its broad polyphagy, extreme voracity, enormous fecundity and capability to migrate in swarms made it a major enemy of agriculturists from the Canary Islands to Afghanistan. However, outbreaks of the Moroccan locust seem to have been more frequent in the past and, in many regions, the species has become rare. Climatic factors, in particular the amount of spring rainfall, are critical for the developmental cycle of D. maroccanus. Nevertheless, anthropogenic factors appear to have the most powerful effect on locust population dynamics. Deforestation and overgrazing create the necessary prerequisites for colonization by the Moroccan locust; however, converting grasslands into croplands makes the habitat totally unsuitable for the insect because the females can lay eggs in undisturbed soil. These two conflicting tendencies appear to govern the current evolution of Moroccan locust populations, their manifestations being different according to the geographical zone. Although in some regions (e.g. in many European countries), D. maroccanus has lost its formerly high economic importance, in others (North African and central Asian countries) the species continues to flourish and may even increase its pest status (Latchininsky, 1998).

In Western Europe, the locust problem is a result of European Union (EU) set-aside policies, turning cultivated land to uncultivated pasture, which has created greater opportunities for locust populations to breed (Harris, 2003).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Orthoptera
  •                         Family: Acrididae
  •                             Genus: Dociostaurus
  •                                 Species: Dociostaurus maroccanus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresent, WidespreadNativeInvasiveFAO (2002)
MoroccoPresent, WidespreadNativeInvasiveFAO (2002)

Asia

AfghanistanPresent, WidespreadNativeInvasiveFAO (2002)
ArmeniaPresent, WidespreadNativeInvasiveCABI (Undated)Original citation: Stegolev and (1948)
AzerbaijanPresent, WidespreadNativeInvasiveCABI (Undated)Original citation: Stegolev and (1948)
GeorgiaPresent, WidespreadNativeInvasiveCABI (Undated)Original citation: Stegolev and (1948)
IranPresent, WidespreadNativeInvasiveFAO (2002)
IraqPresent, WidespreadNativeInvasiveFAO (2002)
IsraelPresent, WidespreadNativeInvasiveChorbadjieff (1936)
KazakhstanPresent, WidespreadNativeInvasiveGapparov (2001); CABI (Undated)
KyrgyzstanPresent, WidespreadNativeInvasiveGapparov (2001); CABI (Undated)
SyriaPresentNativeInvasiveMorony (2000)
TajikistanPresent, WidespreadNativeInvasiveGapparov (2001); CABI (Undated)
TurkeyPresent, WidespreadNativeInvasiveFAO (2002)
TurkmenistanPresent, WidespreadNativeInvasiveGapparov (2001); CABI (Undated)
UzbekistanPresent, WidespreadNativeInvasiveGapparov (2001); CABI (Undated)

Europe

AlbaniaPresentNativeInvasiveChorbadjieff (1936)
AustriaPresentNativeInvasiveChorbadjieff (1936)
Bosnia and HerzegovinaPresentNativeInvasiveChorbadjieff (1936)
BulgariaPresent, WidespreadNativeInvasiveChorbadjieff (1936)
CroatiaPresent, WidespreadNativeInvasiveKovacevic (1961)
CyprusPresent, WidespreadNativeInvasiveLouca (1981)
FrancePresent, WidespreadNativeInvasiveChorbadjieff (1936); Rambier (1951)
-CorsicaPresent, WidespreadNativeInvasivePasquier et al. (1952)
GreecePresent, WidespreadNativeInvasiveChorbadjieff (1936)
-CretePresentCABI (Undated b)
HungaryPresent, WidespreadNativeInvasiveChorbadjieff (1936); Nagy (1988)
ItalyPresent, WidespreadNativeInvasiveChorbadjieff (1936); CABI (Undated)
-SardiniaPresentCABI (Undated b)
North MacedoniaPresent, WidespreadNativeInvasiveChorbadjieff (1936)
RomaniaPresent, WidespreadNativeInvasiveChorbadjieff (1936); Animalia (2002)
RussiaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-Southern RussiaPresent, WidespreadNativeInvasiveChorbadjieff (1936); CABI (Undated)
SpainPresent, WidespreadNativeInvasiveChorbadjieff (1936); CABI (Undated)

Growth Stages

Top of page Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Growing point / external feeding
Leaves / external feeding
Stems / external feeding
Whole plant / external feeding

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Acemya acuticornis Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Anastoechus nitidulus Predator Eggs
Aspergillus flavus Antagonist Adults/Nymphs
Aspergillus ochraceus Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Aspergillus terreus Antagonist Adults/Nymphs
Beauveria bassiana Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Blaesoxipha agrestis Parasite Adults
Blaesoxipha filipjevi Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Blaesoxipha laticornis Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Blaesoxipha lineata Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Blaesoxipha paolii Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Callostoma fascipenne Predator Eggs
Callostoma soror Predator Eggs
Cytherea infuscata Predator Eggs
Cytherea obscura Predator Eggs Sardinia field crops
Epicauta rufidorsum Predator Eggs
Hexamermis albicans Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Isodontia paludosa Predator Adults/Nymphs
Metacemyia calloti Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Metarhizium anisopliae Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Mylabris floralis Predator Eggs
Mylabris variabilis Predator Eggs
Nosema maroccanus Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Sphex subfuscatus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Systoechus autumnalis Predator Eggs
Systoechus ctenopterus Predator Eggs
Systoechus gradatus Predator Eggs
Systoechus sulphureus Predator Eggs Sardinia field crops
Trichodes ammios Predator Eggs
Trichodes laminatus Predator Eggs

Plant Trade

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Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Growing medium accompanying plants
Leaves
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

Wood Packaging

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Wood Packaging not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Loose wood packing material
Non-wood
Processed or treated wood
Solid wood packing material with bark
Solid wood packing material without bark

References

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AgJournal, 2002. Pests pose worldwide problem: Non-Biblical locusts just as ravenous. CountryRoads Network, Minneapolis, USA. Online. http://www.agjournal.com/story.cfm?story_id=1969.

Akinci AR, 1987. The reservoir areas, and their characteristics, of the Italian locust (Calliptamus italicus L.) and the Moroccan locust (Dociostaurus maroccanus Thunb.) in Bitilis and Siirt Provinces. Turikye I. Entomoloji Kongresi Bildirileri, Ekim 13-16 1987, Ege Universitesi, Bornova, Izmir Bornova/Izmir, Turkey; Ege Universitesi, Ataturk Kultur Merkezi, 351-356

Andreev R, 2002. The Moroccan locust - former, recent or future problem? Agronet Online. http://www.agro.ttm.bg/.

Animalia, 2002. Enciclopedia Animalelor Din Romania. Online. http://www.animalia.go.ro/.

Anon., 2004. International Society for Pest Information (ISPI) databases of literature on locusts and grasshoppers (Acrididae): Dociostaurus maroccanus. ISPI, Darmstadt, Germany. Online. http://www.pestinfo.org/Literature/lit86.htm.

Anon., 2004. Locust. Encyclopaedia Britannica Premium Service, Encyclopaedia Britannica Inc. Online. http://www.britannica.com/eb/article?tocId=9048711. Accesssed on 12 October 2004.

Arias A; JimTnez J; Santos R; Martfnez de Velasco D, 1995. Distribution of oothecae of Dociostaurus maroccanus (Thunb.) in two pastures in Extremadura (Spain). Boleti^acute~n de Sanidad Vegetal, Plagas, 21(2):261-276; 17 ref.

Arias A; Sanchez M; Jimenez J; Santos R; Martinez de Velasco D, 1994. Soil distribution of egg pods of Dociostaurus maroccanus (Thunb.) and importance of predation in two farms in Extremadura. Boletin de Sanidad Vegetal, Plagas, 20(1):3-22

Arias Giralda A; JimTnez Vinuelas J, 1995. Efficacy and persistence of two chitin inhibitors and malathion on larval populations of the Mediterranean locust, Dociostaurus maroccanus (Thunb.), in the field. Boleti^acute~n de Sanidad Vegetal, Plagas, 21(3):395-415; 41 ref.

Arias Giralda A; JimTnez Vinuelas J; PTrez Romero A, 1997. Observations on the embryonic development and hatching of Dociostaurus maroccanus (Thunb.) in a farm in "La Serena" (Extremadura). Boleti^acute~n de Sanidad Vegetal, Plagas, 23(1):113-132; 15 ref.

Arthurs S; Thomas MB, 2001. Effect of dose, pre-mortem host incubation temperature and thermal behaviour on host mortality, mycosis and sporulation of Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum in Schistocerca gregaria. Biocontrol Science and Technology, 11(3):411-420; 29 ref.

Ayatollahi M, 1971. Importance of the study of Diptera and their role in biological control. Entomologie et Phytopathologie Appliquees, No. 31:20-28; en 8; [6 fig.].

Barranco P; Pascual F, 1995. Biometrics, behaviour and colouration of a gregarious population of Moroccan locust, Dociostaurus maroccanus (Thunberg, 1815), in the region of Cabo de Gata (Almeria, Spain) (1). Boleti^acute~n de Sanidad Vegetal, Plagas, 21(2):203-211; 13 ref.

Barranco P; Pascual F; Cabello T, 1999. Modelling postembryonic development of Dociostaurus maroccanus (Thunberg, 1815). Boleti^acute~n de Sanidad Vegetal, Plagas, 25(2):241-253; 16 ref.

Bateman RP; Thomas MB, 1996. Pathogen application against locusts and grasshoppers: insecticide or biological control? Antenna, 20:10-15.

Benediktov AA, 2000. Synonymy of some palaearctic locusts species (Orthoptera, Acridoidea). Vestnik Zoologii, 34(3):79-82, 109; 16 ref.

Benfekih L; Doumandji-Mitiche B, 1997. Observations on the parasitism of the solitary Moroccan cricket D. maroccanus [Dociostaurus maroccanus] (Orthoptera, Gomphocerinae) by a locust Trombidium sp. in the south of Medea (Algeria). Mededelingen - Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen, Universiteit Gent, 62(2b):437-447; 13 ref.

Bennloch M; Cañizo J del, 1941. Observaciones biologicas sobre la langosta común (Dociostaurus maroccanus Thunb.), recogidas en los ãnos 1940 y 1941. Bol. Pat. Veg. Ent. Agric., Madrid, 10:110-124.

Boselli FB, 1954. Acclimatazatione della Mylabris variabilis Pall. Parassita del Dociostaurus maroccanus Thnb. Introdotto in Sardegna nel 1946. Boll. Soc. Ent. Ital., 84:115-116.

Bouaichi A; Coppen GDA; Jepson PC, 1994. Barrier spray treatment with diflubenzuron (ULV) against gregarious hopper bands of the Moroccan locust Dociostaurus maroccanus (Thunberg) (Orthoptera: Acrididae) in N.E. Morocco. Crop Protection, 13(1):60-72

Bouaichi A; Coppen GDA; Jepson PC, 1994. Comparison of diflubenzuron and malathion as blanket sprays against sedentary populations of locusts and grasshoppers in Moroccan grassland. Crop Protection, 13(1):53-59

Chinery M, 1991. Insects of Britain and Western Europe. Glasgow, UK: Collins Publishers.

Chorbadjieff P, 1936. The injurious grasshoppers and other orthoptera in Bulgaria. Ministry of Agriculture and Public Domains, Sofia, Bulgaria, No. 61.

Dempster JP, 1957. The population dynamics of the Moroccan Locust (Dociostaurus maroccanus Thunberg) in Cyprus. Anti-Locust Bulletin, 27:1-60.

Dillon P, 2002. Farmers struggle as locust plague threatens Afghan breadbasket. Deutsche Presse Agentur (DPA). ReliefWeb, USA, Switzerland, Japan. Online. http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/rwb.nsf/AllDocsByUNID/1a7e318a76efdef3c1256ba700528496.

Dulinafka G; Nagy B, 1995. Appearance of Moroccan locust (Dociostaurus maroccanus Thunb.) and other grasshoppers in 1993-94 in central Hungary (between the Danube and Tisza rivers). Novenyvedelem, 31(4):155-162

FAO, 2002. Afghanistan: Locust Control Campaign Successfully Concluded. Mondoagricoltura, Italy. Online. http://www.mondoagricoltura.it/fao/2002/FAO229.htm.

FAO, 2002. FAO combats major locust outbreak in Afghanistan. ReliefWeb, FAO. Online. http://www.reliefweb.int/w/rwb.nsf/0/f64ec27f7cc2fa43c1256bb500392bab?OpenDocument.

FAO, 2003. FAO starts in time the 2003 locust campaign in Afghanistan. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). ReliefWeb, USA, Switzerland, Japan. Online. http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/rwb.nsf/AllDocsByUNID/d2c5c724a35d7f8749256cf60021d6cc.

Gapparov FA, 2001. Locusts in the south of Central Asia. Zashchita i Karantin Rastenii^breve~, No.4:34.

Garcia de la Vega C, 1980. Some morphobiometric data on populations of Dociostaurus maroccanus Thb. observed during the year 1980 in the Comarca de la Serena. Boletin del Servicio de Defensa contra Plagas e Inspeccion Fitopatologica, 6(1):49-55

Georgiev V, 1987. Miracles and secrets (in the world of insects). Sofia, Bulgaria: Zemizdat, 175 pp.

Ghadraoui L; Petit D; Picaud F; Yamani J, 2002. Relationship between labrum sensilla number in the Moroccan locust Dociostaurus maroccanus and the nature of its diet. Journal of Orthoptera Research, 11(1):11-18.

Ghazavi M, 2013. Introduction of four entomopathogenic protozoa, new to Iranian fauna. Iranian Journal of Plant Protection Science, 44(1):Pe61-Pe69. http://ijpps.ut.ac.ir/?_action=articleInfo&article=35623&vol=4599

Giralda AA; JimTnez Vinuelas J, 1996. Efficacy of the chitin inhibitors diflubenzuron and flufenoxuron on the mediterranean grasshopper, Dociostaurus maroccanus (Thunb.) in the open field. Boleti^acute~n de Sanidad Vegetal, Plagas, 22(4):667-682; 25 ref.

Gorbunova TA, 2004. Harmful grasshoppers on Stavropol hills. State University, Stavropol, Russia. Online. http://lib.bigmir.net/read.php?e=5788.

Greathead DJ, 1963. A review of the insect enemies of Acridoidea (Orthoptera). Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society, 114:437-517.

Grigorov S, 1976. Special Entomology. 2nd edn. Sofia, Bulgaria: State Publisher for Agricultural Literature, 545 pp.

Halima TB; Gillon Y; Louveaux A, 1984. Utilization of trophic resources by Dociostaurus maroccanus (Thunberg, 1815) (Orthopt.: Acrididae). Choice of species consumed in relation to their nutritional value. Acta Oecologica, Oecologia Generalis, 5(4):383-406; [6 fig.]; 47 ref.

Hernandez P; Santiago-Alvarez C, 1991. On the occurrence of a mermithid on Spanish acridids. Bulletin SROP, 14(7):208-211

Hernßndez-Crespo P; Santiago-ßlvarez C, 1997. Description of Hexamermis serenensis sp. n. (Nematoda: Mermithidae), a parasite of Dociostaurus maroccanus (Thunberg) (Orthoptera: Acrididae) in Spain. Fundamental and Applied Nematology, 20(1):37-42; 26 ref.

Hernßndez-Crespo P; Santiago-ßlvarez C, 1997. Entomopathogenic fungi associated with natural populations of the Moroccan locust Dociostaurus maroccanus (Thunberg) (Orthoptera: Gomphocerinae) and other Acridoidea in Spain. Biocontrol Science and Technology, 7(3):357-363; 22 ref.

Ichim E; Talmaciu M; Georgescu T; Filipescu C, 1996. A contribution to the knowledge of Coleoptera and Orthoptera found in seed crops of Bromus inermis Leyss. Cerceta^breve~ri Agronomice i^circumflex~n Moldova, 29(3/4):137-142; 6 ref.

Issi IV; Krylova SV, 1987. Locust Microsporidia. Saranchovye - ekologiya i mery bor'by [edited by Nikitina, M.S.] Leningrad, USSR; Vsesoyuznyi Nauchno-Issledovatel'skii Institut Zashchity Rastenii, 58-62

Khajehzadeh Y; Fard PA, 1995. Investigation on bioecological characteristics of Dociostaurus maroccanus Thunb. in Behbahan. Applied Entomology and Phytopathology, 62(1-2):19-20, Ar 84-95; 20 ref.

Khodzhpv ShT; Gallarov FG; Turapkhodzhpva M, 1987. Pyrethroids for ULV. Zashchita Rastenii, No. 4:44-45

Klass J; Thomas MB; Blanford S, 2004. GIS solves locust control? NERC/CABI, Ascot, UK. Online. http://gis.esri.com/library/userconf/proc02/pap1254/p1254.htm.

Kovacevic Z, 1961. Primijenjena Entomologija. Zagreb, Yugoslavia: Poljoprivredni nakladni zavod, 527 pp.

Latchininsky AV, 1998. Moroccan locust Dociostaurus maroccanus (Thunberg, 1815): a faunistic rarity or an important economic pest? Journal of Insect Conservation, 2(3-4):167-178.

Louca A, 1981. Annual report 1980. Report, Department of Agriculture, Cyprus, 141 pp.

Louveaux A; Mouhim A; Roux G; Gillon Y; Barral H, 1996. influence of pastoral activities on the acridid populations in the Massif du Siroua (Morocco). Revue d'Ecologie (la Terre et la Vie), 51(2):139-151; 31 ref.

Macri C, 2004. Plague of Locusts in Matera - Holidaymakers Take Flight. Corriere della serra, Italy. Online. http://www.corriere.it/english/articoli/2004/08_Agosto/24/matera.shtml.

Merton LFH, 1959. Studies in the ecology of the Moroccan Locust (Dociostaurus maroccanus Thunberg) in Cyprus. Anti-Locust Bulletin, 34:1-123.

Minoranskii VA, 1970. The action of irrigation on the complex of insects in beet fields. Savremena Poljoprivreda, 18(11-12):67-74.

Moral de la Vega Jdel, 1986. A discussion on the present state of the locust (Dociostaurus maroccanus Thumb.) plague in Badajoz and results of a trial of insecticides for its control. Boletin de Sanidad Vegetal, Plagas, 12(2):221-235

Moral Jdel; Mejías A; Jiménez J; Cancho M; García-Cuadrado N; Corrales D, 1998. The Extremaduran Blue chicken and guineafowl: predators of locusts. Agricultura, Revista Agropecuaria, 67(796):920-922; 12 ref.

Morony MG, 2000. Michael the Syrian as a Source for Economic History. Hugoye: Journal of Syriac Studies. Department of History, University of California, California, USA. Online. http://syrcom.cua.edu/Hugoye/Vol3No2/HV3N2Morony.html.

Nagy B, 1988. Hundred years of the Moroccan locust in Hungary. Novenyvedelem, 24(12):536-540

NSPP, 2000. National Service of Plant Protection Annual Report. Sofia, Bulgaria: NSPP, 81 pp.

NSPP, 2003. National Service of Plant Protection Annual Report. Sofia, Bulgaria: NSPP, 60 pp.

Nurzhanov AA; Lachininskii AV, 1987. Entomopathogenic microorganisms of locusts in Uzbekistan. Saranchovye - ekologiya i mery bor'by., 62-69; 22 ref.

Ouedraogo A; Fargues J; Goettel MS; Lomer CJ, 1997. Effect of temperature on vegetative growth among isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae and M. flavoviride. Mycopathologia, 137(1):37-43; 14 ref.

Ozer M, 1976. Wheat production in Turkey. Report, CENTO Scientific Programme, 3-4

Paoli G, 1937. Studi sulle cavalette di Foggia (Dociostaurus maroccanus Thnb.) e sui loro oofagi (Ditteri Bombyliidi e Coleotteri Meloidi) ed acari ectofagi (Eritreidi e trombidiidi). Redia, 23:27-206.

Pasquier R; Colonna-Cesari X; Bonfils J, 1952. The determination of the gregarigenic regions of the Moroccan cricket, Dociostaurus maroccanus Thunbg., in Corsica. Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances de l'Academie de Sciences, 235(19):1157-1159.

Quesada-Moraga E; Santiago-Alvarez C, 1999. Inducción de Salida de la Diapausa en la Langosta Mediterránea Dociostaurus maroccanus (Thunberg) (Orthoptera: Acrididae). Journal of Orthoptera Research, 8:13-16.

Quesada-Moraga E; Santiago-Alvarez C, 2000. The susceptibility of Dociostaurus maroccanus (Orthoptera: Acrididae) nymphs to a Spanish isolate of Steinernema spp. (glaseri group). In: Smits PH, ed. Proceedings of the 7th European meeting of the IOBC-WPRS working group Insect Pathogens and Insect Parasitic Nematodes, Capturing the potential of biological control, Vienna, Austria, 22-26 March, 1999. Bulletin OILB-SROP, 23(2):41-46.

Quesada-Moraga E; Santiago-Alvarez C, 2001. Assessment of sexual maturation in the Moroccan locust Dociostaurus maroccanus (Thunberg). Journal of Orthoptera Research, 10(1):1-8.

Quesada-Moraga E; Santiago-Alvarez C, 2001. Histopathological effects of Bacillus thuringiensis on the midgut of the Mediterranean locust Dociostaurus maroccanus. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 78(3):183-186; 13 ref.

Quesada-Moraga E; Santiago-Alvarez C, 2003. Screening Bacillus thuringiensis strains for activity against Dociostaurus maroccanus (Orthoptera: Acrididae). Entomopathogens and insect parasitic nematodes: current research and perspectives in pest biocontrol. In: Papierok B, ed. Proceedings of the 8th European meeting of the IOBC-WPRS working group Insect Pathogens and Insect Parasitic Nematodes, Athens, Greece, 29 May - 2 June, 2001. Bulletin OILB-SROP, 26(1):209-213.

Quesada-Moraga E; Santiago-ßlvarez C, 2000. Temperature related effects on embryonic development of the Mediterranean locust, Dociostaurus maroccanus. Physiological Entomology, 25(2):191-195; 17 ref.

Quesada-Moraga E; Santiago-ßlvarez C, 2001. Rearing and breeding of the Moroccan locust Dociostaurus maroccanus (Thunberg) (Orthop., Acrididae) under laboratory conditions. Journal of Applied Entomology, 125(3):121-124; 20 ref.

Quesada-Moraga E; Sßnchez A; Santiago-ßlvarez C, 2000. Diflubenzuron reduced the biotic potential of the Mediterranean locust Dociostaurus maroccanus (Thunberg, 1815). Boleti^acute~n de Sanidad Vegetal, Plagas, 26(1):113-118; 9 ref.

Rambier A, 1951. Gregarious and solitary populations of the Moroccan cricket (Dociostaurus maroccanus Thunb.) in continental France. Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances de l'Academie de Sciences, 233(23):1491-1493.

Sanchez M; Jimenez J; Arias A, 1994. Observations on the hatching of Dociostaurus maroccanus (Thunb.) at a farm in "La Serena", (Extremadura), during the years 1991 to 1993. Boletin de Sanidad Vegetal, Plagas, 20(1):23-34

Santiago-Alvarez C; Quesada-Moraga E; Crespo HP, 2003. Diapause termination and post-diapause development in the Mediterranean locust Dociostaurus maroccanus (Orth., Acrididae) under field conditions. Journal of Applied Entomology, 127(6):369-373.

Santiago-ßlvarez C; Quesada-Moraga E, 1999. Manipulation of embryonic development and laboratory rearing of the Mediterranean locust Dociostaurus maroccanus (Thunberg). Boleti^acute~n de Sanidad Vegetal, Plagas, 25(4):469-474; 19 ref.

Starostin SP; Kurdyukov VV; Chenkin AF; Novinskii YuS, 1986. ULV in the control of Acridoidea. Zashchita Rastenii, No. 6:7-8

Stegolev VN, 1948. Polyphagous pests. In: Naumov NA, Stegolev VN, eds. Guide for Plant Protection for Agronomists. Moscow, USSR: Selhozgiz, 254-277.

Thomas MB; Jenkins NE, 1997. Effects of temperature on growth of Metarhizium flavoviride and virulence to the variegated grasshopper, Zonocerus variegatus. Mycological Research, 101(12):1469-1474; 34 ref.

Thomas MB; Klass J; Blanford S, 2000. The year of the locust. Pesticide Outlook, 11(5):192-195.

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Uvarov BP; Bei-Bienko GY; Ivanov EN; Tsyplenkov EP; Safarov AA, 1980. No weakening of attention to locusts. Zashchita Rastenii, 2:25-28.

Distribution References

Animalia, 2002. (Enciclopedia Animalelor Din Romania)., http://www.animalia.go.ro/

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Chorbadjieff P, 1936. The injurious grasshoppers and other orthoptera in Bulgaria. In: Ministry of Agriculture and Public Domains, Sofia, Bulgaria,

FAO, 2002. FAO combats major locust outbreak in Afghanistan. In: ReliefWeb, FAO. http://www.reliefweb.int/w/rwb.nsf/0/f64ec27f7cc2fa43c1256bb500392bab?OpenDocument

Gapparov F A, 2001. Locusts in the south of Central Asia. Zashchita i Karantin Rasteniĭ. 34.

Kovacevic Z, 1961. Primijenjena Entomologija., Zagreb, Yugoslavia: Poljoprivredni nakladni zavod. 527 pp.

Louca A, 1981. Report, Department of Agriculture, Cyprus. 141 pp.

Morony MG, 2000. Michael the Syrian as a Source for Economic History. In: Hugoye: Journal of Syriac Studies, California, USA: Department of History, University of California. http://syrcom.cua.edu/Hugoye/Vol3No2/HV3N2Morony.html

Nagy B, 1988. Hundred years of the Moroccan locust in Hungary. (A marokkói sáska száz éve Magyarországon.). Növényvédelem. 24 (12), 536-540.

Pasquier R, Colonna-Cesari X, Bonfils J, 1952. The determination of the gregarigenic regions of the Moroccan cricket, Dociostaurus maroccanus Thunbg. in Corsica. Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances de l'Academie de Sciences. 235 (19), 1157-1159.

Rambier A, 1951. Gregarious and solitary populations of the Moroccan cricket (Dociostaurus maroccanus Thunb.) in continental France. Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances de l'Academie de Sciences. 233 (23), 1491-1493.

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