Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Diodia teres
(poorjoe)

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Datasheet

Diodia teres (poorjoe)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 21 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Diodia teres
  • Preferred Common Name
  • poorjoe
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • D. teres is an annual plant with high reproductive potential. It is reported to be an invasive species in some US states and in Brazil. It is most conspicuous in natural pastures, however its impact is generally low compared with other weedy species.

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
D. teres: plant in leaf and flower.
TitleFlowering plant
CaptionD. teres: plant in leaf and flower.
Copyright©Kurt G. Kissmann
D. teres: plant in leaf and flower.
Flowering plantD. teres: plant in leaf and flower.©Kurt G. Kissmann
Seedling of D. teres.
TitleSeedling
CaptionSeedling of D. teres.
Copyright©Kurt G. Kissmann
Seedling of D. teres.
SeedlingSeedling of D. teres.©Kurt G. Kissmann
D. teres: fruits and seed; Coccus (a & b) dorsal and ventral sides; Seed (c & d) dorsal and ventral sides.
TitleFruit and seed
CaptionD. teres: fruits and seed; Coccus (a & b) dorsal and ventral sides; Seed (c & d) dorsal and ventral sides.
Copyright©Kurt G. Kissmann
D. teres: fruits and seed; Coccus (a & b) dorsal and ventral sides; Seed (c & d) dorsal and ventral sides.
Fruit and seedD. teres: fruits and seed; Coccus (a & b) dorsal and ventral sides; Seed (c & d) dorsal and ventral sides.©Kurt G. Kissmann

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Diodia teres Walt. (1788)

Preferred Common Name

  • poorjoe

Other Scientific Names

  • Diodia prostrata Sw.

International Common Names

  • English: rough buttonweed
  • Portuguese: mata-pasto

Local Common Names

  • Brazil: mata pasto; quebra tijela de folha estreita

EPPO code

  • DIQTE (Diodia teres)

Summary of Invasiveness

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D. teres is an annual plant with high reproductive potential. It is reported to be an invasive species in some US states and in Brazil. It is most conspicuous in natural pastures, however its impact is generally low compared with other weedy species.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Gentianales
  •                         Family: Rubiaceae
  •                             Genus: Diodia
  •                                 Species: Diodia teres

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Maguire et al. (1972) concluded that D. prostrata Sw. and D. teres Walt. should not be treated as separate species but as interrelated subspecies. They identified the following subspecies, varieties and forms of D. teres: D. teres subsp. teres (and varieties), D. teres subsp. angustata var. angustata f. angustata, D. teres subsp. angustata var. angustata f. latior, D. teres subsp. prostrata var. prostrata f. leiocarpa, D. teres subsp. prostrata var. prostrata f. prostrata and D. teres subsp. prostrata var. prostrata f. latifolia. The differences between subspecies teres, angustata and prostrata are based on floral characters and stem hairs. Five varieties are listed by USDA-NRCS (2003): vars teres, angustata, hirsutior, hystricina and oblongifolia. For the purpose of this data sheet, no distinctions are drawn between subspecies and varieties.

Description

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D. teres is an annual, herbaceous forb, presenting variable morphological characteristics. It can be prostrate or erect, 10-40 (-80) cm high. Taproot slender and branching, secondary roots shallow. Stem generally branched with nearly circular spread; circular or slightly angular in cross section, densely hairy, reddish brown. Leaves in pairs, opposite, their bases clasping the stem at its joints, appendage of fused stipules, presenting long bristles. Blades green, linear to narrowly elliptic, tapering to a long point, smooth margins, surfaces roughened by stiff hairs. Flowers in groups of two or three (-six), located at the base of leaves or leaf axils, calyx with four lanceolate sepals 1 mm long, corolla of fused petals forming a tube 4-5 mm long, with four equal lobes, whitish-pink to lavender. Fruits are ovoid schizocarps with two persistent sepals at the apex, at maturity splitting from the apex in two cocci, every coccus with one seed, seeds oboval in outline 2.5-4 mm long, light brown.

Seedling with light-green hypocotyl. Cotyledon blades with short petiole, slightly thickened. Leaves opposite, with short petiole, not much different from the blade. Basal appendage of bristly branched stipule, developing earlier than the juvenile leaf blades. Hypocotyl, epicotyl and stem bearing short stiff and some longer downwardly directed hairs.

Plant Type

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Annual
Broadleaved
Herbaceous
Seed propagated

Distribution

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D. teres is native to the Americas and is present in parts of the USA, Mexico, Central America, Caribbean and South America.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

MadagascarPresent

Asia

IndiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-PunjabPresent

North America

BelizePresentNative
Costa RicaPresentNative
CubaPresentNative
Dominican RepublicPresentNative
HondurasPresentNative
JamaicaPresentNative
MexicoPresentNative
Netherlands AntillesPresentOriginal citation: Maguire et al. (1972)
NicaraguaPresentNative
PanamaPresentNative
United StatesPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AlabamaPresentNative
-ArizonaPresentNative
-ArkansasPresentNative
-CaliforniaPresentNative
-ConnecticutPresentNative
-DelawarePresentNative
-FloridaPresentNative
-GeorgiaPresentNative
-IllinoisPresentNative
-IndianaPresentNative
-IowaPresentNative
-KansasPresentNative
-KentuckyPresentNative
-LouisianaPresentNative
-MarylandPresentNative
-MassachusettsPresentNative
-MichiganPresentNative
-MississippiPresentNative
-MissouriPresentNative
-New JerseyPresentNative
-New MexicoPresentNative
-New YorkPresentNative
-North CarolinaPresentNative
-OhioPresentNative
-OklahomaPresentNative
-PennsylvaniaPresentNative
-Rhode IslandPresentNative
-South CarolinaPresentNative
-TennesseePresentNative
-TexasPresentNative
-VirginiaPresentNative
-West VirginiaPresentNative
-WisconsinPresentNative

South America

BoliviaPresentNative
BrazilPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-GoiasPresent, WidespreadNativeInvasive
-Mato Grosso do SulPresent, WidespreadNativeInvasive
-Minas GeraisPresent, WidespreadNativeInvasive
-ParanaPresent, WidespreadNativeInvasive
-PernambucoPresent, LocalizedIntroducedInvasive
-Sao PauloPresent, WidespreadNativeInvasive
ColombiaPresentNative
EcuadorPresentNative
GuyanaPresentNative
PeruPresentNative
VenezuelaPresentNative

Habitat

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D. teres tolerates poor, sandy and shallow soils, under which conditions it can outcompete other vegetation. In native pastures, cattle do not favour this plant for grazing which allows it to spread. When fertilizer is applied, however, grasses are benefited more than D. teres.

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details

Hosts/Species Affected

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D. teres is an agricultural weed contributing to weed problems in a number of crops and also pastures.

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Arachis hypogaea (groundnut)FabaceaeMain
    Coffea arabica (arabica coffee)RubiaceaeMain
      Pinus taeda (loblolly pine)PinaceaeMain
        Solanum lycopersicum (tomato)SolanaceaeMain
          Zea mays (maize)PoaceaeMain

            Growth Stages

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            Vegetative growing stage

            Biology and Ecology

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            Physiology and Phenology

            Growth analyses have shown that genetic changes in an agricultural weed population of D. teres resulted in earlier establishment and faster early growth compared with a coastal non-weed population in North Carolina, USA (Jordan, 1989a, b).

            Reproductive Biology

            Plants reproduce by seeds that are dispersed within cocci. Seeds germinate in the spring or summer. The life cycle lasts 90-110 days.

            Environmental Requirements

            D. teres is not frost tolerant. Best conditions for growth are during the hot months of the year, provided there is sufficient soil moisture.

            Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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            Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
            0 0 0 0

            Air Temperature

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            Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
            Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) 0 0
            Mean annual temperature (ºC) 0 0
            Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 0 0
            Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 0 0

            Rainfall

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            ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
            Dry season duration00number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
            Mean annual rainfall00mm; lower/upper limits

            Soil Tolerances

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            Soil drainage

            • free

            Soil reaction

            • neutral

            Soil texture

            • heavy
            • light
            • medium

            Special soil tolerances

            • infertile
            • shallow

            Means of Movement and Dispersal

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            Natural Dispersal (non-biotic)

            Seeds drop to the ground close to or beneath the parent plant.

            Vector Transmission (biotic)

            Seed dispersal is not assisted by vectors.

            Accidental Introduction

            Seeds may be introduced as contaminants of crops with small seeds or spread by farm vehicles and machinery.

            Plant Trade

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            Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
            True seeds (inc. grain) seeds Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
            Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
            Bark
            Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
            Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
            Fruits (inc. pods)
            Growing medium accompanying plants
            Leaves
            Roots
            Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
            Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches
            Wood

            Impact Summary

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            CategoryImpact
            Animal/plant collections None
            Animal/plant products None
            Biodiversity (generally) None
            Crop production Negative
            Environment (generally) None
            Fisheries / aquaculture None
            Forestry production None
            Human health None
            Livestock production Negative
            Native fauna None
            Native flora Negative
            Rare/protected species None
            Tourism None
            Trade/international relations None
            Transport/travel None

            Impact

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            D. teres may contribute towards economic losses due to weeds in agricultural crops.

            Environmental Impact

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            If unchecked, D. teres can form dense infestations. However, because this is an annual plant, these are only present for limited periods.

            Risk and Impact Factors

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            Invasiveness
            • Invasive in its native range
            • Proved invasive outside its native range
            • Highly adaptable to different environments
            • Has high reproductive potential
            • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
            Impact outcomes
            • Negatively impacts agriculture
            Impact mechanisms
            • Competition - monopolizing resources
            Likelihood of entry/control
            • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
            • Difficult to identify/detect in the field
            • Difficult/costly to control

            Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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            Several species in the Rubiaceae family resemble D. teres. The genus Diodia is characterized by having bilocular ovaries, fruits being schizocarps splitting from the apex in two indehiscent cocci. D. teres is an annual plant and is distinguished by the following: ventral side of mature cocci with two excavated areas; dorsal side with one main median obtusely angled ridge; calyx lobes nearly equal; corolla 4-5 mm long, opening in four lobes, colour whitish-pink to lavender.

            Prevention and Control

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            Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

            Cultural Control

            Good crop management reduces D. teres and other weed problems.

            Mechanical Control

            Tillage of the soil helps to control D. teres.

            Chemical Control

            Sulfometuron (Miller, 1990) and napropamide + netribuzin (Reynolds and Crowley, 1981) have been reported to be effective against D. teres in the USA. However, it is more usual that herbicides are selected for the control of more important weeds that are also present with D. teres.

            References

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            Jordan N, 1989. Path analysis of growth differences between weed and nonweed populations of poorjoe (Diodia teres) in competition with soybean (Glycine max). Weed Science, 37(1):129-136

            Jordan N, 1989. Predicted evolutionary response to selection for tolerance of soybean (Glycine max) and intraspecific competition on nonweed population of poorjoe (Diodia teres). Weed Science, 37(3):451-457

            Kissmann KG; Groth D, 2000. Plantas Infestantes e Nocivas, Tomo III, edition 2. Brazil: BASF, 400-403.

            Lorenzi H, 1982. Plantas Daninhas do Brasil. Author's edition. Nova Odessa, San Paulo, Brazil: H. Lorenzi, 400 pp.

            Maguire B, et al. , 1972. The botany of the Guayana Highland - part IX. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden, 23: 798-801.

            Mehra SP; Sidhu PS; Gill HS, 1987. Studies on weed control in irrigated groundnut. Journal of Research, Punjab Agricultural University, 24(1):8-14

            Miller JH, 1990. Herbaceous weed control trials with a planting machine and a crawler-tractor sprayer - fourth year pine response. Proceedings of the 43rd Annual Meeting of the Southern Weed Science Society, 233-244

            Missouri Botanical Garden, 2003. VAScular Tropicos database. St. Louis, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://mobot.mobot.org/W3T/Search/vast.html.

            NYBG, 2004. The Virtual Herbarium of the New York Botanical Garden, USA. http://scisun.nybg.org:8890/searchdb/owa/wwwspecimen.searchform.

            Reynolds DB; Crowley RH, 1981. Crabgrass and poorjoe control in commercial tomato production. Proceedings 34th Annual Meeting Southern Weed Science Society., 122

            USDA-NRCS, 2003. The PLANTS Database, Version 3.5. National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, USA. http://plants.usda.gov.

            Wunderlin RP; Hansen BF, 2003. Atlas of Florida Vascular Plants. Institute for Systematic Biology, University of South Florida, Tampa, USA. http://www.plantatlas.usf.edu/.

            Distribution References

            CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

            CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

            Kissmann KG, Groth D, 2000. (Plantas Infestantes e Nocivas)., III (2) Brazil: BASF. 400-403.

            Lorenzi H, 1982. (Plantas Daninhas do Brasil)., Nova Odessa San Paulo, Brazil: H. Lorenzi. 400 pp.

            Mehra S P, Sidhu P S, Gill H S, 1987. Studies on weed control in irrigated groundnut. Journal of Research, Punjab Agricultural University. 24 (1), 8-14.

            Missouri Botanical Garden, 2003. Vascular Tropicos database., St. Louis, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://mobot.mobot.org/W3T/Search/vast.html

            NYBG, 2004. The Virtual Herbarium of the New York Botanical Garden., USA: http://scisun.nybg.org:8890/searchdb/owa/wwwspecimen.searchform

            USDA-NRCS, 2003. The PLANTS Database. Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team. https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov

            Wunderlin RP, Hansen BF, 2003. Atlas of Florida Vascular Plants., Tampa, USA: Institute for Systematic Biology, University of South Florida. http://www.plantatlas.usf.edu/

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