Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Stenocarpella maydis
(ear rot of maize)

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Datasheet

Stenocarpella maydis (ear rot of maize)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 06 January 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Stenocarpella maydis
  • Preferred Common Name
  • ear rot of maize
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Ascomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •         Class: Sordariomycetes

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Infected ear on maize plant before harvest.
TitleField symptoms
CaptionInfected ear on maize plant before harvest.
CopyrightBradley Flett
Infected ear on maize plant before harvest.
Field symptomsInfected ear on maize plant before harvest.Bradley Flett
Infected maize ear.
TitleSymptoms on maize ear
CaptionInfected maize ear.
CopyrightISU
Infected maize ear.
Symptoms on maize earInfected maize ear.ISU
White ear rot of maize caused by S. maydis.
TitleSymptoms on maize ears
CaptionWhite ear rot of maize caused by S. maydis.
CopyrightR. Cassini/INRA, Versailles
White ear rot of maize caused by S. maydis.
Symptoms on maize earsWhite ear rot of maize caused by S. maydis.R. Cassini/INRA, Versailles
S. maydis-infected ears showing browning of kernels and ramification of white mycelium.
TitleSymptoms on maize ears
CaptionS. maydis-infected ears showing browning of kernels and ramification of white mycelium.
CopyrightBradley Flett
S. maydis-infected ears showing browning of kernels and ramification of white mycelium.
Symptoms on maize earsS. maydis-infected ears showing browning of kernels and ramification of white mycelium.Bradley Flett
Internal cob rot.
TitleSymptoms on maize ear
CaptionInternal cob rot.
CopyrightISU
Internal cob rot.
Symptoms on maize earInternal cob rot.ISU
Stalk rot on maize.
TitleSymptoms on maize stalk
CaptionStalk rot on maize.
CopyrightISU
Stalk rot on maize.
Symptoms on maize stalkStalk rot on maize.ISU
Pycnidia of S. maydis on maize stubble, releasing spores (conidia) from the cirrhi. Pycnidia are 150-300 µm diameter
TitlePycnidia
CaptionPycnidia of S. maydis on maize stubble, releasing spores (conidia) from the cirrhi. Pycnidia are 150-300 µm diameter
CopyrightBradley Flett
Pycnidia of S. maydis on maize stubble, releasing spores (conidia) from the cirrhi. Pycnidia are 150-300 µm diameter
PycnidiaPycnidia of S. maydis on maize stubble, releasing spores (conidia) from the cirrhi. Pycnidia are 150-300 µm diameterBradley Flett
Scanning electron micrograph of  pycnidium and cirrhus containing spores.
TitleElectron micrograph of pycnidium
CaptionScanning electron micrograph of pycnidium and cirrhus containing spores.
CopyrightBradley Flett
Scanning electron micrograph of  pycnidium and cirrhus containing spores.
Electron micrograph of pycnidiumScanning electron micrograph of pycnidium and cirrhus containing spores.Bradley Flett
Double-celled spores of S. maydis (15-34 x 5-8 µm).
TitleConidia
CaptionDouble-celled spores of S. maydis (15-34 x 5-8 µm).
CopyrightBradley Flett
Double-celled spores of S. maydis (15-34 x 5-8 µm).
ConidiaDouble-celled spores of S. maydis (15-34 x 5-8 µm).Bradley Flett

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Stenocarpella maydis (Berk.) B. Sutton

Preferred Common Name

  • ear rot of maize

Other Scientific Names

  • Diplodia maydicola Speg.
  • Diplodia maydis (Berk.) Sacc.
  • Diplodia zeae (Schwein.) Lév.
  • Diplodia zeae-maydis Mechtij.
  • Hendersonia zeae (Schwein.) Hazsl.
  • Macrodiplodia zeae (Schwein.) Petr. & Syd.
  • Phaeostagonosporopsis zeae (Schwein.) Woron.
  • Sphaeria maydis Berk.
  • Sphaeria zeae Schwein.

International Common Names

  • English: Diplodia ear and stalk rot; leaf blight of maize; leaf blight of Sorghum spp.; leaf spot of grasses; leaf spot of maize; seedling blight of maize; stalk rot of maize; white ear rot of maize
  • Spanish: enmohecimiento de la mazorca; podredumbre del tallo del maiz; pudricion del tallo del maiz
  • French: maladie du 'dry-rot' du mais; pourriture des tiges du mais; pourriture seche des epis du mais; pourriture seche du mais

Local Common Names

  • Brazil: podridâo da espaiga; podridâo do colmo
  • Germany: Mais Trockenfaeule
  • Italy: marciume secco

EPPO code

  • DIPDMA (Stenocarpella maydis)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Ascomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •                 Class: Sordariomycetes
  •                     Subclass: Sordariomycetidae
  •                         Order: Diaporthales
  •                             Genus: Stenocarpella
  •                                 Species: Stenocarpella maydis

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 23 Apr 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
Congo, Republic of thePresentSutton and Waterston (1966); EPPO (2020)
EswatiniPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
EthiopiaPresentTewabech Tilahun et al. (2002); EPPO (2020)
GhanaPresentNwigwe (1974); EPPO (2020)
KenyaPresentSutton and Waterston (1966); UK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
MalawiPresentSutton and Waterston (1966); EPPO (2020)
NigeriaPresentIloba (1978); EPPO (2020)
South AfricaPresent, WidespreadSutton and Waterston (1966); De Wet (1989); UK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
TanzaniaPresentSutton and Waterston (1966); EPPO (2020)
UgandaPresentBigirwa et al. (2007); EPPO (2020)
ZambiaPresentMarasas et al. (1978); UK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
ZimbabwePresent, Few occurrencesSutton and Waterston (1966); UK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)

Asia

ChinaPresent, LocalizedUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
-GansuPresentEPPO (2020)
-GuangdongPresentEPPO (2020)
-GuangxiPresentEPPO (2020)
-GuizhouPresentEPPO (2020)
-HenanPresentEPPO (2020)
-HubeiPresentEPPO (2020)
-JiangsuPresentEPPO (2020)
-JilinPresentEPPO (2020)
-LiaoningPresentEPPO (2020)
-ShanxiPresentEPPO (2020)
-SichuanPresentEPPO (2020)
-TibetPresentWangmu et al. (2001)
-YunnanPresentEPPO (2020)
IndiaPresentSutton and Waterston (1966); UK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
-SikkimPresentKAPOOR (1963); EPPO (2020)
IranPresentZad and Ale-Agha (1985); EPPO (2020)
JapanAbsent, Intercepted onlyEPPO (2020)
NepalPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
PakistanPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
South KoreaPresentChoi et al. (1994); EPPO (2020)
TaiwanPresent, Few occurrencesEPPO (2020)
ThailandPresentSmalley (1992); EPPO (2020)

Europe

AustriaAbsent, Formerly presentEPPO (2020)
BulgariaAbsent, Intercepted onlyEPPO (2020)
CroatiaAbsent, Formerly presentEPPO (2020)
CzechiaPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
FranceAbsent, Formerly presentEPPO (2020)
ItalyPresent, LocalizedPicco et al. (1994); EPPO (2020)
PortugalAbsent, Formerly presentEPPO (2020)
RussiaAbsent, Formerly presentSutton and Waterston (1966); EPPO (2020)
SerbiaPresentEPPO (2020)
Serbia and MontenegroPresentUK, CAB International (1996)
SpainPresent, Few occurrencesEPPO (2020)
United KingdomAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)UK, CAB International (1996); CABI (2019); EPPO (2020)T Caine, personal communication. CABI, Egham, UK.
-EnglandAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)EPPO (2020)

North America

BelizePresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
CanadaPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
-OntarioPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
HondurasPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
MexicoPresentEPPO (2020)
United StatesPresent, LocalizedSutton and Waterston (1966); UK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
-AlabamaPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
-ArkansasPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
-CaliforniaPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
-ConnecticutPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
-DelawarePresentByrnes and Carroll (1986); UK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
-FloridaPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
-GeorgiaPresentMiller (1952); UK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
-IllinoisPresentAnderson and White (1987); UK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
-IndianaPresentEdwards (1939); UK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
-IowaPresentDurrell (1923); UK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
-KansasPresentMelchers and Johnston (1924); UK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
-KentuckyPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
-LouisianaPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
-MainePresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
-MarylandPresentEdwards (1939); UK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
-MassachusettsPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
-MichiganPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
-MinnesotaPresentKAPPELMAN et al. (1965); UK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
-MississippiPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
-MissouriPresentKAPPELMAN et al. (1965); UK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
-NebraskaPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
-New JerseyPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
-New YorkPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
-North CarolinaPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
-North DakotaPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
-OhioPresentEdwards (1939); UK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
-OklahomaPresentKAPPELMAN et al. (1965); UK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
-PennsylvaniaPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
-Rhode IslandPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
-South CarolinaPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
-South DakotaPresentCarson and Wicks (1993); UK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
-TennesseePresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
-TexasPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
-VirginiaPresentRoane (1950); UK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
-WashingtonPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
-West VirginiaPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
-WisconsinPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)

Oceania

AustraliaPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
-New South WalesPresentEPPO (2020)
New ZealandPresentSayer (1991); EPPO (2020)

South America

ArgentinaPresentSutton and Waterston (1966); EPPO (2020)
BrazilPresent, LocalizedSutton and Waterston (1966); EPPO (2020)
-Minas GeraisPresentEPPO (2020)
-ParanaPresentDenti and Reis (2003); EPPO (2020)
-Rio Grande do SulPresentBrancão et al. (1998); EPPO (2020)
-Santa CatarinaPresentEPPO (2020)
ColombiaPresentSutton and Waterston (1966); EPPO (2020)
EcuadorPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Inflorescence / discoloration panicle
Leaves / wilting
Roots / necrotic streaks or lesions
Roots / reduced root system
Seeds / discolorations
Seeds / rot
Stems / discoloration of bark
Stems / mould growth on lesion
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx fruiting bodies; hyphae Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Roots hyphae Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches fruiting bodies; hyphae Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
True seeds (inc. grain) fruiting bodies; hyphae Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Fruits (inc. pods)
Growing medium accompanying plants
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
Wood

References

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Abney TS, Foley DC, 1971. Influence of nutrition on stalk rot development of Zea mays. Phytopathology, 61:1125-1129

Anderson B, White DG, 1987. Fungi associated with cornstalks in Illinois in 1982 and 1983. Plant Disease, 71(2):135-137; 12 ref

Anderson B, White DG, 1994. Evaluation of methods for identification of corn genotypes with stalk rot and lodging resistance. Plant Disease, 78(6):590-593

Bansal RK, 1969. A study of the factors associated with resistance to stalk rot, Diplodia zeae (Schw.) Lév, in corn (Zea mays L.). Dissertation Abstracts, 289:2712-B

Be Miller JN, Tegtmeier DO, Pappelis AJ, 1968. Cellulolytic activity of Diplodia zeae. Phytopathology, 58:1336-1339

Bensch MJ, 1995. An evaluation of inoculation techniques inducing Stenocarpella maydis ear rot on maize. South African Journal of Plant and Soil, 12(4):172-174

Bensch MJ, 1995. Stenocarpella maydis (Berk.) Sutton colonization of maize ears. Journal of Phytopathology, 143(10):597-599; 12 ref

Bensch MJ, Flett BC, 1996. Optimal growth stage for inoculation of maize with Stenocarpella maydis to induce ear rot. European Journal of Plant Pathology, in press

Bensch MJ, Staden J van, Rijkenberg FHJ, 1992. Time and site of inoculation of maize for optimum infection of ears by Stenocarpella maydis. Journal of Phytopathology, 136(4):265-269

Bensch MJ, Staden Jvan, 1992. Ultrastructural histopathology of infection and colonization of maize by Stenocarpella maydis (= Diplodia maydis). Journal of Phytopathology, 136(4):312-318

Beukes HMB, Flett BC, 1992. Efficacy of three fungicides in the control of Stenocarpella maydis ear rot of maize. Proceedings of the 30th South African Society of Plant Pathology Congress, Cintsa, East London. Phytophylactica, 24:106

Bigirwa G, Kaaya AN, Sseruwu G, Adipala E, Okanya S, 2007. Incidence and severity of maize ear rots and factors responsible for their occurrence in Uganda. Journal of Applied Sciences, 7(23):3780-3785. http://www.ansinet.org/jas

Bizzetto A, Homechin M, Silva HPda, 2000. Diplodia maydis and Gibberella zeae: mycelial production and sporulation in natural substrates and culture media. Summa Phytopathologica, 26(1):88-91; 17 ref

Brancao N, Porto MP, Ferreira E, 1998. Pathogens associated with corn grains in 1997/98 season. Agropecuária Clima Temperado, 1(2):297-299; 2 ref

Bressan W, 2003. Biological control of maize seed pathogenic fungi by use of actinomycetes. BioControl, 48(2):233-240

Byrnes KJ, Carroll RB, 1986. Fungi causing stalk rot of conventional-tillage and no-tillage corn in Delaware. Plant Disease, 70(3):238-239; [3 tab.]; 10 ref

CABI, 2019. T Caine, personal communication, CABI, Egham, UK.

CABI/EPPO, 1998. Distribution maps of quarantine pests for Europe (edited by Smith IM, Charles LMF). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, xviii + 768 pp

Calvert OH, Zuber MS, Neuffer MG, 1969. Vivipary in Zea mays induced by Diplodia maydis. Phytopathology, 59:239-240

Cappelini FA, Peterson JL, 1966. Production, in vitro, of certain pectolytic and cellulolytic enzymes by fungi associated with corn stalk rot. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club, 93:52-55

Carson ML, Wicks ZW III, 1993. Response of a maize synthetic to S recurrent selection for grain yield in a disease-stress environment. Maydica, 38(3):193-199

Carvalho EM, Machado JC, Pinho EVR von, Pozza EA, Prado PER, 2004. Relation of maize seed size and doses of fungicide in controlling Stenocarpella maydis. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 29(4): 389-393

Casa RT, Zambolim L, Reis EM, 1998. Transmission and control of Diplodia in maize seeds. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 23(4):436-441; 25 ref

Chambers KR, 1982. Some aspects of root and stalk rot of maize. Proceedings of the South African Maize Breeding Symposium (5th). Department of Agriculture and Water supply Technical Communication 182, 50-53

Chambers KR, 1987. Stalk rot of maize: host-pathogen interaction. Journal of Phytopathology, 118(2):103-108; 18 ref

Chambers KR, 1988. Effect of time of inoculation on Diplodia stalk and ear rot of maize in South Africa. Plant Disease, 72(6):529-531

Choi KJ, Lee HS, Park SE, Chin MS, Park KY, 1994. Stay-green characteristics and characters related to stay-green in maize inbred lines. RDA Journal of Agricultural Science, Upland & Industrial Crops, 36(1):127-134

Christenson JJ, Wilcoxsen RD, 1966. Stalk rot of corn. Monograph 3. St Paul, Minnesota, USA: American Phytopathology Society

Clark RL, Foley DC, 1985. Stalk rot resistance and strength of maize stalks from the Plant Introduction collection. Plant Disease, 69(5):419-422

Clayton EE, 1927. Diplodia ear rot disease of corn. Journal of Agricultural Research, 34:357-371

Coors JG, Mardones MC, 1989. Registration of W552, W570, W572, and W576 parental lines of maize. Crop Science, 29(1):247-248

Craig J, Hooker AL, 1961. Relation of sugar trends and pith density to Diplodia stalk rot in dent corn. Phytopathology, 51:376-382

Crosier W, 1946. Chemical control of seed-borne fungi during germination testing of peas and sweet corn. Phytopathology, 36:92-99

Dabler JM, Pappelis AJ, BeMiller JN, 1969. Effect of phenolic acids and corn extracts upon spore germination of Diplodia zeae. Phytopathology, 59:1098-1101

Dai K, Nagai M, Sasaki H, Nakamura H, Takechi K, Warabi M, 1987. Detection of Diplodia maydis (Berkeley) Saccardo from imported corn seed. Research Bulletin of the Plant Protection Service, Japan, No. 23:1-6

De Wet DC, 1989. The incidence of Stenocarpella maydis and Fusarium moniliforme in down- graded maize in South Africa. Proceedings of the twenty-seventh South African Society of Plant Pathology Congress, Cape Town, South Africa: University of Cape Town

Denti EA, Reis EM, 2003. Survey of fungi associated with stalk rot and damage quantification in corn fields of Planalto Médio and Campos Gerais of Paraná. (Levantamento de fungos associados às podridões do colmo e quantificação de danos em lavouras de milho do Planalto Médio gaúcho e dos Campos Gerais do Paraná.) Fitopatologia Brasileira, 28(6):585-590. http://www.scielo.br/pdf/fb/v28n6/a01v28n6.pdf

Dimitrijevic M, 1977. The most important diseases of maize transmitted by seeds with special reference to Fusarium species. Biljna Zastita, 21(1):28-31

Dodd JL, 1980. The role of plant stresses in development of corn stalk rots. Plant Disease, 64(6):533-537

Dorrance AE, Hinkelmann KH, Warren HL, 1998. Diallel analysis of Diplodia ear rot resistance in maize. Plant Disease, 82(6):699-703; 30 ref

Dorrance AE, Miller OK, Warren HL, 1999. Comparison of Stenocarpella maydis isolates for isozyme and cultural characteristics. Plant Disease, 83(7):675-680; 46 ref

Durrell LW, 1923. Dry rot of corn. Iowa Agricultural Experimental Station Research Bulletin 77

Edwards ET, 1939. Internal grain infection and kernel rot in the 1938 American maize crop. Journal of the Australian Institute of Agricultural Science, 5:25-31

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Faiad MGR, Wetzel MMVS, Salomao AN, Cunha R, 1996. Evaluation of fungi in seed germplasm before long term storage. Seed Science and Technology, 24(3):505-511; 29 ref

Fajemisin JM, Hooker AL, 1974. Predisposition in Diplodia stalk rot in corn affected by three Helminthosporium leaf blights. Phytopathology, 64(12):1496-1499

Fakorede MAB, Mock JJ, 1978. Relationships between grain yield and agronomic traits in five maize variety hybrids. Iowa State Journal of Research, 52:355-360

Fernández HR, 1990. Identification of the causal organisms of maize (Zea mays L.) ear rot in Honduras. Ceiba, 31(1):15-20; 4 ref

Fincham JE, Hewlett R, De Graaf AS, Taljaard JJF, Steytler JG, Rabie CJ, Leier JV, Venter FS, Woodroof GW, Wynchank S, 1991. Mycotoxic peripheral myelinopathy, myopathy and hepatitis caused by Diplodia maydis in vervet monkeys. Journal of Medical Primatology, 20:240-250

Flett BC, 1991. Crop plants as hosts and non-hosts of Stenocarpella maydis. Phytophylactica, 23(3):237-238

Flett BC, 1995. Incidence of ear rot pathogens on maize under different crop rotation systems. Proceedings of the 33rd Southern African Society of Plant Pathology congress, Thaba Nchu

Flett BC, 1995. Integrated disease management of Stenocarpella maydis ear rot of maize. Proceedings of the Combined Congress of the South African Society of Crop Science, Stellenbosch, South Africa

Flett BC, Bensch MJ, Smit E, Fourie H, 1996. A field guide for identification of maize diseases in South Africa. ARC - Grain Crops Institute

Flett BC, McLaren NW, 1994. Optimum disease potential for evaluating resistance to Stenocarpella maydis ear rot in corn hybrids. Plant Disease, 78(6):587-589

Flett BC, McLaren NW, Wehner FC, 1998. Incidence of ear rot pathogens under alternating corn tillage practices. Plant Disease, 82(7):781-784; 32 ref

Flett BC, McLaren NW, Wehner FC, 2001. Incidence of Stenocarpella maydis ear rot of corn under crop rotation systems. Plant Disease, 85(1):92-94; 11 ref

Flett BC, Rensburg JBJvan, 1992. Effect of Busseola fusca on the incidence of maize ear rot caused by Fusarium moniliforme and Stenocarpella maydis.. South African Journal of Plant and Soil, 9(4):177-179; 16 ref

Flett BC, Wehner FC, 1991. Incidence of Stenocarpella and Fusarium cob rots in monoculture maize under different tillage systems. Journal of Phytopathology, 133(4):327-333; 20 ref

Flett BC, Wehner FC, Smith MF, 1992. Relationship between maize stubble placement in soil and survival of Stenocarpella maydis (Diplodia maydis). Journal of Phytopathology, 134(1):33-38

Foley DC, Wernham CC, 1957. The effect of fertilizers on stalk rot of corn in Pennsylvania. Phytopathology, 47:11-12

Gevers HO, Lake JK, McNab NJ, 1990. An analysis of ear rot and leaf blight resistance in Departmental maize breeding material. In: Proceedings of the 9th South African Maize Breeding Symposium. Department of Agriculture and Water Supply Technical Communication 232, 41-43

Grombacher AW, Russell WA, Guthrie WD, 1989. Effects of recurrent selection in two maize synthetics on agronomic traits of S lines. Maydica, 34(4):343-352

Hooker AL, 1977. Stalk rot resistance through gamete selection from exotic maize. Maydica, 22(4):173-186

Hooker AL, Britton MP, 1962. The effects of stalk rot on corn yields in Illinois. Plant Disease, 72:529-531

Hopkins JCF, 1939. The Diplodia danger. Rhodesian Agricultural Journal, 36:721-723

Hoppe PE, 1936. Intraspecific and interspecific aversion in Diplodia. Journal of Agricultural Research, 53:671-680

Hoppe PE, 1942. Relative prevalence and geographic distribution of various ear rot fungi in the 1941 corn crop. Plant Disease Reporter, 26:145-149

Huber DM, Watson RD, 1974. Nitrogen form and plant disease. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 12:139-165

Iloba C, 1978. Survey of seed-borne fungi of Zea mays L. in Imo and Anambra States of Nigeria. Tropenlandwirt, 79(October):133-139

Jarvis JL, Clark RL, Guthrie WD, 1982. Effect of second-generation European corn borers on resistance of maize to Diplodia maydis. Phytopathology, 72(9):1149-1152

Johann H, Dickson AD, 1945. A soluble substance in cornstalks that retards growth of Diplodia zeae in culture. Journal of Agricultural Research, 71:89-110

Josephson LM, 1962. Effects of potash on premature dying and lodging of corn. Agronomy Journal, 54:179-180

Kapoor JN, 1963. Cob rot of maize in Sikkim. Indian Phytopathology, 16:381-382

Kappelman AJ, Thompson DL, Nelson RR, 1965. Virulence of 20 isolates of Diplodia zeae as revealed by stalk rot development in corn. Crop Science, 5:541-543

Kellerman TS, Nel PW, 1987. The potential dangers to livestock of maize affected by cob rot. Onderstepoort Newsletter, 87:5-7

Kellerman TS, Prozesky L, Schultz RA, Rabie CJ, Van Ark H, Maartens BD, Lubben A, 1991. Perinatal mortality in lambs of ewes exposed to cultures of Diplodia maydis (=Stenocarpella maydis) during gestation. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research, 58:297-308

Kent GC, 1940. An inhibitor produced by Diplodia zeae (Schw.) L., v. Research Bulletin. Iowa Agricultural Experimental Station, 274

Klapproth JC, Hawk JA, 1991. Evaluation of four inoculation techniques for infecting corn with Stenocarpella maydis. Plant Disease, 75(10):1057-1060

Kobayashi T, 1990. Impact of seed-borne pathogens on quarantine in Japan. Seed Science and Technology, 18(2):427-433; 15 ref

Koehler B, 1942. Natural mode of entrance of fungi into corn ears and some symptoms that indicate infection. Journal of Agricultural Research, 64:421-442

Koehler B, 1953. Ratings of some yellow corn inbreds for ear rot resistance. Plant Disease Reporter, 37:440-444

Koehler B, 1959. Corn ear rots in Illinois. Ill. Agric. Exp. Stn. Bull 639

Koehler B, 1960. Cornstalk rots in Illinois. Ill. Agric. Exp. Stn. Bull. 658

Koehler B, Dungan GH, Holbert JR, 1925. Factors influencing lodging in corn. Illinois Agricultural Experimental Station Bulletin, 311-371

Kruger W, 1968. Efficacy and phytotoxicity of seed treatments of maize. Phytopathologische Zeitschrift, 62:174-189

Kruger W, Grobler JH, Du Plooy J, 1965. The influence of fertilizers and plant population on the incidence of stalk rot in maize. South African Journal of Agricultural Science, 8:713-716

Liebhart WC, Murdock JT, 1965. Effect of potassium on morphology and lodging of corn. Agronomy Journal, 57:325-328

Lima AL, Pierobom CR, Luc WC da, Zanela C, 1998. Effect of bioprotectors on control of pathogens and performance of corn seeds. Revista Cientifica rural, 3(2):99-105

Littlefield LJ, Wilcoxson RD, 1962. Histological study of corn stalk rot. Phytopathology, 52:18

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Distribution References

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