Digitaria longiflora (false couch grass)
- Summary of Invasiveness
- Taxonomic Tree
- Plant Type
- Distribution Table
- Habitat List
- Host Plants and Other Plants Affected
- Biology and Ecology
- Plant Trade
- Impact Summary
- Risk and Impact Factors
- Uses List
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Distribution Maps
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IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Digitaria longiflora (Retz.) Pers.
Preferred Common Name
- false couch grass
Other Scientific Names
- Digitaria propinqua (R. Br.) P. Beauv.
- Paspalum brevifolium Flüggé
- Paspalum longiflorum Retz.
- Syntherisma longiflora (Retz.) Skeels
International Common Names
- English: Indian crabgrass; wire crabgrass
Local Common Names
- China: chang hua ma tang
- DIGLO (Digitaria longiflora)
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page D. longiflora is locally important but with a limited capacity for invasiveness.
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Plantae
- Phylum: Spermatophyta
- Subphylum: Angiospermae
- Class: Monocotyledonae
- Order: Cyperales
- Family: Poaceae
- Genus: Digitaria
- Species: Digitaria longiflora
DescriptionTop of page D. longiflora is a stoloniferous, spreading species, often perennial, sometimes annual. Culm 10-60 cm tall, branching and often rooting at the nodes. Leaves rarely hairy on upper side, linear to ovate-lanceolate. Ligule membranous, truncate erose, sheath often hairy on lower leaves. Inflorescence composed of two to four very slender, digitately arranged racemes, each 1-10 cm long. Rhachis winged (0.5-0.8 mm wide), serrate. Spikelets 1.3-1.7 (-1.9) mm long and ca. 0.6 mm wide, or 2-2.5 times as long as wide, ternate; two subsessile, one pedicelled. Glumes: g1 a small rim or absent, g2 approximately equalling the spikelet, 3- to 5-nerved. Lemmas: L1 7-nerved. Fruit ellipsoid, pallid, light brown or light grey.
Plant TypeTop of page Annual
Grass / sedge
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Habitat ListTop of page
|Terrestrial – Managed||Cultivated / agricultural land||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Managed forests, plantations and orchards||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Managed grasslands (grazing systems)||Present, no further details|
|Disturbed areas||Present, no further details|
Host Plants and Other Plants AffectedTop of page
Biology and EcologyTop of page Reproductive Biology
Reproduction is via seeds, rhizomes and stolons (Häfliger and Scholz, 1980).
Plant TradeTop of page
|Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transport||Pest stages||Borne internally||Borne externally||Visibility of pest or symptoms|
|Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx||flowers; whole plants|
|Fruits (inc. pods)||fruits; whole plants|
|Growing medium accompanying plants||seeds|
|Roots||roots; whole plants|
|Seedlings/Micropropagated plants||whole plants|
|True seeds (inc. grain)||fruits; seeds; whole plants|
|Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport|
|Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches|
Impact SummaryTop of page
|Fisheries / aquaculture||None|
ImpactTop of page Ther results of field trials in sugarcane in South Africa using glyphosate indicated that successful control of creeping grasses, including D. longiflora, could be expected to give the small grower substantial increases in yield and projected net income (Landrey et al., 1993). In India, D. longiflora and other weeds reduce rice productivity (Bhagat et al, 1977).
Risk and Impact FactorsTop of page Invasiveness
- Has high reproductive potential
- Negatively impacts agriculture
- Competition - monopolizing resources
Uses ListTop of page
- Host of pest
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page D. longiflora is sometimes confused with Cynodon spp., especially C. dactylon, which often occurs in the same habitat. Cynodon spp. usually have longer, narrower leaves and three or more racemes per inflorescence (van Oudtshoorn, 1999).
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.Glyphosate applied as a pre-sowing grass eradication treatment is recommended in sugarcane (Landrey et al., 1993). Hand weeding or treatment with piperophos + dimethametryn, dinitramine or oxadiazon have been used to control D. longiflora and Echinochloa crus-galli in rice (Bhagat et al., 1977).
ReferencesTop of page
Anderson ER; Russell FJ; Scanlan JC; Fossett GW, 1983. Pastures under development in central Queensland. Part 1: Mackay region. Brisbane; Australia: Queensland Department of Primary Industries.
BONAP, 2004. US distribution of Digitaria longiflora. BONAP distribution data. Texas A&M University, USA. http://www.csdl.tamu.edu/FLORA/cgi/b98_map?genus=Digitaria&species=longiflora.
Bouxin G, 1975. Ordination and classification in the savanna vegetation of the Akagera Park (Rwanda, Central Africa). Vegetatio, 29(3):155-167.
Clayton WD; Renvoize SA, 1982. Gramineae (Part 3) In: Polhill RM, ed. Flora of Tropical East Africa. Rotterdam, Netherlands: Balkema, 451-898.
Dujardin M, 1979. Additional chromosome numbers and meiotic behaviour in tropical African grasses from western Zaire. Canadian Journal of Botany, 57(8):864-876.
Fujisaka S; Kirk G; Litsinger JA; Moody K; Hosen N; Yusef A; Nurdin F; Naim T; Artati F; Aziz A; Khatib W; Yustisia, 1991. Wild pigs, poor soils, and upland rice: a diagnostic survey of Sitiung, Sumatra, Indonesia. IRRI Research Paper Series Manila, Philippines; IRRI, No.155:9
Holm L; Pancho JV; Herberger JP; Plucknett DL, 1979. A Geographical Atlas of World Weeds. Toronto, Canada: John Wiley and Sons Inc.
Häfliger E; Scholz H, 1980. Grass Weeds 1: Weeds of the subfamily Panicoideae. Basle, Switzerland: Documenta CIBA GEIGY.
Landrey OP; Eichler GG; Chedzey J, 1993. Control of creeping grasses in small grower cane in the Umbumbulu district. Proceedings of the Annual Congress - South African Sugar Technologists' Association, No. 67:34-38
Pancho JV; Obien SR, 1995. Manual of Ricefield Weeds in the Philippines. Munoz, Nueva Ecija, Philippines: Philippine Rice Research Institute.
Shuklu U, 1996. The Grasses of North-Eastern India. Jodhpur, India: Scientific Publishers.
Singh NP; Deshpande UR, 1978. A note on the nomenclatural changes in the Indian species of Digitaria Haller. Annals of Arid Zone, 17(3):332-333.
Stanfield DP, 1970. The Flora of Nigeria Grasses. Ibadan, Nigeria: Ibadan University Press.
USDA-ARS, 2003. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx
van Oudtshoorn F, 1999. Guide to Grasses of Southern Africa. Arcadia, Pretoria, South Africa: Briza Publications.
Wells MJ; Balsinhas AA; Joffe H; Engelbrecht VM; Harding G; Stirton CH, 1986. A catalogue of problem plants in South Africa. Memoirs of the botanical survey of South Africa No 53. Pretoria, South Africa: Botanical Research Institute.
Anderson E R, Russell F J, Scanlan J C, Fossett G W, 1983. Pastures under development in central Queensland. Part 1: Mackay region. In: Pastures under development in central Queensland. Part 1: Mackay region. Brisbane, Australia: Queensland Department of Primary Industries. 61pp.
BONAP, 2004. US distribution of Digitaria longiflora. In: BONAP distribution data, USA: Texas A&M University. http://www.csdl.tamu.edu/FLORA/cgi/b98_map?genus=Digitaria&species=longiflora
CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI
CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI
Fujisaka S, Kirk G, Litsinger J A, Moody K, Hosen N, Yusef A, Nurdin F, Naim T, Artati F, Aziz A, Khatib W, Yustisia, 1991. Wild pigs, poor soils, and upland rice: a diagnostic survey of Sitiung, Sumatra, Indonesia. In: IRRI Research Paper Series, Manila, Philippines: IRRI. 9 pp.
Pancho JV, Obien SR, 1995. Manual of Ricefield Weeds in the Philippines., Munoz, Nueva Ecija, Philippines: Philippine Rice Research Institute.
Stanfield DP, 1970. The Flora of Nigeria Grasses., Ibadan, Nigeria: Ibadan University Press.
USDA-ARS, 2003. Hedychium flavescens. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database, Beltsville, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl
Distribution MapsTop of page
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