Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Ditylenchus destructor
(potato tuber nematode)

Toolbox

Datasheet

Ditylenchus destructor (potato tuber nematode)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 28 March 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Ditylenchus destructor
  • Preferred Common Name
  • potato tuber nematode
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Nematoda
  •       Class: Secernentea
  •         Order: Tylenchida
  • There are no pictures available for this datasheet

    If you can supply pictures for this datasheet please contact:

    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution map More information

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Ditylenchus destructor Thorne, 1945

Preferred Common Name

  • potato tuber nematode

International Common Names

  • English: eelworm, potato; eelworm, potato tuber; potato eelworm; potato rot nematode
  • Spanish: anguilulosis de la patata; nematodo de la patata; nematodo de la pudricion de la papa (Mexico)
  • French: maladie vermiculaire des pommes de terre

Local Common Names

  • Denmark: kartoffelradnematod
  • Finland: lahoankeroinen
  • Germany: Aelchen, Kartoffelkraetze-; Aelchen, Kraetze-; Aelchen-Kraetze der Kartoffel (Folgeerscheinung); Nematodenfaeule der Kartoffel (Folgeerscheinung)
  • Italy: Anguillulosi delle patate
  • Netherlands: Destructoraaltje
  • Norway: potetratenematode
  • Sweden: potatisrötnematod

EPPO code

  • DITYDE (Ditylenchus destructor)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Nematoda
  •             Class: Secernentea
  •                 Order: Tylenchida
  •                     Family: Anguinidae
  •                         Genus: Ditylenchus
  •                             Species: Ditylenchus destructor

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page Thorne (1945) proposed and described D. destructor from potato in Aberdeen, Idaho, USA. Before D. destructor was described in 1945 as a good species, it was regarded for a long time as a strain or race of D. dipsaci. Much of the earlier literature, therefore, provides confused information on the two species, especially in relation to potatoes. D. destructor can easily be differentiated from D. dipsaci in having six incisures in the lateral field (as against four) and a rounded tail terminus (pointed in D. dipsaci).

Description

Top of page The morphology of D. destructor is described by Thorne (1945, 1961), Hooper (1973) and Esser and Smart (1977). Wu (1958, 1960) gives more detailed information on the morphology of the reproductive system and oesophageal glands of D. destructor.

Measurements (after Thorne, 1945).

Females: length=0.81-1.4 mm; a=30-35 µm; b=8-10 µm; c=15-20 µm; V=78-83%.
Males: length=0.8-1.3 mm; a=34-40 µm; b=7-8 µm; c=12-16 µm; T=73-80%.

There is considerable morphological variation shown by the adults of this species due to age or feeding on particular hosts. Body slender (a=30-35 µm). Cuticle smooth, marked by faint and fine transverse striae about 1 µm apart; lateral field with six incisures. Cephalic region smooth, low, anteriorly flattened, slightly set off or almost continuous with body contour. Cephalic framework hexa-radiate, moderately developed. Stylet slender, 10-14 µm long, with distinct basal knobs. Median oesophageal bulb fusiform; basal bulb clavate, usually its base overlaps the intestine on the dorsal side for half to one body width. Excretory pore at or just anterior to oesophago-intestinal junction; hemizonid just in front of excretory pore. Tail conoid, slightly arcuate ventrally, with a minutely rounded tip.

Female: vulva a transverse slit, at 78-83% of body length from anterior end. Ovary single, outstretched anteriorly, sometimes reaching the oesophagus; oocytes in double rows in anterior region, then in single file. Spermatheca elongate-oval, often with large sperm arranged in a row. Post-vulval uterine sac about 75% of vulva-anus distance. Tail 3-5 anal body widths long, with a minutely rounded tip.

Male: abundant, similar to female in general appearance. Testis single, outstretched; sperm large-sized, rounded, in 1-2 rows. Spicules large and prominent, ventrally arcuate. Gubernaculum linear. Bursa enveloping about four-fifths of tail.

Juveniles: four juvenile stages, resembling female in general morphology but lacking genital structures; first stage occurring within the egg which is oval, about twice as long as wide.

Anderson and Darling (1964) have given detailed information on reproduction and embryology.

Distribution

Top of page

D. destructor is a pest of potatoes mainly in temperate regions: localised areas in North America and many parts of Europe, the mediterranean region and Asia. Pre-1995 records from groundnut and several weeds in South Africa are now considered to be of D. africanus although D. destructor has been validly reported from this country (EPPO, 2014).

Records of D. destructor in New South Wales, South Australia, Victoria and Western Australia (CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 1996) published in previous versions of the Compendium are erroneous. Recent surveys in New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Victoria and Western Australia (e.g., Riley and Kelly, 2002; Walker, 2004; Hay and Pethybridge, 2005; Hall et al., 2007) failed to find any specimens of D. destructor and previous reports in these states were based on erroneous information (Hodda and Nobbs, 2008). D. destructor has been detected in Tasmania in 1961 by Thistlethwayte. This single reference is the last and only known report of the presence of D. destructor in Tasmania.

Records of D. destructor in Guizhou and Yunnan, China (Sun et al., 1994) published in previous versions of the Compendium were included in error and have been removed. Zhao et al. (2010) has since reported D. destructor causing soft rot of Angelica sinensis in Yunnan.

Records of D. destructor in North Carolina and Virginia (CABI/EPPO, 2009; EPPO, 2009) published in previous versions of the Compendium are now known to be based on erroneous information. There are no published reports of D. destructor in North Carolina and Virginia, and the species has never been detected in these states (North Carolina Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, personal communication, 2010; Virginia Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, personal communication, 2011).

A record of D. destructor in Peru (Jatala et al., 1977) published in previous versions of the Compendium is considered invalid. D. destructor has not been detected or reported in Peru (SENASA, 2012, personal communication).

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AzerbaijanPresentIsmailov, 1976; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
BangladeshAbsent, unreliable recordEPPO, 2014
ChinaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-AnhuiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-GuangdongPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-HainanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-HebeiPresentDing and Lin, 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-HenanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-HubeiPresentEPPO, 2014
-JiangsuPresentDing and Lin, 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-LiaoningPresentDing and Lin, 1982; EPPO, 2014
-ShandongPresentDing and Lin, 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-YunnanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013
IndiaAbsent, unreliable recordEPPO, 2014
IranPresentKheiri, 1972; EPPO, 2014
JapanRestricted distributionNakanishi, 1979; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-HonshuPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
KazakhstanWidespreadGerman, 1972; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
Korea, Republic ofPresentYoung and Seung, 1995; EPPO, 2014
KyrgyzstanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
MalaysiaAbsent, unreliable recordEPPO, 2014
PakistanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
Saudi ArabiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
TajikistanRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
TurkeyRestricted distribution197*CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
UzbekistanPresentAdylova and Vasilevskii, 1983; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014

Africa

South AfricaRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014

North America

CanadaPresent, few occurrencesCABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-British ColumbiaAbsent, invalid recordEPPO, 2014
-OntarioPresent, few occurrencesEPPO, 2011; IPPC, 2011; Yu et al., 2012; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-Prince Edward IslandEradicatedCABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
MexicoRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
USARestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-ArkansasAbsent, unreliable recordCABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-CaliforniaPresentViglierchio, 1978; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-HawaiiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-IdahoPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-IndianaAbsent, unreliable recordCABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-New JerseyAbsent, unreliable recordUSDA-APHIS, personal communication, 2009; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-North CarolinaAbsent, invalid recordUSDA-APHIS, personal communication, 2010; EPPO, 2014
-OregonPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-South CarolinaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-VirginiaAbsent, invalid recordUSDA-APHIS, personal communication, 2011; EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-WashingtonPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-West VirginiaAbsent, reported but not confirmedCABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-WisconsinPresent1953CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014

Central America and Caribbean

HaitiAbsent, unreliable recordEPPO, 2014

South America

EcuadorAbsent, formerly presentAGROCALIDAD, 2012, personal communication; EPPO, 2014
PeruAbsent, invalid recordSENASA, 2012, personal communication; Jatala et al., 1977; EPPO, 2014

Europe

AlbaniaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
AustriaRestricted distribution****CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
BelarusRestricted distributionIvanova, 1971a; Ivanova, 1971b; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
BelgiumPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
BulgariaRestricted distribution196*Katalan-Gateva and Konstantinova-Milkova, 1975; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
Czech RepublicPresent, few occurrences****CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
EstoniaRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
FinlandAbsent, intercepted onlyCABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
FranceRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
GermanyRestricted distribution****CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
GreeceRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-Greece (mainland)Restricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2013
HungaryRestricted distribution1954CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
IrelandPresent, few occurrences****CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
ItalyAbsent, unreliable recordEPPO, 2014
JerseyPresentEPPO, 2014
LatviaRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
LithuaniaEradicatedEfremenko & Burshtein, 1972; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014; IPPC, 2016
LuxembourgRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
MoldovaPresentSmirnova and Koev, 1976; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
NetherlandsRestricted distributionNPPO of the Netherlands, 2013; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014Present, in all parts of the area where host crops are grown.
NorwayPresent, few occurrencesStoeen, 1977; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
PolandRestricted distribution****CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
RomaniaRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
Russian FederationWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-Central RussiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-Northern RussiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-Southern RussiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
SlovakiaRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
SpainAbsent, formerly presentCABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-Spain (mainland)Absent, invalid recordCABI/EPPO, 2013
SwedenPresent, few occurrences****Andersson, 1971; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
SwitzerlandPresent, few occurrencesCABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
UKPresent, few occurrencesEPPO, 2014
-England and WalesPresent, few occurrencesCABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-ScotlandPresent, few occurrencesCABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
UkraineRestricted distributionKapitonenko, 1972; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014

Oceania

AustraliaAbsent, invalid recordBiosecurity Australia, 2011, personal communication; IPPC, 2008; EPPO, 2014; IPPC, 2015
-New South WalesAbsent, invalid recordIPPC, 2008; EPPO, 2014; IPPC, 2015
-South AustraliaAbsent, invalid recordIPPC, 2008; EPPO, 2014; IPPC, 2015
-TasmaniaAbsent, invalid recordBiosecurity Australia, 2011, personal communication; Thistlethwayte, 1961; IPPC, 2008; EPPO, 2014; IPPC, 2015
-VictoriaAbsent, invalid recordIPPC, 2008; EPPO, 2014; IPPC, 2015
-Western AustraliaAbsent, invalid recordIPPC, 2008; EPPO, 2014; IPPC, 2015
New ZealandRestricted distribution1979Foot and Wood, 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014

Risk of Introduction

Top of page D. destructor is presently targeted in regulatory programmes worldwide (O'Bannon and Esser, 1987). D. destructor was considered to be an EPPO A2 quarantine pest (EPPO, 1978) but was deleted from the quarantine list in 1984 because of its minor importance and very wide distribution throughout the EPPO region, in particular in those areas where it would be likely to cause crop damage. D. destructor is of quarantine significance for the APPPC and COSAVE. It is one of the nematodes that are presently targeted in regulatory programmes in Taiwan (Tsay, 1995).

Seed potatoes carry the infection and spread the disease, and hence must be subject to proper phytosanitary regulations

In Wisconsin, USA, the spread of the pest has been stopped through the elimination of infection sources by fumigation, a strict state quarantine limiting movement of infected tubers, and supervision of the disposition of potatoes from infested fields (Darling et al., 1983).

The requirement of the nematode for high relative humidity means it would be unlikely to become a problem in areas with warm, dry soils; it may therefore be of concern to potato production only in the cooler areas, including northern parts of the EPPO region. However, D. africanus (formerly identified as D. destructor), as a groundnut pathogen in South Africa, has adjusted to different (and normally unfavourable) climatic conditions (De Waele and Wilken, 1990; see data sheet on D. africanus).

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page Potato, sweet potato and bulbous iris are the main hosts of D. destructor; occasionally tulips, gladioli and dahlias become important hosts. Root crops sometimes affected include sugar beet, mangolds (Beta vulgaris) and carrots. Clovers (Trifolium spp.), cultivated mushrooms, onion and garlic are also good hosts. Hooper (1973) states that some 70 crops and weeds and a similar number of fungus species have been recorded as hosts (see Goodey et al., 1965 for most records).

In southern Sweden, D. destructor parasitizes potatoes and occurs on the weed species Elytrigia repens [Elymus repens], Artemisia vulgaris, Cirsium arvense, Potentilla anserina and Rumex acetosella, which are a source of infection to potatoes. Trifolium pratense, T. repens and T. hybridum are good hosts of D. destructor; Festuca pratensis and Medicago sativa are less good hosts (Andersson, 1971).

D. destructor was reported for the first time from Norway on potatoes and carrots (Stoeen, 1977), on potatoes in Peru (Jatala et al., 1977), on ponderosa pine in California, USA (Viglierchio, 1978) and on Cimicifuga racemosa (Planer, 1972). It occurs in Poland on potato, carrot, beetroot, onion and other crop plants, on ornamentals (hyacinth, crocus) and on several weeds. Outbreaks of disease caused by this nematode are sporadic, but the actual extent of its distribution in Poland is unknown.

It attacks strawberry in Moldavia (Smirnova and Koev, 1976; Efremenko and Burshtein, 1975); potato in Lithuania (Efremenko and Burshtein, 1972); flowering plants (Ladygina and Volodchenko, 1972) and potatoes (Kapitonenko, 1972) in Ukraine; hops (Humulus lupulus) in Bulgaria (Katalan-Gateva and Konstantinova-Milkova, 1975); potato, onion, lupin and other crops in Belorus (Ivanova, 1971a, b). In Russia, D. destructor was found on 11 of 13 species of weed commonly growing in potato fields in the Moscow region. Solanum nigrum, Taraxacum officinale (20%) and Barbarea vulgaris (16%) were the most heavily infected; Fumaria officinalis and Matricaria inodora [Matricaria perforata] also served as hosts for this nematode (Ivanova, 1973).

In Iran, Kheiri (1972) reported D. destructor to be associated with many crop plants, for example potato, wheat, bean, soyabean, aubergine, tomato, tea, maize, orange and alfalfa. It was found parasitizing sweet potato, potato and Mentha in China (Ding and Lin, 1982) and ginseng in Korea (Young and Seung, 1995). This nematode was recorded for the first time in New Zealand as causing damage to hops in South Island (Foot and Wood, 1982). In Japan 18 plant species, including Brassica chinensis, B. oleracea, Capsicum annuum, Chrysanthemum morifolium [Dendranthema morifolium], Cucumis sativus, Cucurbita moschata and Lycopersicon esculentum, are hosts for D. destructor (Nakanishi, 1979).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

Top of page
Plant nameFamilyContext
Allium cepa (onion)LiliaceaeMain
Allium sativum (garlic)LiliaceaeMain
Arachis hypogaea (groundnut)FabaceaeMain
Beta vulgaris (beetroot)ChenopodiaceaeMain
Beta vulgaris var. saccharifera (sugarbeet)ChenopodiaceaeMain
Camellia sinensis (tea)TheaceaeMain
Capsicum annuum (bell pepper)SolanaceaeMain
Chenopodium album (fat hen)ChenopodiaceaeWild host
Chrysanthemum morifolium (chrysanthemum (florists'))AsteraceaeMain
Citrus sinensis (navel orange)RutaceaeMain
Cucumis sativus (cucumber)CucurbitaceaeMain
Cucurbita moschata (pumpkin)CucurbitaceaeMain
Cyperus rotundus (purple nutsedge)CyperaceaeWild host
Dahlia hybridsAsteraceaeMain
Datura stramonium (jimsonweed)SolanaceaeWild host
Daucus carota (carrot)ApiaceaeMain
Eleusine indica (goose grass)PoaceaeWild host
Elymus repens (quackgrass)PoaceaeWild host
Fragaria ananassa (strawberry)RosaceaeMain
Fumaria officinalis (common fumitory)PapaveraceaeWild host
Gladiolus hybrids (sword lily)IridaceaeMain
Glycine max (soyabean)FabaceaeMain
Humulus lupulus (hop)CannabaceaeMain
Ipomoea batatas (sweet potato)ConvolvulaceaeMain
Iris (irises)IridaceaeMain
Mentha (mints)LamiaceaeMain
Panax ginseng (Asiatic ginseng)AraliaceaeMain
Panax quinquefolius (American ginseng)AraliaceaeOther
Solanum (nightshade)SolanaceaeWild host
Solanum lycopersicum (tomato)SolanaceaeMain
Solanum melongena (aubergine)SolanaceaeMain
Solanum nigrum (black nightshade)SolanaceaeWild host
Solanum tuberosum (potato)SolanaceaeMain
Sonchus arvensis (perennial sowthistle)AsteraceaeWild host
Tagetes minuta (stinking Roger)AsteraceaeWild host
Taraxacum officinale complex (dandelion)AsteraceaeWild host
Trifolium (clovers)FabaceaeMain
Triticum aestivum (wheat)PoaceaeMain
Tulipa (tulip)LiliaceaeMain
Xanthium strumarium (common cocklebur)AsteraceaeWild host
Zea mays (maize)PoaceaeMain

Growth Stages

Top of page Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Vegetative growing stage

Symptoms

Top of page On potatoes

There are, in general, no obvious symptoms in the aerial parts of the plant, although heavily infested tubers give rise to weak plants which usually die. Early infections can be detected by peeling the tuber, which can reveal small, off-white spots in the otherwise healthy flesh. These later enlarge, darken, are woolly in texture and may be slightly hollow at the centre. If stored in moist conditions a general rot may ensue and spread to other tubers. Infested dahlia tubers develop similar syptoms (Myuge, 1957; Hooper, 1973).

On badly affected tubers there are typically slightly sunken areas with cracked and wrinkled skin which is detached in places from the underlying flesh. The flesh has a dry and mealy appearance, varying in colour from greyish to dark brown or black. This discoloration is largely due to secondary invasion of fungi, bacteria and free-living nematodes (the latter are easily confused with D. destructor). In contrast, the skin of potatoes infested with D. dipsaci is not usually cracked, and the rot darkens towards the inside of the tuber. The symptoms are more obvious in the foliage, which is shortened and malformed. Rotting due to D. destructor in storage increased with rising temperature, but there was no evidence of transfer of infestation from diseased to healthy tubers (Andersson, 1971). It spread from infected to healthy potato plants when spaced at 70x20 cm or less in the sod-podzolic soil in the Ukraine (Polozhenets', 1977).

On Iris and tulips

Infestations usually begin at the base and extend up the fleshy scales, causing grey-to-black lesions; roots may be blackened, and leaves poorly developed with yellow tips.

On groundnut

The following symptoms were originally recorded for D. destructor on groundnut; however, the Ditylenchus attacking groundnut has now been shown to be a different species, named D. africanus (Wendt et al., 1995).

D. destructor was reported to occur in large numbers in the hulls and seeds of groundnut. At 85 days after planting, the nematodes were found 3-5 cell layers deep in the exocarp at the base of groundnut pods, near the point of connection with the peg. The nematodes rapidly invaded the developing pods after fruiting pegs had penetrated the soil; very few were found in roots. The surface of the infection site showed brown, spongy cork cells, and from this site the nematodes invaded the pegs. Hulls of groundnuts showed black discoloration which appeared first along the longitudinal veins. The kernels were shrunken. The infected testae were brown to black and the embryo showed a brown discoloration (Jones and De Waele, 1988). Feeding in the parenchyma of the peg caused the cells to collapse. Empty and collapsed cells were pushed aside, creating channels through which the nematodes moved. From the peg, the nematodes further penetrated the exocarp to feed on the parenchymatous cells surrounding the vascular bundles. They also migrated to the base of the mesocarp through the natural opening at the point of peg attachment (Jones and De Waele, 1990). In the testa, the nematode feeding on the tissues near or within the vascular bundles caused discoloration of vascular strands within the seed coat. It aggregated in large numbers near the vascular bundles in the exocarp; these tissues are thought to facilitate migration of the nematode. The nematode did not invade the cotyledons (Jones and De Waele, 1990).

Thorne (1961), Hooper (1973), MAFF (1974), Esser and Smart (1977), Dement'eva, (1980) and Ambrogioni et al. (1995) give general accounts of D. destructor, including its morphology, geographical distribution, symptoms, pathogenicity, transmission and control.

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / necrotic areas
Roots / soft rot of cortex
Vegetative organs / internal rotting or discoloration
Vegetative organs / surface cracking

Biology and Ecology

Top of page D. destructor is a migratory endoparasite of roots and underground modified plant parts such as potato tubers, bulbous iris and garlic. The nematodes attack the subterranean and only rarely the aerial parts of plants. They enter potato tubers through the lenticels, and then begin to multiply rapidly and invade the whole tuber. They can continue to live and develop within harvested tubers.

D. destructor attacked carrots at the base of the lateral roots and tissue breakdown occurred in the cortex. The damaged tissue was discoloured. External lesions subsequently appeared which served as infection sites for other pathogens, including Mycocentrospora acerina (Stoeen, 1977). It was found to attack stems, buds and leaves of Cimicifuga racemosa (Planer, 1972) and roots of ginseng in Korea (Young and Seung, 1995). Stem infestations are rare but have also been reported on potato haulm by Goodey (1951) and on Vicia sativa by Duggan and Moore (1962).

Means of movement/dispersal and survival

The nematodes can move only short distances in the soil and have no natural means of long-range movement. The main means of dispersal is with infested potato tubers or other subterranean organs of host plants, for example bulbs and rhizomes (especially of iris). Transport in infested soil is another important means of spread. Irrigation water can also carry the nematodes. Unlike the closely related species D. dipsaci, D. destructor is unable to withstand excessive desiccation, and for this reason is usually important only in cool, moist soils. Unlike D. dipsaci, it does not form 'eelworm wool'. Without a resistant resting stage, the species overwinters in soil as adults or larvae and may even multiply by feeding on alternative weed hosts (for example Mentha arvensis, Sonchus arvensis) and on fungal mycelia. It may also possibly overwinter as eggs. These hatch in the spring and larvae are immediately able to parasitize hosts. Thorne (1961) suggested that D. destructor overwintered in USA field soil as eggs and coiled adults. In Ireland, its survival in soil is helped by the presence of corn mint and unharvested potato tubers (Anon., 1972).

Interactions with other organisms

Rhizoctonia solani infections of potato tubers (var. Janka and Leda) were highest in pots to which the largest number of D. destructor (136 nematodes per 100 g soil) was added. The results confirmed that mixed infections were more harmful to the potatoes than either infection alone (Janowicz and Mazurkiewicz, 1982).

The damage to potato tubers stored in the dark at 6-15°C was greater (49% compared to 27%) when both the dry rot fusaria (Fusarium solani var. coeruleum, F. culmorum and F. oxysporum) and D. destructor were present, than when only the dry rot fungi were present (Janowicz, 1984).

Culture

D. destructor can feed on fungi and hence can easily be cultured on many fungi and on plant callus (Darling et al., 1957; Faulkner and Darling, 1961). It is readily established on laboratory cultures of Alternaria tenuis [A. alternata] and A. solani (Foot and Wood, 1982). D. destructor reproduced well on cultures of A. tenuis on potato glucose agar at 26-27°C (Pupavkina, 1971). It was cultured on ginseng root callus, fungal mycelium (F. solani), carrot discs and radish sprouts (Young and Seung, 1995).

Natural enemies

Top of page
Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Rhizoglyphus echinopus Predator

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page Thirteen nematophagous fungi attract and feed on D. destructor and Aphelenchoides fragariae (Jansson and Nordbring-Hertz, 1980).

In Germany, the bulb mite Rhizoglyphus echinopus was found to feed on D. destructor. It may be of importance in regulating nematode populations under certain conditions (Sturhan and Hampel, 1977).

Seedborne Aspects

Top of page Seed potatoes carry the infection and spread the disease. It is essential, therefore, to use clean seed tubers.

Pathway Vectors

Top of page
VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Containers and packaging - woodCarrying potato Yes
Soil, sand and gravel Yes

Plant Trade

Top of page
Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes adults; eggs; juveniles Yes
Growing medium accompanying plants adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants adults; eggs; juveniles Yes
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches adults; eggs; juveniles Yes
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Leaves
Roots
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

Impact

Top of page In general, D. destructor can become important as a pest of potatoes at temperatures of 15-20°C and at relative humidity above 90%. Healthy seed potatoes planted in infested fields in Sweden gave crops damaged by 0.3-94%: severely infested seed tubers gave external symptoms in 41-70% by weight of the new tubers (Andersson, 1971). The degree of infestation of potato tubers by D. destructor on Estonian farms ranged from 2 to 9%. Up to 80-90% of tubers from some fields became infected during storage (Kikas, 1969).

D. destructor was commonly recorded on seed potatoes from the Ural region, Central Asia (Artem'ev, 1976). It is widespread on potatoes in the Central Chernozem zone of the RSFSR and causes considerable losses (Chukantseva, 1983). In Uzbekistan, D. destructor represented 84.7% of the total nematodes found on potato tubers (Adylova and Vasilevskii, 1983). It is also widespread on potatoes in Kazakhstan (German, 1972) and in Azerbaijan (Ismailov, 1976). Severe infestations of potatoes have been reported in the Samarkand, Tashkent and Fergana regions of Uzbekistan (Usmanova, 1972).

Effect on vertebrates

When animals were fed potato tubers infected with D. destructor or were injected with extracts from such tubers, the intensity of antibody production was reduced by half or more, and the phagocytic activity of leukocytes and the cholesterol content of the blood were also reduced (Savchuk and Savchuk, 1972).

Detection and Inspection

Top of page

Prior to planting, soil can be sampled using a standard extraction procedure for nematodes of this size (Hooper, 1986). Microscopic examination of the nematode is necessary for correct identification of the species.

It is difficult to detect the presence of D. destructor on potatoes from external tuber appearance alone. Sample tubers should be cut or peeled to look for the characteristic whitish pockets in which most of the nematodes are found. However, on badly affected potato tubers there are typically slightly sunken areas with cracked and wrinkled skin which is detached in places from the underlying flesh (see Symptoms). The flesh has a dry and mealy appearance, varying in colour from greyish to dark brown or black. External symptoms on iris and tulip include grey-to-black lesions; heavily infested bulbs often have blackened roots and poorly developed, yellow-tipped leaves.

A diagnostic protocol for Ditylenchus destructor is described in EPPO (2008).

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page The Ditylenchus species that attacks groundnut in South Africa has been referred to as D. destructor in the literature, but is now considered a different species, Ditylenchus africanus (Wendt et al., 1995). This species has a high reproductive potential as it completes its life cycle in 6-7 days at 28°C (De Waele et al., 1990). In South Africa, it was found that the optimum temperature for egg hatch was 28°C (De Waele and Wilken, 1990), but this was considered to be an adaptation of the species to different climatic conditions, and it is assumed that temperature requirements are much lower in Europe. Eggs hatch at 28°C, 2 days after egg laying, with an average interval of 4.4 days between egg laying and hatch, and development from egg to adult takes between 6 and 7 days.

D. africanus [=D. destructor of earlier workers] can be confused with another endoparasite of groundnut pods and seeds, Aphelenchoides arachidis, which parasitizes the testa of groundnut (Bos, 1977) and is an important seedborne pest of groundnut (Bridge et al., 1977; Bridge and Hunt, 1985). The histopathology of both these parasites on groundnut is similar (Jones and De Waele, 1990).

Prevention and Control

Top of page

Treatment of Potato Tubers

D. destructor was first found on potatoes in Wisconsin, USA in 1953. Spread of the pest has been stopped through the elimination of infection sources by fumigation and the application of strict state quarantine limiting movement of infected tubers (Darling et al., 1983).

Treatment with soil-applied nematicides can provide a high level of control but can be expensive. Granulated nematicides were reported to be effective against the nematode. Heterophos solutions caused a decrease in the levels of infestation of the new crop, stimulated growth and development of the plant and brought about yield increases of 10-40 centners [1000-4000 kg]/ha in the central Chernozem zone of the RSFSR (Chukantseva, 1983). Heterophos granules applied before planting of D. destructor-infested seed potatoes reduced infestation to 3.8 and 2.7% compared to 25% in untreated controls, and had a positive effect on the number of stems and their height (Vorona, 1984).

Fostil used for soaking potatoes before planting was effective against D. destructor in Russia. Carbathion [metam] was also effective, but phytotoxic (Chukantseva, 1976). Sorting out of 'clean' seed potatoes, or treatment with dimethoate and carbathion [metam], were both effective against D. destructor in Azerbaijan; metam somewhat decreased germination (Ismailov, 1976).

Dipping potato tubers in thionazin (superseded) controlled D. destructor and secured a yield of nematode-free tubers (Wilski, 1972). Ivanova and Bogdan (1983) in Belorussia considered the immersion of potato planting material into an aqueous solution of carbathion [metam] as an effective control method. Treatment of soil with metam reduced infestation from 27.5 to 4% (Adylova and Vasilevskii, 1983); however Chukantseva (1983) found that the treatment with carbathion [metam] was phytotoxic and could not be recommended in the central Chernozem zone of the RSFSR region.

Treatment of Bulbs

Diazinon decreased D. destructor populations by 37-48% (Rasinya and Rasina, 1972).

Infestations in iris bulbs can be controlled by immersion in hot water containing 0.5% formaldehyde, at 43.5°C for 3 h. The bulbs may be soaked for 2.5 h in a solution of thionazin (superseded) plus formaldehyde. Both methods cause some damage to bulbs. In iris (cv. Wedgewood) bulbs infested with D. destructor, effective control resulted from hot-water treatment for 3 h at 43.6°C after warm storage for 7 days at 30°C (ISEHS, 1974). Pre-treatment of iris bulbs for 3-4 weeks at 30°C gave protection against D. destructor (Bulb Research Centre, 1973). With adequate pre-warming of the bulbs, hot-water treatment to control D. destructor is safe and effective and preferable to the use of a toxic chemical. Iris bulbs may be stored at 30°C for 1-2 weeks and then soaked for 3 h in water at 44.4°C to which formalin [formaldehyde] and a non-ionic wetter have been added (MAFF, 1977). Fumigation under vacuum with hydrogen cyanide for 1 h at above 10°C gives good control of the nematode in bulbs, rhizomes and tubers, and especially asparagus roots and strawberry plants. In Japan, infestation in iris bulbs can be controlled by immersion in water containing formaldehyde at 43.5°C for 2-3 h, but some varieties may be injured during this treatment. In garlic bulbs, nematodes were controlled by drying at 34-36°C for 12-17 days (Fujimura et al., 1989). In Korea, D. destructor can be effectively controlled by flooding infested fields (Young and Seung, 1995).

Citrus medica skin extract killed 93.3% (71% after correction for controls) of the adult D. destructor after 72 h, and bacterial toxin of Erwinia nimmipressuralis [Enterobacter nimmipressuralis] strain 437 from beech killed 84.4% (68.8% after correction for controls) of D. destructor in 48 h (Abdel'-Khamed et al., 1977).

Preplanting treatments of potatoes by ultraviolet irradiation (60 times per month, each exposure for 10 min) decreased nematode infection more than 10 times (Bumbu, 1968).

Host-Plant Resistance

Although Seinhorst (1949), Guskova (1966) and Olefir (1969) found some potato varieties showing resistance, Goodey (1956) and Moore (1971) found no marked resistance in the many commercial potato varies they tested.

In Kazakhstan, all 36 potato varieties tested were susceptible to D. destructor to varying degrees (German, 1970). In Belorussia, most of the varieties of potato tested were susceptible to infestation by D. destructor, but a few foreign varieties (such as Kardia, Patroness and Scutella) were fully resistant (Ivanova, 1983).

In Sweden, of 19 potato varieties studied, resistance was shown by Aquila and Elsa, and King Edward was less sensitive than Bintje (Andersson, 1971). All common commercial varieties of potato in Ireland are susceptible (Bulb Research Centre, 1973). In Ireland, tubers of Golden Wonder potato cultivar showed significantly more external symptoms (skin cracking) than King Edward, but the numbers of King Edward tubers with internal symptoms (sub-cutaneous 'pockets') were greater in 2 of the 3 years, the difference being significant in the third (Moore, 1978).

In Poland, among 186 potato cultivars tested, those found to be very slightly susceptible were Belg, Grom, Pimpernel, Robijn and Rode Star (normally considered resistant) - following cultivation experiments of several years, only 5% of the tubers became infected with tuber surface damage of up to 10%; and those found to be slightly susceptible were Alisma, Altgold, Arnika, Aura, Gracilia, Iduna, Leo, Murmanskij, Scaldia, Stelzner, Topaz and Ultimus - up to 10% surface damage in 10% of tubers. Among the wild potato species, three forms of Solanum commersonii, two of Solanum pinnatisectum and one each of a further seven species were not infected (Stefan, 1980).

Of 508 Ipomoea batatas varieties tested in a field infested with D. destructor in Shandong province of China, 68 varieties were found to have high levels of resistance (Wang et al., 1995). Of 143 accessions of sweet potato germplasm collected in the Yunnan and Guizhou provinces of China, 40 were resistant to D. destructor (Sun et al., 1994).

Cultural Control

Control by crop rotation is difficult, as D. destructor is polyphagous. However, alternative non-host crops such as sugar beet can be used to check the nematode populations (Winslow, 1978). It is important to control weeds carefully because of the nematode's polyphagous habit. Populations increase under crops such as clovers and lucerne (Henderson, 1958) and persist in susceptible field weeds (Mentha arvensis, Sonchus arvensis). Crop rotation experiments in Lithuania showed that after monoculture of host plants such as buckwheat, carrot and lupins for 3 years in soil heavily infected with D. destructor, a crop of uninfected potatoes was obtained in the fourth year (Efremenko and Burshtein, 1975). Measures such as careful sorting of seed potatoes and early harvesting of potatoes, the use of rice and lucerne as preceding crops, or winter sowing of rye followed by late spring planting of potatoes, resulted in a considerable reduction of infestation (Adylova and Vasilevskii, 1983). The use of nematode-free seed potatoes is an essential component of any control programme.

In Central Asia, amide forms of nitrogenous fertilizers slightly reduced the prevalence of infection of seed potatoes by D. destructor, whereas ammonium-nitrate fertilizers favoured nematode multiplication (Artem'ev, 1976).

Application of fertilizers on the surface areas of infested potato tubers, at levels of nitrogen 360, phosphorus 240 and potassium 360 over 3 years, showed the lowest loss of tubers during storage. Untreated control tubers had the highest weight losses and the highest respiration rates (Glez, 1973). Solutions of nitrogen, phosphorus and potash fertilizers had an inhibiting and nematicidal effect on adults, larvae and eggs of D. destructor. Ammonium hydroxide, ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulphate and potassium chloride showed greatest activity; superphosphate was less active. Larvae were the most susceptible and eggs the most resistant to inhibition (Sepselev et al., 1973).
 

References

Top of page

Adylova NA; Vasilevskii VN, 1983. The potato stem nematode at the collective farm "Sokh" in the Fergana valley and its control. (Materialy simpoziuma, Voronezh, 27-29 Sentyabrya 1983 g.). Voronezh, USSR: Vserossiiskii NII Zashchity Rastenii, 59-61.

Ambrogioni L; Tacconi R, 1995. Ditylenchus destructor Thorne Tylenchida, Anguinidae. Nematodi da quarantena., 35-43; 10 ref.

Anderson RV; Darling HM, 1964. Embryology and reproduction of Ditylenchus destructor Thorne, with emphasis on gonad development. Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington, 31:240-256.

Andersson S, 1971. The Potato Rot Nematode, Ditylenchus destructor Thorne, as a Parasite in Potatoes. Dissertation from the Agricultural College of Uppsala, Sweden.

Anon., 1972. Annual Report 1971-72. Dublin, Ireland: An Foras Taluntais.

APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Technical Document No. 135. Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA).

Artem'ev YuM, 1976. Ditylenchus destructor on potatoes in the Ural region and the effect of nitrogenous fertilizers on D. destructor infection of potatoes. Sbornik Nauchnykh Trudov Saratovskogo Sel'skokhozyaistvennogo Instituta, No. 54:30-37

Bos WS, 1977. Aphelenchoides arachidis n.sp. (Nematoda: Aphelenchoidea), an endoparasite of the testa of groundnuts in Nigeria. Zeitschrift fur Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz, 84(2):95-99

Bridge J; Bos WS; Page LJ; McDonald D, 1977. The biology and possible importance of Aphelenchoides arachidis, a seed-borne endoparasitic nematode of groundnuts from northern Nigeria. Nematologica, 23(2):253-259

Britain; Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. , 1974. Potato tuber eelworm. Advisory Leaflet, Agricultural Development and Advisory Service, Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, No. 372:5pp.

Britain; Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. , 1977. Potato tuber eelworm. Advisory Leaflet, Agricultural Development and Advisory Service, Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food., No. 372 (Revised):5 pp

Bumbu IV, 1968. The responsibility of increasing the resistance of potato to Ditylenchus infection. In: Parasites of Animals and plants. Moscow: "Nauka", No. 4, 215-219.

CABI/EPPO, 2001. Ditylenchus destructor. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No. 837, edition 1. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

CABI/EPPO, 2009. Ditylenchus destructor. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No.October. Wallingford, UK: CABI, Map 837 (Edition 3).

CABI/EPPO, 2013. Ditylenchus destructor. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No.October. Wallingford, UK: CABI, Map 837 (Edition 4).

Chukantseva NK, 1976. Some results of nematicide trials on the control of Ditylenchus destructor on potato. VIII Vsesoyuznoe soveshchanie no nematodnym boleznyam sel'skokhozyaistvennykh kul'tur. Tezisy dokladov i soobshchenii. Izdatel'stvo "Shtiintsa". Kishinev USSR, 89

Chukantseva NK, 1983. Some aspects of the study of the potato stem nematode in the Central Chernozem zone of the RSFSR. (Materialy simpoziuma, Voronezh, 27-29 Sentyabrya 1983 g.). Voronezh, USSR: Vserossiiskii NII Zashchity Rastenii, 11-27.

Darling HM, 1959. Control of the potato rot nematode in Wisconsin. Plant Disease Reporter, 43(2):239-242.

Darling HM; Adams J; Norgren RL, 1983. Field eradication of the potato rot nematode, Ditylenchus destructor: a 29-year history. Plant Disease, 67(4):422-423

Darling HM; Faulkner LR; Wallendal P, 1957. Culturing the potato rot nematode. Phytopathology, 47:7.

De Waele D; Jones BL; Bolton C; Van den Berg E, 1989. Ditylenchus destructor in hulls and seeds of peanut. Journal of Nematology, 21:10-15.

De Waele D; Jordaan EM; Basson S, 1990. Host status of seven weed species and their effects on Ditylenchus destructor infestation on peanut. Journal of Nematology, 22:292-296.

Dement'eva SP, 1980. The potato stem nematode and its control. Steblevaya nematoda kartofelya i mery bor'by s nei. "Shtiintsa". Kishinev USSR, 28 pp.

Ding ZF; Lin MS, 1982. Identification of stem nematodes from sweet potatoes, potatoes and mint in China. Acta Phytophylacica Sinica, 9(3):169-172

Duggan JJ; Moore JF, 1962. Host-range of tuber rot eelworm (Ditylenchus destructor). Irish Journal of Agricultural Research, 1:109-114.

Efremenko VP; Burshtein KhS, 1972. Potato tuber nematode and its control in the Lithuanian SSR. Nematodnye bolezni sel'skokhozyaistvennykh kul'tur i mery bor'by s nimi. Tezisy soveshchaniya. Moskva, dekabr' 1972. VASHNIL. Moscow USSR, 97-99

Efremenko VP; Burshtein KhS, 1975. Penetration routes of Ditylenchus destructor Thorne, 1945, into potatoes and agro-technical control of this infection. Byulleten' Vsesoyuznogo Instituta Gel'mintologii im. K.I. Skryabina, No. 15:47-51

EPPO, 1978. Data sheets on quarantine organisms No. 123, Ditylenchus destructor. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin 8 (2).

EPPO, 2011. EPPO Reporting Service. EPPO Reporting Service. Paris, France: EPPO. http://archives.eppo.org/EPPOReporting/Reporting_Archives.htm

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Esser RP; Smart GCJr, 1977. Potato rot nematode Ditylenchus destructor Thorne, 1945. Nematology Circular, Division of Plant Industry, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Service, No. 28:2 pp.

European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization, 2008. Ditylenchus destructor and Ditylenchus dipsaci. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin, 38(3):363-373. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/epp

Faulkner LR; Darling HM, 1961. Pathological history, hosts, and culture of the potato rot nematode. Phytopathology, 51:778-786.

Foot MA; Wood FH, 1982. Potato rot nematode, Ditylenchus destructor (Nematoda: Tylenchidae), infecting hops in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 10(4):443-446

Fujimura T; Ichita T; Kimura T, 1989. Occurrence of potato-rot nematode, Ditylenchus destructor Thorne, in garlic and control. 1. Evaluation of treatments applied before planting and after harvest for control. Japanese Journal of Nematology, 18:22-29.

German EV, 1970. Study of varietal resistance of potato to the stem nematode. Materialy II nauchnoi konferentsii molodykh spetsialistov i aspirantov. (Tezisy dokladov). Kazakhskii Nauchno-Issledovatel'skii Institut Zashchity Rastenii. Alma-Ata USSR, 50-51

German EV, 1972. Control measures against the potato stem nematode. Vestnik Sel'skokhozyaistvennoi Nauki, Alma-Ata, No. 11:109-111

Glez VM, 1973. Influence of fertilizer on the pathogenicity of Ditylenchus destructor Thorne. Selektsiya i semenovodstvo kartofelya. Moscow. USSR, 152-156

Goodey JB, 1951. The potato tuber nematode, Ditylenchus destructor Thorne, 1945; the cause of eelworm disease in bulbous iris. Annals of Applied Biology, 38(1):79-90.

Goodey JB, 1952. The influence of the host on the dimensions of the plant parasitic nematode Ditylenchus destructor. Annals of Applied Biology, 39:1468-474.

Goodey JB, 1956. The susceptibility of potato varieties to infestation by the eelworms Ditylenchus destructor and D. dipsaci. Annals of Applied Biology, 44:16-24.

Goodey JB; Franklin MT; Hooper DJ, 1965. T. Goodey's The Nematode Parasites of Plants Catalogued under their Hosts. 3rd. ed. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Guskova LA, 1966. [Distribution, pathogenicity and control of nematode diseases of potato in the Byelorussian SSR.] 'L'Kartofel', 122-126.

Haglund WA, 1983. Efficacy of selected nonvolatile nematicides on control of Ditylenchus destructor in iris. Journal of Nematology, 15(1):92-96

Hall BH; Hitch CJ; Oxspring EA; Wicks TJ, 2007. Leek diseases in Australia. Australasian Plant Pathology, 36(4):383-388. http://www.publish.csiro.au/nid/39.htm

Hart WH; Maggenti AR, 1974. The use of systemic nematicides on ornamental bulb crops. Journal of Nematology, 6(4):142

Hay FS; Pethybridge SJ, 2005. Nematodes associated with carrot production in Tasmania, Australia, and the effect of Pratylenchus crenatus on yield and quality of Kuroda-type carrot. Plant Disease, 89(11):1175-1180. HTTP://www.apsnet.org

Henderson VE, 1958. Relationship between some clovers and Ditylenchus destructor Thorne, 1945. Nature, London, 181:59-60.

Hodda M; Nobbs J, 2008. A review of current knowledge on particular taxonomic features of the Australasian nematode fauna, with special emphasis on plant feeders. Australasian Plant Pathology, 37(3):308-317. http://www.publish.csiro.au/nid/39/paper/AP08024.htm

Hooper DJ, 1973. Ditylenchus destructor. C.I.H. Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes, Set 2(No. 21):3 pp.

Hooper DJ, 1986. Extraction of free-living stages from soil. In: Southey JF, ed. Laboratory Methods for work with Plant and Soil Nematodes. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food Reference Book No. 402. London, UK: HMSO, 5-30.

IPPC, 2008. Absence of Ditylenchus destructor in Australia. IPPC Official Pest Report, No. AU-11/3. Rome, Italy: FAO. https://www.ippc.int/IPP/En/default

IPPC, 2011. Potato rot nematode. IPPC Official Pest Report, No. CAN-10/1. Rome, Italy: FAO. https://www.ippc.int/

IPPC, 2015. Absence of Ditylenchus destructor in Australia. IPPC Official Pest Report, No. AUS-11/2. Rome, Italy: FAO. https://www.ippc.int/

IPPC, 2016. Information on Pest Status in the Republic of Lithuania in 2015. IPPC Official Pest Report, No. LTU-01/2. Rome, Italy: FAO. https://www.ippc.int/

ISEHS, 1974. Twentieth Annual Report 1974. Camborne, UK: Rosewarne, Ellbridge and Isles of Scilly Experimental Horticulture Stations. Plant Nematology, 44-49.

Ismailov GM, 1976. Ditylenchus destructor on potato and its control in the Azerbaidzhan SSR. VIII Vsesoyuznoe soveshchanie no nematodnym boleznyam sel'skokhozyaistvennykh kul'tur. Tezisy dokladov i soobshchenii. Izdatel'stvo "Shtiintsa". Kishinev USSR, 76

Ivanova BP, 1971. D. destructor in the soil in Byelorussia. Byulleten' Vsesoyuznogo Instituta Gel'mintologii im. K. I. Skryabina, 6:23-26.

Ivanova BP, 1971. The role of selection in disinfection of potato from Ditylenchus destructor. Byulleten' Vsesoyuznogo Instituta Gel'mintologii im. K.I. Skryabina, 6:27-31.

Ivanova BP, 1983. The Potato Stem Nematode in Belorussia. Voronezh, USSR: Vserossiiskii NII Zashchity Rastenii, 27-33.

Ivanova BP; Bogdan VA, 1983. Distribution of Ditylenchus destructor on zonal potato varieties. Minsk, USSR: Zashchita Rastenii, 8:40-44.

Ivanova IV, 1973. The infection rate of weeds with the nematode Ditylenchus destructor. Byulleten' Vsesoyuznogo Instituta Gel'mintologii im. K.I. Skryabina, No. 11:39-42

Janowicz K, 1984. Interaction of Ditylenchus destructor and fungi causing dry rot in stored potatoes. Ochrona RoSlin, 28(3):10-11.

Janowicz K; Mazurkiewicz K, 1982. An attempt to evaluate the effect of Ditylenchus destructor on infections of potato tubers with Rhizoctonia solani. Ochrona Roslin, 26(5):8-9

Jansson HB; Nordbring-Hertz B, 1980. Interactions between nematophagous fungi and plant-parasitic nematodes: attraction, induction of trap formation and capture. Nematologica, 26(4):383-389

Jatala P; Arens ML; Pretel L, 1977. The first record of the potato-root nematode Ditylenchus destructor in Peru. Nematropica, 7(2):11

Jones BL; De Waele D, 1988. First report of Ditylenchus destructor in pods and seeds of peanut. Plant Disease, 72:453.

Jones BL; Waele Dde, 1990. Histopathology of Ditylenchus destructor on peanut. Journal of Nematology, 22(3):268-272; 9 ref.

Kapitonenko S, 1972. Agricultural technology in the control of the potato stem nematode (Ditylenchus destructor). Problemy parazitologii. Trudy VII Nauchnoi Konferentsii Parazitologov USSR. Part 1. Izdatel'stvo "Naukova Dumka". Kiev, USSR, 333-335

Katalan-Gateva Sh; Konstantinova-Milkova M, 1975. Two species of parasitic nematodes on hop in Bulgaria. 1. Godishnik na Sofiiskiya Universitet, Biologicheskie Fakultet, year 1973/74-1974/75, Kniga 1, Zoologiya, 68:49-56

Kheiri A, 1972. Plant parasitic nematodes (Tylenchida) from Iran. Biologisch Jaarboek Dodonaea, 40:224-239.

Kikas L, 1969. Potato stem nematode is a harmful pest. Sotsialistlik Pollumajandus, 24(14):637-639

Ladygina NM; Volodchenko ZG, 1972. Nematode Fauna of Flower Crops in the Town of Khar'kov (Ukraine). Kiev, USSR: Izdatel'stvo "Naukova Dumka".

Maggenti AR; Hart WH, 1975. Carbamate and phosphate nematicidal granules, drenches and dips for the control of Ditylenchus destructor on bulbous iris, variety Wedgewood. Plant Disease Reporter, 59(3):233-235

Moore JF, 1971. Potato varieties susceptible to Ditylenchus destructor, the potato tuber nematode. Irish Journal of Agricultural Research, 10:239-240.

Moore JF, 1978. Susceptibility of Golden Wonder and King Edward potato cultivars to Ditylenchus destructor, the potato tuber nematode. Irish Journal of Agricultural Research, 17(2):213-216

Myuge SG, 1957. On the trophic characteristics of the potato stem nematode. Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR (ser. biol.), Year 1957, No. 3:357-359.

Nagva Abdel' Khamed; Shapoval NM, 1977. Nematicidal properties of some phytoncides (plant extracts). Nauchnye Trudy Ukrainskoi Sel'skokhozyaistvennoi Akademii (Zashchita rastenii ot vreditelei i boleznei), No.200:46-48

Nakanishi Y, 1979. Host range and the control of Ditylenchus destructor in bulbous iris. Proceedings of the Kansai Plant Protection Society, No21.:12-20

Netherlands; Laboratorium voor Bloembollenonderzoek, 1973. Annual report of the Bulb Research Centre for 1972. Jaarverslag 1972. Lisse., 86 pp.

O'Bannon JH; Esser RP, 1987. Regulatory perspectives in Nematology, pp. 38-46. In: Veech JA, Dickson DW, eds. Vistas in Nematology. Hyattsville, USA: Society of Nematologists.

Olefir VV, 1969. [Resistance to Ditylenchus destructor of some potatoes from a collection from the Ustimov Research Station]. Problemy Parazit., Part II, 320-322.

Planer FR, 1972. Above ground stem infection caused by Ditylenchus destructor. Nematologica, 18:417.

Polozhenets' VM, 1977. Re-infection of potato plants by bacterial diseases and stem nematode in relation to the area of nutrition. Kartoplyarstvo, No.8:38-40

Pupavkina GM, 1971. Increase of Ditylenchus destructor on cultures of fungi. Byulleten' Vsesoyuznogo Instituta Gel'mintologii im. K. I. Skryabina, 6:73-75.

Rasinya BP, 1972. Results of Basudin and Zinophos treatments in controlling nematodes of the potato. Kratkie doklady po voprosam zashchity rastenii. (VIII Pribaltiiskaya konferentsiya po zashchite rastenii. Part II). Litovskii Nauchno-Issledovatel'skii Institut Zemledeliya. Kaunas USSR, 92-94

Riley IT; Kelly SJ, 2002. Endoparasitic nematodes in cropping soils of Western Australia. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 42(1):49-56.

Savchuk NA; Savchuk OE, 1972. The effect of damage to agricultural produce by plant nematodes on the physiological condition of animals. Nematodnye bolezni sel'skokhozyaistvennykh kul'tur i mery bor'by s nimi. Tezisy soveshchaniya. Moskva, dekabr' 1972. VASHNIL. Moscow USSR, 31

Seinhorst JW, 1949. Stengelaaltjes enknollenaaltjes bij aardappelen. Landbouwk. Tijdschr., 61:638-641.

Sepselev ZG; Glez VM, 1973. Effect of fertilizers on viability of Ditylenchus destructor. Selektsiya i semenovodstvo kartofelya. Moscow. USSR, 157-162

Smirnova NS; Koev GV, 1976. Some control techniques for Ditylenchus destructor on strawberry seed beds in the Moldavian SSR. VIII Vsesoyuznoe soveshchanie no nematodnym boleznyam sel'skokhozyaistvennykh kul'tur. Tezisy dokladov i soobshchenii. Izdatel'stvo "Shtiintsa". Kishinev USSR, 86-87

Stefan K, 1980. The problem of potato resistance to Ditylenchus destructor. Zeszyty Problemowe Postepow Nauk Rolniczych, No. 232:55-61

Stoeen M, 1977. Potato tuber eelworm, Ditylenchus destructor: attack and damage to potato and carrot. Gartneryrket, 67(36):1034-1036

Sturhan D; Hampel G, 1977. Plant-parasitic nematodes as prey of the bulb mite Rhizoglyphus echinopus (Acarina, Tyroglyphidae). Anzieger für Schadlingskunde, Pflanzenschutz, Umweltschutz, 50:115-118

Sun JY; Xu CQ; Wu JY; Guo XD; Tang J; Li YX, 1994. Identification of sweet potato germplasm resources newly collected from Yunnan-Guizhou plateau. Crop Genetic Resources, No. 4:5-8; 2 ref.

Thistlethwayte B, 1961. ===. Australian Plant Disease Recorder, 13(2).

Thorne G, 1945. Ditylenchus destructor, n.sp., the potato rot nematode, and Ditylenchus dipsaci (Kühn, 1857) Filipjev, 1936, the teasel nematode (Nematoda: Tylenchidae). Proceedings Helminthological Society of Washington, 12:27-34.

Thorne G, 1961. Principles of Nematology. London, UK: McGraw Hill.

Tsay TT, 1995. Quarantine of plant-parasitic nematodes. Plant Pathology Bulletin, 4(2):43-59.

Usmanova AZ, 1972. Ditylenchus destructor, a serious parasite of potatoes. Gel'minty pishchevykh produktov. Tezisy dokladov mezhrespublikanskoi nauchnoi konferentsii, 22-25 Dekabrya 1972 goda. Samarkandskii Kooperativnyi Institut im. V.V. Kuibysheva. Samarkand USSR, 69-70

Van der Walt; De Waele D, 1989. Mass culture of the potato rot nematode Ditylenchus destructor on groundnut callus tissue. Phytophylactica, 21:79-80.

Viglierchio DR, 1978. Stylet-bearing nemas and growth of ponderosa pine seedlings. Forest Science, 24:222-227.

Vorona VF, 1984. Trials with heterophos against the potato stem nematode. Byulleten' Vsessoyuznogo Instituta Gel'mintologii im. K.L. Skryabina, 34: 69-70.

Waele Dde; Walt PCWvan der; Wilken R; Basson S; Jordaan EM, 1990. In vitro embryo explant cultures of peanut to evaluate resistance to Ditylenchus destructor. Journal of Nematology, 22(3):321-326; 22 ref.

Waele Dde; Wilken R, 1990. Effect of temperature on the in vitro reproduction of Ditylenchus destructor isolated from groundnut. Revue de Ne^acute~matologie, 13(2):171-174; 9 ref.

Walker GE, 2004. Associations between carrot defects and nematodes in South Australia. Australasian Plant Pathology, 33(4):579-584.

Wang QM; Chang CX; Wang JJ; Xi GH, 1995. Identification of resistance to stem nematode in sweet potato. Crop Genetic Resources, No. 2:36-37.

Wendt KR; Swart A; Vrain TC; Webster JM, 1995. Ditylenchus africanus sp. n. from South Africa; a morphological and molecular characterization. Fundamental and Applied Nematology, 18(3):241-250; 12 ref.

Wilski A, 1972. The control of potato rot eelworm, Ditylenchus destructor Thorne, in potato tubers by dipping in Nemafos. Biuletyn Instytutu Ochrony Roslin, 54:191-197.

Winslow RD, 1978. An overview of the important nematode pests of potato. International Potato Center. Report of the 2nd planning conference on the developments in the control of nematode pests of potatoes, Lima, Peru, 13-17 November 1978. Lima, Peru: CIP, 16-30.

Wu LY, 1958. Morphology of Ditylenchus destructor Thorne, 1945 (Nematoda: Tylenchidae) from a pure culture, with special reference to reproductive systems and esophageal glands. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 36:569-576.

Wu LY, 1960. Further observations on the morphology of Ditylenchus destructor Thorne, 1945 (Nematoda: Tylenchidae). Canadian Journal of Zoology, 38:47-49.

Young HK; Seung HO, 1995. In vitro culture and factors affecting population changes of Ditylenchus destructor of ginseng. Korean Journal of Plant Pathology, 11:39-46.

Yu Q; Zaida MA; Hughes B; Celetti M, 2012. Discovery of potato rot nematode, Ditylenchus destructor, infesting garlic in Ontario, Canada. Plant Disease, 96(2):297. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map