Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Digitaria longiflora
(false couch grass)

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Datasheet

Digitaria longiflora (false couch grass)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Digitaria longiflora
  • Preferred Common Name
  • false couch grass
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Monocotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • D. longiflora is locally important but with a limited capacity for invasiveness.
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution map More information

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Digitaria longiflora (Retz.) Pers.

Preferred Common Name

  • false couch grass

Other Scientific Names

  • Digitaria propinqua (R. Br.) P. Beauv.
  • Paspalum brevifolium Flüggé
  • Paspalum longiflorum Retz.
  • Syntherisma longiflora (Retz.) Skeels

International Common Names

  • English: Indian crabgrass; wire crabgrass

Local Common Names

  • China: chang hua ma tang

EPPO code

  • DIGLO (Digitaria longiflora)

Summary of Invasiveness

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D. longiflora is locally important but with a limited capacity for invasiveness.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  •                     Order: Cyperales
  •                         Family: Poaceae
  •                             Genus: Digitaria
  •                                 Species: Digitaria longiflora

Description

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D. longiflora is a stoloniferous, spreading species, often perennial, sometimes annual. Culm 10-60 cm tall, branching and often rooting at the nodes. Leaves rarely hairy on upper side, linear to ovate-lanceolate. Ligule membranous, truncate erose, sheath often hairy on lower leaves. Inflorescence composed of two to four very slender, digitately arranged racemes, each 1-10 cm long. Rhachis winged (0.5-0.8 mm wide), serrate. Spikelets 1.3-1.7 (-1.9) mm long and ca. 0.6 mm wide, or 2-2.5 times as long as wide, ternate; two subsessile, one pedicelled. Glumes: g1 a small rim or absent, g2 approximately equalling the spikelet, 3- to 5-nerved. Lemmas: L1 7-nerved. Fruit ellipsoid, pallid, light brown or light grey.

Plant Type

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Annual
Grass / sedge
Perennial
Seed propagated
Vegetatively propagated

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 25 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

BeninPresentNative
BotswanaPresentNative
Burkina FasoPresentNative
CameroonPresentNative
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresentNative
Côte d'IvoirePresentNative
EswatiniPresentNative
EthiopiaPresentNative
GabonPresentNative
GhanaPresentNative
Guinea-BissauPresentNative
KenyaPresent, WidespreadNative
LiberiaPresentNative
MalawiPresentNative
MaliPresentNative
MozambiquePresentNative
NamibiaPresentNative
NigeriaPresent, WidespreadNative
RwandaPresentNative
SenegalPresentNative
Sierra LeonePresentNative
SomaliaPresentNative
South AfricaPresentNative
SudanPresent
TanzaniaPresent, WidespreadNative
TogoPresentNative
TunisiaPresent
UgandaPresent, WidespreadNative
ZambiaPresentNative
ZimbabwePresentNative

Asia

BhutanPresent, Localized
CambodiaPresentNative
ChinaPresentNative
-GansuPresentNative
Hong KongPresent
IndiaPresent, WidespreadNative
-BiharPresent
IndonesiaPresentNative
-SumatraPresent
IranPresent
IraqPresent
IsraelPresent
JapanPresent
LaosPresentNative
MalaysiaPresentNative
MyanmarPresentNative
NepalPresentNative
North KoreaPresent
PakistanPresentNative
PhilippinesPresent, WidespreadNative
Sri LankaPresentNative
TaiwanPresentNative
ThailandPresentNative
VietnamPresentNative

Europe

AustriaPresent
FrancePresentIntroduced

North America

Puerto RicoPresent
Trinidad and TobagoPresent
United StatesPresent
-FloridaPresentIntroduced
-HawaiiPresent
-MarylandPresent

Oceania

AustraliaPresentNative
-QueenslandPresentNative
French PolynesiaPresent
New ZealandPresent
Papua New GuineaPresentNative

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedManaged grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Oryza sativa (rice)PoaceaeMain
    Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane)PoaceaeMain

      Biology and Ecology

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      Reproductive Biology

      Reproduction is via seeds, rhizomes and stolons (Häfliger and Scholz, 1980).

      Plant Trade

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      Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
      Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes whole plants
      Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx flowers; whole plants
      Fruits (inc. pods) fruits; whole plants
      Growing medium accompanying plants seeds
      Roots roots; whole plants
      Seedlings/Micropropagated plants whole plants
      True seeds (inc. grain) fruits; seeds; whole plants
      Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
      Bark
      Leaves
      Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches
      Wood

      Impact Summary

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      CategoryImpact
      Animal/plant collections None
      Animal/plant products None
      Biodiversity (generally) None
      Crop production Negative
      Environment (generally) None
      Fisheries / aquaculture None
      Forestry production None
      Human health None
      Livestock production None
      Native fauna None
      Native flora None
      Rare/protected species None
      Tourism None
      Trade/international relations None
      Transport/travel None

      Impact

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      Ther results of field trials in sugarcane in South Africa using glyphosate indicated that successful control of creeping grasses, including D. longiflora, could be expected to give the small grower substantial increases in yield and projected net income (Landrey et al., 1993). In India, D. longiflora and other weeds reduce rice productivity (Bhagat et al, 1977).

      Risk and Impact Factors

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      Invasiveness
      • Has high reproductive potential
      Impact outcomes
      • Negatively impacts agriculture
      Impact mechanisms
      • Competition - monopolizing resources

      Uses

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      D. longiflora is cultivated as a fodder crop (Wells et al., 1986).

      Uses List

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      Environmental

      • Host of pest

      Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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      D. longiflora is sometimes confused with Cynodon spp., especially C. dactylon, which often occurs in the same habitat. Cynodon spp. usually have longer, narrower leaves and three or more racemes per inflorescence (van Oudtshoorn, 1999).

      Prevention and Control

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      Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

      Glyphosate applied as a pre-sowing grass eradication treatment is recommended in sugarcane (Landrey et al., 1993). Hand weeding or treatment with piperophos + dimethametryn, dinitramine or oxadiazon have been used to control D. longiflora and Echinochloa crus-galli in rice (Bhagat et al., 1977).

      References

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      Anderson ER; Russell FJ; Scanlan JC; Fossett GW, 1983. Pastures under development in central Queensland. Part 1: Mackay region. Brisbane; Australia: Queensland Department of Primary Industries.

      Bhagat RK; Prasad SC; Sinha PN; Singh AP, 1977. Effectiveness of pre-em. application of weedicides in upland rice. Indian Journal of Weed Science, 9(1):9-13

      BONAP, 2004. US distribution of Digitaria longiflora. BONAP distribution data. Texas A&M University, USA. http://www.csdl.tamu.edu/FLORA/cgi/b98_map?genus=Digitaria&species=longiflora.

      Bouxin G, 1975. Ordination and classification in the savanna vegetation of the Akagera Park (Rwanda, Central Africa). Vegetatio, 29(3):155-167.

      Clayton WD; Renvoize SA, 1982. Gramineae (Part 3) In: Polhill RM, ed. Flora of Tropical East Africa. Rotterdam, Netherlands: Balkema, 451-898.

      Dujardin M, 1979. Additional chromosome numbers and meiotic behaviour in tropical African grasses from western Zaire. Canadian Journal of Botany, 57(8):864-876.

      Fujisaka S; Kirk G; Litsinger JA; Moody K; Hosen N; Yusef A; Nurdin F; Naim T; Artati F; Aziz A; Khatib W; Yustisia, 1991. Wild pigs, poor soils, and upland rice: a diagnostic survey of Sitiung, Sumatra, Indonesia. IRRI Research Paper Series Manila, Philippines; IRRI, No.155:9pp.

      Holm L; Pancho JV; Herberger JP; Plucknett DL, 1979. A Geographical Atlas of World Weeds. Toronto, Canada: John Wiley and Sons Inc.

      Häfliger E; Scholz H, 1980. Grass Weeds 1: Weeds of the subfamily Panicoideae. Basle, Switzerland: Documenta CIBA GEIGY.

      Jauzein P, 1992. Some weeds found in France. Monde des Plantes, 87(443):28-30

      Johnson DE, 1997. Weeds of rice in West Africa. West Africa Rice Development Association (WARDA), xvi + 312 pp.; 48 ref.

      Landrey OP; Eichler GG; Chedzey J, 1993. Control of creeping grasses in small grower cane in the Umbumbulu district. Proceedings of the Annual Congress - South African Sugar Technologists' Association, No. 67:34-38

      Mishra IN; Jha S, 1996. Nutritive profile of some grasses of Darbhanga. Environment and Ecology, 14(1):93-95.

      Pancho JV; Obien SR, 1995. Manual of Ricefield Weeds in the Philippines. Munoz, Nueva Ecija, Philippines: Philippine Rice Research Institute.

      Parker C, 1992. Weeds of Bhutan. Weeds of Bhutan., vi + 236 pp.

      Roy AK, 1973. Natural occurrence of Corticium sasakii on some weeds. Current Science, 42(23):842-843

      Shuklu U, 1996. The Grasses of North-Eastern India. Jodhpur, India: Scientific Publishers.

      Singh NP; Deshpande UR, 1978. A note on the nomenclatural changes in the Indian species of Digitaria Haller. Annals of Arid Zone, 17(3):332-333.

      Stanfield DP, 1970. The Flora of Nigeria Grasses. Ibadan, Nigeria: Ibadan University Press.

      Terry PJ; Michieka RW, 1987. Common Weeds of East Africa. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

      USDA-ARS, 2003. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

      van Oudtshoorn F, 1999. Guide to Grasses of Southern Africa. Arcadia, Pretoria, South Africa: Briza Publications.

      Wells MJ; Balsinhas AA; Joffe H; Engelbrecht VM; Harding G; Stirton CH, 1986. A catalogue of problem plants in South Africa. Memoirs of the botanical survey of South Africa No 53. Pretoria, South Africa: Botanical Research Institute.

      Distribution References

      Anderson E R, Russell F J, Scanlan J C, Fossett G W, 1983. Pastures under development in central Queensland. Part 1: Mackay region. In: Pastures under development in central Queensland. Part 1: Mackay region. Brisbane, Australia: Queensland Department of Primary Industries. 61pp.

      BONAP, 2004. US distribution of Digitaria longiflora. In: BONAP distribution data, USA: Texas A&M University. http://www.csdl.tamu.edu/FLORA/cgi/b98_map?genus=Digitaria&species=longiflora

      Bouxin G, 1975. Ordination and classification in the savanna vegetation of the Akagera Park (Rwanda, Central Africa). Vegetatio. 29 (3), 155-167. DOI:10.1007/BF02390007

      CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

      CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

      Clayton W D, Renvoize S A, 1982. Flora of Tropical East Africa. Gramineae (Part 3). Rotterdam, Netherlands: A.A. Balkema. 448pp.

      Dujardin M, 1979. Additional chromosome numbers and meiotic behaviour in tropical African grasses from western Zaire. Canadian Journal of Botany. 57 (8), 864-876. DOI:10.1139/b79-107

      Fujisaka S, Kirk G, Litsinger J A, Moody K, Hosen N, Yusef A, Nurdin F, Naim T, Artati F, Aziz A, Khatib W, Yustisia, 1991. Wild pigs, poor soils, and upland rice: a diagnostic survey of Sitiung, Sumatra, Indonesia. In: IRRI Research Paper Series, Manila, Philippines: IRRI. 9 pp.

      Holm L, Pancho J V, Herberger J P, Plucknett D L, 1979. A geographical atlas of world weeds. New York, Chichester (), Brisbane, Toronto, UK: John Wiley and Sons. xlix + 391 pp.

      James T K, Champion P D, Bullians M, Rahman A, 2011. Weed biosecurity breach through coco peat imports. In: 23rd Asian-Pacific Weed Science Society Conference. Volume 1: weed management in a changing world, Cairns, Queensland, Australia, 26-29 September 2011 [23rd Asian-Pacific Weed Science Society Conference. Volume 1: weed management in a changing world, Cairns, Queensland, Australia, 26-29 September 2011.], Cairns, Australia: Asian-Pacific Weed Science Society. 210-216.

      Jauzein P, 1992. Some weeds found in France. (Sur quelques adventices rencontrées en France.). Monde des Plantes. 87 (443), 28-30.

      Mishra I N, Sandhya Jha, 1996. Nutritive profile of some grasses of Darbhanga. Environment and Ecology. 14 (1), 93-95.

      Oudtshoorn F van, 1999. Guide to grasses of Southern Africa. Pretoria, South Africa: Briza Publications. 288 pp.

      Pancho JV, Obien SR, 1995. Manual of Ricefield Weeds in the Philippines., Munoz, Nueva Ecija, Philippines: Philippine Rice Research Institute.

      Parker C, 1992. Weeds of Bhutan. Thimphu, Bhutan: National Plant Protection Centre. vi + 236 pp.

      Singh N P, Deshpande U R, 1978. A note on the nomenclatural changes in the Indian species of Digitaria Haller. Annals of Arid Zone. 17 (3), 332-333.

      Stanfield DP, 1970. The Flora of Nigeria Grasses., Ibadan, Nigeria: Ibadan University Press.

      USDA-ARS, 2003. Hedychium flavescens. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database, Beltsville, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl

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