Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Dinoderus minutus
(bamboo borer)

Toolbox

Datasheet

Dinoderus minutus (bamboo borer)

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Dinoderus minutus (bamboo borer); adult.
TitleAdult
CaptionDinoderus minutus (bamboo borer); adult.
Copyright©Georg Goergen/IITA Insect Museum, Cotonou, Benin
Dinoderus minutus (bamboo borer); adult.
AdultDinoderus minutus (bamboo borer); adult.©Georg Goergen/IITA Insect Museum, Cotonou, Benin

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Dinoderus minutus (Fabricius)

Preferred Common Name

  • bamboo borer

Other Scientific Names

  • Apate minutus Fabricius
  • Dinoderus siculus Baudi
  • Dinoderus substriatus Stephens

International Common Names

  • English: bamboo powder-post beetle; bamboo shot-hole, borer, smaller; beetle, bamboo powder post
  • Chinese: zhu chang du
  • Portuguese: caruncho do bambu

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Bohrer, Bambus-
  • India: ghoon borer
  • Norway: bambusborer, liten

EPPO code

  • DINDMI (Dinoderus minutus)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Coleoptera
  •                         Family: Bostrichidae
  •                             Genus: Dinoderus
  •                                 Species: Dinoderus minutus

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page D. minutus, the bamboo borer or bamboo powderpost beetle, belongs to Bostrichidae: Coleoptera. Bostrichidae is a small family with approximately 650 species in seven subfamilies and 80 genera (R Booth, NHM, London, UK, personal communication, 2005). In China, there are 39 species in 18 genera; in North America, 93 species in 32 genera; and 17 species in 11 genera in Japan (Liu Jingying, 1956, 1983; Chu Dong and Zhang Wei, 1997; Fisher, 1985, 1993). Dinoderinae, an important subfamily including many post-harvest insects, consists of 16 species in four genera. D. minutus was first named by Fabricius in 1775, according to records in the Bishop Museum, USA. On the basis of world literature concerning Dinoderus spp., five species were reported in China; in North America approximately four species are known; and in Asia, six species were studied, because they are all important insects damaging post-harvest bamboo (Chu Dong and Zhang Wei, 1997).

Description

Top of page

Eggs

The eggs are spindle-shaped or elongate-oval, very small, milky-white, and nearly transparent. The eggs are individually laid in tunnels made by the adults.

Larvae

The larvae are approximately 3 to 4 mm long and milky-white. The body is 'C'-shaped. The head is round and the length is equal to the width. The mouthparts are black. The thorax is expanded and bears three legs, which decrease along its length. The spiracles are oval-round, which is longer than those in the sternum. Dense hair covers the tibia.

Pupae

The pupa is almost spindle-shaped, approximately 2.5 to 4 mm long, and milky-white. The compound eye and mandibles are black, and there is a pair of finger-like projections on the end of the sternum.

Adults

The adult is elongate-columnar, approximately 2.5 to 3 mm long and 0.9 to 1.5 mm wide, reddish or dark-brown and covered with dense punctures and hair, which is more obvious at the posterior of the elytra. There are many tiny punctures on the head, which is small and black. The head is covered by the prothorax, so that it cannot be seen when viewed dorsally. The compound eyes are back and round. The antennae are ten-segmented and lamellate. The first segment is oval and twice as long as it is wide, the second is the same width as the first, and the three distal segments are swollen. The elytra are covered with dense and small punctures and bristles, which are more obvious at the posterior of the wings. The legs are reddish-brown. The tarsus consists of five segments; the first is no longer than the third or the fourth. The first abdominal segment is equal to the second in length (Xiao, 1991; Schäfer et al., 2000).

 

Distribution

Top of page

D. minutus has a worldwide distribution. It is native to Asia and has been reported in Israel, West Africa, South Africa, North America, Central America, South America, Germany and other European countries. It occurs in almost all the South Asia countries. In China, it can be detected in many cities, except a few cities in the north (Singh, 1974; Sandhu, 1975; Singh and Bhandhari, 1988; Xu Tiansen et al., 1993; Chang Yuzhen and Xue, 1994; Zhang Shimei and Zhao Yongxiang, 1996).

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

China
-AnhuiPresentNative Not invasive Wu et al., 1986
-BeijingPresentNative Not invasive Wu et al., 1986; Chu and Zhang, 1997
-FujianRestricted distributionNative Not invasive Liu, 1956a; Liu, 1956b; Chu and Zhang, 1997
-GuangdongRestricted distributionNative Not invasive Liu, 1956a; Liu, 1956b; Chu and Zhang, 1997
-GuangxiPresentNative Not invasive Chu and Zhang, 1997
-GuizhouPresentNative Not invasive Chu and Zhang, 1997
-HainanPresentNative Not invasive Chu and Zhang, 1997
-HenanPresentNative Not invasive Wu et al., 1986
-Hong KongPresentNative Not invasive APPPC, 1987
-HubeiPresentNative Not invasive Liu, 1956a; Liu, 1956b; Xiao, 1991
-HunanPresentNative Not invasive Liu, 1956a; Liu, 1956b; Xiao, 1991
-ShaanxiPresentNative Not invasive Wu et al., 1986
-ShandongPresentNative Not invasive Wu et al., 1986
-ShanxiPresentNative Not invasive Wu et al., 1986
-SichuanPresentNative Not invasive Tan et al., 2000
-ZhejiangRestricted distributionNative Not invasive Xiao, 1991
IndiaPresentNative Not invasive Sandhu, 1975; Kumar et al., 1985
IndonesiaPresentNative Not invasive Wu et al., 1986
IsraelPresentIntroduced Not invasive Gerstmeier et al., 1999
JapanPresentNative Not invasive Wu et al., 1986; Chu and Zhang, 1997
MalaysiaPresentNative Not invasive Wu et al., 1986; Chu and Zhang, 1997
-SarawakPresent
PhilippinesPresentNative Not invasive Wu et al., 1986
Sri LankaPresentNative Not invasive Wu et al., 1986
VietnamPresent

Africa

Congo Democratic RepublicPresent
Côte d'IvoirePresent
GhanaPresentAdu-Mensah et al., 2007
MauritiusPresent Not invasive Wu et al., 1986
Sierra LeonePresent
Tanzania
-ZanzibarPresent
ZambiaPresent
ZimbabwePresent

North America

USA
-CaliforniaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Woodruff, 1967; Baker, 1972
-FloridaRestricted distributionIntroduced Invasive Woodruff, 1967; Baker, 1972

Central America and Caribbean

CubaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Wu et al., 1986
Trinidad and TobagoPresentIntroducedSchotman, 1989
Windward IslandsPresent

South America

BrazilPresentIntroduced Not invasive Wu et al., 1986
-BahiaPresentMarques and Gil-Santana, 2008
ChilePresentIntroduced Not invasive Wu et al., 1986
ColombiaPresent

Europe

GermanyPresentIntroduced Not invasive Wu et al., 1986

Oceania

FijiPresent
Papua New GuineaPresent
Solomon IslandsPresent

Risk of Introduction

Top of page Considering the host range of D. minutus, its economic impact on bamboo and its ability to easily spread, there should be concern in the areas devoid of the pest, but with suitable hosts. In countries where D. minutus is present, some measures should be taken to define its dispersal.

Habitat List

Top of page
CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Littoral
Coastal areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial-managed
Cultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Protected agriculture (e.g. glasshouse production) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial-natural
semi-natural/Cold lands / tundra Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
semi-natural/Deserts Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
semi-natural/Natural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
semi-natural/Natural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
semi-natural/Riverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
semi-natural/Wetlands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page

D. minutus is an important borer that attacks felled culms and bamboo timber products. It also damages rice, cassava and sugarcane, and occasionally dried stored products. In China and most south Asian countries, the main host plants are Bambusa bambos, Bambusa breviflora, Bambusa polymorpha, Bambusa textilis, Bambusa vulgaris, Bambusa pervariabilis, Dendrocalamus giganteus, Dendrocalamus hamiltonii, Dendrocalamus strictus, Phyllostachys pubescens [Phyllostachys edulis], Phyllostachys heterocycla, and Phyllostachys heteroclada (Wu et al., 1986; Mathew and Nair, 1990; Koehler, 2003). Moreover, D. minutus is also detected in the wood of some Pinus spp. (Gong Xiuze, 2003.). It can also feed on dry cassava (Mathew and Nair, 1984).

Growth Stages

Top of page Post-harvest

Symptoms

Top of page The adult beetles burrow into felled culms through wounds, cracks and cut ends, and make horizontal tunnels along the fibrovascular tissues of the culms; the larvae make longitudinal tunnels. The damaged part of the culm becomes powdery, and the powder is sifted from the beetle hole. Large populations of borers will leave numerous tunnels in the culm, making it useless. Also a great quantity of beetle holes will be left on the surface of the culms.

The damaging habits of D. minutus are equivalent to other species belonging to Dinoterus spp. and the damage symptoms are so similar that it is difficult to distinguish species purely on the basis of symptoms.

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Stems / internal feeding
Stems / internal feeding
Stems / lodging; broken stems
Stems / lodging; broken stems
Stems / visible frass
Stems / visible frass

Biology and Ecology

Top of page

The biology and ecology of D. minutus have been studied by a few entomologists worldwide (Van Dine, 1909; Whitney, 1927; Fullaway, 1930; Zimmerman, 1941; Krauss, 1945; Plank, 1948; Wu et al., 1986). The large amount of information relates to China and South Asia, the main areas of distribution of D. minutus. The life cycle has also been described by Beeson and Bhatia (1937).

D. minutus is polyvoltine. The life cycle is almost uniform irrespective of distribution. There are three generations in China and three to four in South Asia, per year, but the generations are heavily overlapped. In Changsha, Hunan Province, China, there are three generations per year and four to five generations in Guangzhou, China. The adults and larvae can be found at any given time of the year and overwintering is not distinct, although they are less active in cold winters. The first peak of adult emergence is in February, the second is in June, and the third is in October (Van Dine, 1909; Whitney, 1927; Zimmerman, 1941; Liu Jingying, 1956; Liu Yuan and Xu, 1982; Tan Zhongyi, 1984; Wu et al., 1986).

The females begin to deposit eggs individually, in tunnels mined by the adults in mid-April, and oviposition can last 4 months. The peak time for oviposition is in May and June. Temperature and humidity affect ovipositon. A female can lay approximately 20 eggs. The eggs hatch in 5 to 8 days. The larvae bore longitudinally in the culm, which can make a tunnel approximately 15 to 20 mm long and take about 40 days to develop. Pupation occurs in cocoons made at the terminal end of the larval tunnels. After approximately 4 days, the newly developed adult beetles may fly away or may explore other parts of the same bamboo. Some beetle holes are left on the bamboo and a great quantity of tunnels may be present at high densities of D. minutus (Singh, 1974; Sandhu, 1975; Tan Zhongyi, 1984; Wu Jianfen et al., 1986; Singh and Bhandhari, 1988).

Starch, soluble carbohydrates and proteins are nutritionally essential to D. minutus. The incidence of borer attacks has a strong correlation to the richness of nutrients in felled culms, and vary significantly with bamboo species, growing sites, timing and culm age at felling, and the method of transportation and storage. According to Xiao (1992), Bambusa textilis, Bambusa pervariabilis, Phyllostachys heterocycla and Phyllostachys heteroclada are more prone to attack by D. minutus than Pleioblastus amarus and Pseudosasa amabilis. The beetle shows a strong preference for newly-felled culms of some species, whereas others, such as P. amabilis and Pleioblastus spp., are hardly ever attacked. Culms from level sites are more susceptible to attack than those felled from sloping sites. Bamboos growing on plateau are more seriously damaged than those growing in mountains, and those felled in spring and summer are more readily attacked than those felled in autumn and winter. Moreover, culms felled at a young age are more seriously damaged than those grown for 3 to 4 years. In general, culms felled at a young age and growing season, and those growing on shaded, wet sites are more susceptible to attack by D. minutus. Borgemeister et al. (1999) surmised that plant volatiles play an important role in the host-finding and damage behaviour of Dinoderus spp.

D. minutus has a strong ability for starvation tolerance. The adults have a strong ability for pesticide resistance and have no phototactic reaction toward light (Li Yanwen et al., 1996).

Outbreaks of D. minutus in large distribution areas have never been reported. There are records from factories or farms, which store bamboo in Asia (Singh, 1990; Chen Zhilin, 2000; Tan Sujin et al., 2000). The factors responsible for its outbreak are still unclear, so no monitoring system is built at present.

Natural enemies

Top of page
Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Acarophenax lacunatus Predator Eggs
Cerocephala aquila Parasite
Cerocephala dinoderi Parasite
Cotesia ruficrus Parasite
Denops albofasciata Predator Eggs
Euscelinus sarawacus Israel Bambusa
Nodele mu Predator
Platyspathius dinoderi Parasite Eggs
Rhoptrocentrus piceus Parasite Israel Bambusa
Spathius vulnificus Parasite Eggs
Teretrius nigrescens Predator Adults
Tillus notatus Predator Adults/Larvae/Pupae

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page

There are a few predators reported to attack D. minutus. Teretrius nigrescens (Rees, 1991), Denops albofasciata (Borgemeister et al., 1999; Gerstmeier et al., 1999) and Tillus notatus are known to prey on the eggs, larvae, pupae and adults (some species just prey on the eggs) in the boring tunnels. A clerid preys on the borer in the tunnels (Liu Yuan and Xu, 1982; Tan Zhongyi, 1984; Wu et al., 1986).

See Chatterjee and Misra (1974) for information on the parasitism of D. minutus.

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page

Natural Dispersal

D. minutus adults disperse to nearby areas following emergence. There is a risk that the larvae, pupae and adults may stay in the tunnels of the bamboo culms, facilitating transport of D. minutus to new areas and providing the main way for long-distance dispersal.

Movement in Trade

D. minutus is a post-harvest pest that damages bamboo and its products and in many countries it is an important plant-quarantine pest. It can be transported in the trade of domestic and imported bamboo woods and bamboo products, such as baskets and furniture; the principal way for its spread between countries. It has been detected and caught in many open ports (Xie Sen et al., 1998; Chen Zhilin et al., 1999, 2000; Liu Xiaodong, 2000; Gong Xiuze, 2003).

 

Pathway Vectors

Top of page
VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Clothing, footwear and possessions Yes
Land vehicles Yes

Plant Trade

Top of page
Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches adults; eggs; larvae; pupae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Wood adults; eggs; larvae; pupae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Growing medium accompanying plants
Leaves
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
True seeds (inc. grain)

Wood Packaging

Top of page
Wood Packaging liable to carry the pest in trade/transportTimber typeUsed as packing
Solid wood packing material with bark Yes
Solid wood packing material without bark Yes

Impact Summary

Top of page
CategoryImpact
Animal/plant collections None
Animal/plant collections None
Animal/plant products None
Animal/plant products None
Biodiversity (generally) None
Biodiversity (generally) None
Crop production None
Crop production None
Environment (generally) None
Environment (generally) None
Fisheries / aquaculture None
Fisheries / aquaculture None
Forestry production None
Forestry production None
Human health None
Human health None
Livestock production None
Livestock production None
Native fauna None
Native fauna None
Native flora None
Native flora None
Rare/protected species None
Rare/protected species None
Tourism None
Tourism None
Trade/international relations Negative
Trade/international relations Negative
Transport/travel None
Transport/travel None

Impact

Top of page Insects that cause damage to felled culm and finished products are probably the most common and serious pests in the Asian bamboo industry. Over 50 such insect species have been reported, and ghoon borers (Dinoderus spp.), found in most Asian countries, cause the most damage. Damages usually result in the loss of large amounts of raw materials or in the destruction of finished bamboo products.

Bamboo under storage, either as culms or as finished products, is very susceptible to damage by insects. Occasionally, subterranean termites cause severe damage. However, the most important pest of bamboo under storage conditions is the ghoon borer, D. minutus and other powderpost beetles, Dinoderus spp. Large quantities of culms are destroyed each year by insect borers, although the extent of loss has not yet been assessed. In storage yards, stacks with immature culms are the starting points for attack and the bamboo is often converted to dust. Approximately 40% of a bamboo stack may be lost within a period of 8 to10 months due to ghoon borer attack (Thapa et al., 1992).

Mathew and Nair (1990) reported that finished products made of reed or bamboo, such as mats, baskets, curtains, etc., are also damaged by D. minutus, but no data are available on the extent of the loss.

Economic Impact

Top of page Insects that cause damage to felled culm and finished products are probably the most common and serious pests in the Asian bamboo industry. Over 50 such insect species have been reported, and ghoon borers (Dinoderus spp.), found in most Asian countries, cause the most damage. Damages usually result in the loss of large amounts of raw materials or in the destruction of finished bamboo products.

Bamboo under storage, either as culms or as finished products, is very susceptible to damage by insects. Occasionally, subterranean termites cause severe damage. However, the most important pest of bamboo under storage conditions is the ghoon borer, D. minutus and other powderpost beetles, Dinoderus spp. Large quantities of culms are destroyed each year by insect borers, although the extent of loss has not yet been assessed. In storage yards, stacks with immature culms are the starting points for attack and the bamboo is often converted to dust. Approximately 40% of a bamboo stack may be lost within a period of 8 to10 months due to ghoon borer attack (Thapa et al., 1992).

Mathew and Nair (1990) reported that finished products made of reed or bamboo, such as mats, baskets, curtains, etc., are also damaged by D. minutus, but no data are available on the extent of the loss. It is also reported as an occasional pest of dried stored products.

Detection and Inspection

Top of page The larvae and adults can be detected by the careful inspection of newly-felled culms or some bamboo products, such as houses and furniture. Also the symptoms of defoliation (wood powder ejected from the beetle hole is the most obvious) reveal larval feeding or adults. Pheromone traps for monitoring D. minutus have not been reported to date (2004).

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page The morphology, way of feeding and symptoms of defoliation, are very similar to other bamboo borers, such as Dinoderus japonicus. For accurate identification to species, more work on the identification of eggs, larvae, pupae, and especially adults, should be undertaken (Schäfer et al., 2000).

Prevention and Control

Top of page

There are several options for the control of D. minutus, such as phytosanitary methods, biological control, physical methods and chemical control. Selecting the best option depends on a number of factors, such as the severity of infestation, the location of infestation, potential for reinfestation, and cost of treatment (Plank, 1950; Xu Tiansen, 1983; Kumar et al., 1985; Liu Yuan and Xu, 1985; Yang Guarong, 1991; Li Yanwen et al., 1996; Xu Changtang, 2003).

Phytosanitary Measures

D. minutus is a phytosanitary pest in many countries because it can be easily transported between countries in the international trade of bamboo wood and products. Therefore in many open ports, D. minutus is a dangerous pest that should be treated seriously and warrants careful inspections. All imported wood, containers and products are treated by government pest control operators using fumigation and heating, for example, if some symptoms of defoliation are detected (Xu Changtang, 2003).

Biological Control

There are a few predators reported that can be used to control D. minutus (Rees, 1991; Borgemeister et al., 1999). A clerid preys on the borer in boring tunnels (Liu Yuan and Xu, 1982; Tan Zhongyi, 1984; Wu et al., 1986). Spathius bisignatus [Platyspathius dinoderi] and Spathius vulnificus parasitize the eggs of D. minutus. Tillus notatus preys on the larvae, pupae and adults. These natural enemies cannot be relied upon as an effective control method, although they can cause high mortality of the borers. To date (2004), no literature concerning successful examples of biological control methods for the control of D. minutus is available.

Physical Control

After felling, the physical or chemical treatment of culms can significantly improve their resistance to borers as well as to fungi. The traditional and simplest method is to immerse felled culms in water. This method may only be effective in preventing damage from bostrychid beetles. It is also only suitable for those bamboos with a low starch content. This method takes a long time and culms treated in this way tend to blacken (Xu Tiansen, 1983). The heating of culms using fire, boiling water or exposure to direct sunlight in hot summers, can kill borers of D. minutus including the eggs, larvae, pupae and adults. Some advanced microwave and infrared techniques have recently been developed for killing the borers in bamboo culms (Yao Kang et al., 1986).

Chemical Control

Chemical treatment using various insecticides and preservatives has been the most widely used method in controlling post-harvest pests of bamboos, including D. minutus (Xin Jieliu, 1958). Various preservatives have been recommended and used in different countries: 5% water solution of copper-chrome-arsenic composition (CCA); 5-6% water solution of copper-potassium dichromate-borax (CCB); 5-6% water solution of boric acid-borax-sodium pentachlorophenate in 0.8:1:1 or 1:1:5 ratios (BBP); 2-3% water solution of borax: boric acid in a 5:1 ratio; and 10% or 20-25% water solution of copper sulphate. These are mostly applied by soaking under normal temperatures, cold or heated conditions, or under high pressure (Singh and Tewari 1979, 1980, 1981; Nair et al., 1983; Xu Tiansen, 1983; Kumar et al., 1985; Liu Yuan and Xu, 1985; Zhou Fanchun, 1985; Thapa et al., 1992).

Soaking in an aqueous solution of 2% boric acid, 0.5% pentachlorophenate and 5% alcohol can treat bamboo rind and similar semi-finished products. Sulthoni (1990) reported treating dried bamboo splits by immersing them in diesel oil as a simple and cheap method of bamboo preservation. Varma et al. (1988) tested the effectiveness of several commercial formulations of insecticides against D. minutus, and concluded that BHC and the two pyrethroids cypermethrin and permethrin, were effective. Mori and Hideo (1979) reported that the two low-toxicity organophosphorus insecticides prothiophos and phoxim, were more effective than organochlorine ones for the preservation of bamboo materials against fungi and boring pests. Treating culm splits by immersing them in 0.2% phoxim for 3 minutes can result in total mortality of D. minutus in the culm in 2 to 3 days, and can protect the treated split from attack for over 1 year (Zhou Huiming, 1987). Affected bamboo material can also be treated by fumigating in closed chambers or storehouses with sulphuryl fluoride at a rate of 30 to 50 g/m³ of timber for 24 hours (Li Yanwen et al., 1996; Chen Zhilin et al., 1999, 2000).

References

Top of page

Adu-Mensah J; Owusu-Akyaw M; Mochiah MB, 2007. Insect pests of dried cassava ('kokonte') in Ashanti and Brong Ahafo Regions of Ghana. Journal of the Ghana Science Association, 9(2):9-17. http://www.ajol.info/viewarticle.php?jid=94&id=44993&layout=abstract

APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Technical Document No. 135. Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA).

Baker WL, 1972. Eastern forest insects. Miscellaneous Publication, US Department of Agriculture, No. 1175.

Beeson CFC; Bhatia BM, 1937. On the biology of the Bostrychidae (Coleopt.). Indian Forest Records, Entomology (New Series), 2:223-323.

Borgemeister C; SchSfer K; Goergen G; Awande S; Setamou M; Poehling HM; Scholz D, 1999. Host-finding behavior of Dinoderus bifoveolatus (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae), an important pest of stored cassava: the role of plant volatiles and odours of conspecifics. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 92(5):766-771; 31 ref.

Chang Yuzhen; Xue XQ, 1994. The distribution, damage and control of major forest insect pests in Taiwan. Journal of Fujian Forestry Science and Technology, 21(1):44-49.

Chatterjee PN; Misra MP, 1974. Natural insect enemy and plant host complex of forest insect pests of Indian region. Indian Forest Bulletin, No. 265, 233 pp.; 107 ref.

Chen Zhilin, 2000. Bostrychid borers detected in plant quarantining. Plant Quarantine, 14(3):154-157.

Chen Zhi-Lin; Xie Sen; Li Guo-Zhou; Lin Chao-Sen, 2000. Occurrence of Bostrychidae in house buildings and its control. Entomological Knowledge, 37(4):220-222.

Chen Zhilin; Xie Sen; Zheng Wenhua; Li Guozhou; Lin Chaosen, 1999. Study on quarantine and treatment of imported rattan pests. Plant Quarantine, 13(1):11-14.

Chu Dong; Zhang Wei, 1997. Review of Bostrichidae In China. Plant Quarantine, 11(2):105-109.

Fabricius JC, 1775. Systema Entomologiae stens insectorum classes, ordines, genera, species, adiectis synonymis, locis, descriptionibus, et observationibus. Flensburg et Lipsiae in in officina Libraria Kortii.

Fisher W, 1985. A Revision of the North American Species of Beetles Belonging to Family Bostrychidae (1). Ann. Soc. Ent., 64:169-178.

Fisher WSI, 1950. Revision of the North American Species of Beetles Belonging to the Family Bostrichidae. Misc. Publication No. 698, US. Department of Agriculture, 83-99, 116-129.

Fullaway DT, 1930. Division of Entomology, Report of the Entomologist covering the period from January 1, 1929, to December 31, 1929. Haw. For. Agr., 27(1):47.

Gerstmeier R; Halperin J; Chekatunov V, 1999. An annotated list of Cleridae and Thanerocleridae (Coleoptera) of Israel. Phytoparasitica, 27(1):27-33; 9 ref.

Gong Xiuze, 2003. Review of Pests Detected in the quarantine plants imported from Viet Nam in Ten Years. Plant Quarantine, 17(3):182-183.

Koehler PG, 2003. Powderpost Beetles and Other Wood-Infesting Insects. one of a series of the Entomology and Nematology Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. ENY-266.

Krauss NLH, 1945. Notes on some Hawaiian insects. Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society, 12(2):315.

Kumar S; Kalra KK; Dobriyal PB, 1985. Protection of pulp-bamboo in outside storage. Journal of the Timber Development Association of India, 31(4):5-12; 4 ref.

Li Yanwen; Yin Qin; Tang Jindeng, 1996. Major pests infesting bamboo woods and their control. Journal of Jiangsu Forestry Science & Technology, 23(41):55-56.

Li Yanwen; Yin Qin; Tang Jingen, 1996. Main Pests Damaged Bamboo Woods and Control. Journal of Jiangsu Forestry Science and Technology, 23(41):55-56.

Liu Jingying, 1956. Bamboo Powderpost Beetles. Entomological Knowledge, 2(5):221-225.

Liu Jingying, 1956. Notes on bostrychid borers on bamboos. Entomological Knowledge, 2(1):221-224.

Liu Jingying, 1983. Research Review of Bamboo Powderpost Beetles. Journal of Fujian Agricultural College, 1:71-75.

Liu Xiaodong, 2000. Survey of Pest of woods imported in DaYaoWan Port. Plant Quarantine, 14(2):101-102.

Liu Yuan; Xu FM, 1982. Preliminary study on life cycle of Dinoderus minutus Fab. Journal of Sichuan Forestry Science and Technology, 12:26-28.

Liu Yuan; Xu FM, 1985. Preservative measures against infestation by insect pests and fungi. Bamboo Research (suppl.), 55-59.

Marques OM; Gil-Santana HR, 2008. Bostrichidae (Insecta: Coleoptera) in a cacao agroecosystem in the Southern Region of Bahia State, Brazil. (Bostrichidae (Insecta: Coleoptera) em um agroecossistema cacaueiro da região sul do estado da Bahia.) Magistra, 20(3):301-304. http://www.magistra.ufrb.edu.br/publica/20.3%20PDF/12_Bostrichicae_Insecta.pdf

Mathew G; Nair KSS, 1990. Storage pests of bamboos in Kerala. Bamboos. Current research. Proceedings of the International Bamboo Workshop, Cochin, India, 14-18 Nov. 1988 [edited by Rao, I.V.R.; Gnanaharan, R.; Sastry, C.B.] Kerala, India; Kerala Forest Research Institute, 212-214

Mathurm RN, 1943. Bamboo defoliators. Indian Journal of Entomology, 5(1):117-128.

Mori H; Hideo A, 1979. Insect damage to bamboo materials and its prevention. Science for Conservation, No. 18, 41-55.

Nair KSS; Mathew G, 1984. Dried tapioca tuber for laboratory rearing of the bamboo borer, Dinoderus minutus Fabr. (Coleoptera: Bostrychidae). Material und Organismen, 19(1):49-54

Nair KSS; Mathew G; Varma RV; Gnanaharan R, 1983. Preliminary investigations on the biology and control of beetles damaging stored reed. KFRI Research Report, Kerala Forest Research Institute, No. 19:[5+] 35 pp.

Oliveira CRFde; Faroni LRD'A; Guedes RNC; Pallini A; Gon¦alves JR, 2002. Parasitism of Acarophenax lacunatus (Cross & Krantz) (Prostigmata: Acarophenacidae) on Dinoderus minutus (Fabr.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae). Neotropical Entomology, 31(2):245-248; 20 ref.

Plank HK, 1948. Biology of the Bamboo powder-post beetle in Puerto Rico. Bull. fed. exp. Sta. Puerto Rico No. 44 pp. 29. 13 refs.

Plank HK, 1950. Studies of factors influencing attack and control of the Bamboo powder-post beetle. Bull. fed. exp. Sta. Puerto Rico No. 48 pp. 39. 26 refs.

Rees DP, 1991. The effect of Teretriosoma nigrescens Lewis (Coleoptera: Histeridae) on three species of storage Bostrichidae infesting shelled maize. Journal of Stored Products Research, 27(1):83-86

Sandhu GS, 1975. Studies on insects infesting wooden and bamboo household articles and their control. Journal of Research, Punjab Agricultural University, 12(2):152-155

Schotman CYL, 1989. Plant pests of quarantine importance to the Caribbean. RLAC-PROVEG, No. 21:80 pp.

SchSfer K; Goergen G; Borgemeister C, 2000. An illustrated identification key to four different species of adult Dinoderus (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae), commonly attacking dried cassava chips in West Africa. Journal of Stored Products Research, 36(3):245-252; 15 ref.

Singh B, 1990. Current status of pests of bamboos in India. In: Ramanuja Rao IV, Gnanaharan R, Sastry CB, eds. Bamboos: current research. Proceedings of the International Bamboo Workshop, Cochin, India, 14-18 November 1988. Kerala Forest Research Institute, Kerala, India; International Development Research Centre, Ottawa, Canada, 190-194.

Singh B; Bhandhari RS, 1988. Insect pest of bamboos and their control. Indian Forester, 114(10):670-683.

Singh B; Tewari MC, 1979. Studies on the [preservative] treatment of bamboos by steeping, open tank and pressure processes. Journal of the Indian Academy of Wood Sciences, 10(2):68-71; 5 ref.

Singh B; Tewari MC, 1980. Studies on the treatment of green bamboos by stepping [steeping] and sap-displacement methods. Journal of the Indian Academy of Wood Science, 11(1):21-27; 2 pl.; 9 ref.

Singh B; Tewari MC, 1981. Studies on the treatment of green bamboos by different diffusion processes. Part II (steaming and quenching and double diffusion). Journal of the Timber Development Association of India, 27(2):38-46; BLL; 7 ref.

Singh S, 1974. The incidence of borer (ghoon) attack on felled Bamboos - some investigations and observations. Indian Pulp and Paper, 29(2-3):7-9, 11-14; BLL.

Sulthoni A, 1990. A simple and cheap method of bamboo preservation. Bamboos. Current research. Proceedings of the International Bamboo Workshop, Cochin, India, 14-18 Nov. 1988 [edited by Rao, I.V.R.; Gnanaharan, R.; Sastry, C.B.] Kerala, India; Kerala Forest Research Institute, 209-211

Tan Sujin; Wei Hanjun; Liu Danbi; Sun Jianning, 2000. Bamboo and Wood Destructive Insect in Chengdu Region. Sichuan Journal of Zoology, 19(4):213-216.

Tan Zhongyi, 1984. The bionomics of Dinoderus minutus. Bamboo Research, 1:83-84.

Thapa RS; Pratap Singh; Bhandari RS, 1992. Prophylactic efficacy of various insecticides for the protection of bamboos in storage against ghoon borers, Dinoderus species - Part-8. Journal of the Indian Academy of Wood Science, 23(1):39-47; 5 ref.

USDA, 1941. Insects in relation to national defense Powder-post beetles. US Dep Agric. Bur. Entomol. and Plant Quarantine Circ., 6:16.

Van Dine DL, 1909. Report of the Entomologist. Hawaii Agricultural Experiment Station Report, 1908, 37.

Varma RV; Mathew G; Mohanadas K; Gnanaharan R; Nair KSS, 1988. Laboratory evaluation of insecticides for the control of the bamboo borers, Dinoderus minutus and D. ocellaris (Coleoptera: Bostrychidae). Material und Organismen, 23(4):281-288

Whitney LA, 1927. Division of Entomology. Report of Associate Plant Inspector, December, 1927. Hawaiian Forestry and Agriculture, 24(4):149.

Woodruff RE, 1967. An oriental wood borer, Heterobostrychus aequalis (Waterhouse), recently established in Florida (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae). Entomol. Circ., 58, 3 pp.

Wu JF; Huang ZH; Lin JP; Lu JH, 1986. A preliminary study on the bostrichid, Dinoderus minutus Fabricius. Journal of Bamboo Research, 5(1):112-119; 5 ref.

Xiao GG(Chief Editor), 1991. Forest insects of China. Beijing, China; China Forestry Publishing House, Ed. 2:vi + 1362 pp.

Xie Sen; Chen Zhilin; Li Guoyuan, 1998. Survey of Pest Statistic in Luo Hu and Long Gang Ports. Plant Quarantine, 12(6):335-336.

Xin Jieliu, 1958. Study on Chemical Control of Dinoderus minutus. Chinese Science Bulletin, 18:567-568.

Xu Changtang, 2003. How to prevent the infestation of bamboo borer. Practical Forestry Technology, 6:30.

Xu Tiansen, 1983. Integrated measures for control of insect pests on post-harvest bamboo. Journal of Subtropical Forestry Science and Technology, 3:50-53.

Xu Tiansen, 1992. Reviews of studies on control measures against bamboo insect pests in China. Journal of Shanxi Forestry Science and Technology, 2:40-43.

Xu Tiansen; Wang HJ; Lu Ruoqing, 1993. The revised list of insect pests on bamboos in China. Zhejiang Forest Pests, 4:4-34.

Yang Guarong, 1991. Integrated control of bamboo forest insect pests. Project Review Report of the Zhejiang Station for Forest Protection.

Yao Kang; Hu WZ; Pan XD, 1986. Study on control of bamboo bostrychid borers through heating by infrared techniques. Entomological Knowledge, 23(2):64-66.

Zhang Shimei; Zhao Yongxiang, 1996. The geographical distribution of agricultural forest insects in China. Beijing, China Agricultural Press, 163.

Zhou Fanchun, 1985. Bamboo preservation against infestation of boring pests and fungi. Bamboo Research (suppl.), 60-67.

Zhou Huiming, 1987. Studies of reasonable application of insecticide to control and cure the bamboo and bamboo wares damaged by Dinoderus minutus. Journal of Nanjing Forestry University, 4:48-51.

Zimmerman EC, 1941. The Bostrychidae found in Hawaii (Coleoptera). Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society, 11(1):103-108.

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map