Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Dieffenbachia seguine
(dumb cane)

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Datasheet

Dieffenbachia seguine (dumb cane)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 10 December 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Dieffenbachia seguine
  • Preferred Common Name
  • dumb cane
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Monocotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Dieffenbachia seguine, commonly called dumb cane, is a herbaceous plant native from the Caribbean and South America that is widely cultivated as an ornamental. It has invaded intact forest ecosystems in Samoa a...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Dieffenbachia seguine (dumb cane); habit. Honolua Lipoa Point, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2018
TitleHabit
CaptionDieffenbachia seguine (dumb cane); habit. Honolua Lipoa Point, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2018
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Dieffenbachia seguine (dumb cane); habit. Honolua Lipoa Point, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2018
HabitDieffenbachia seguine (dumb cane); habit. Honolua Lipoa Point, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2018©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Dieffenbachia seguine (dumb cane); habit. Wailua, Maui, Hawaii, USA. September 2014.
TitleHabit
CaptionDieffenbachia seguine (dumb cane); habit. Wailua, Maui, Hawaii, USA. September 2014.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Dieffenbachia seguine (dumb cane); habit. Wailua, Maui, Hawaii, USA. September 2014.
HabitDieffenbachia seguine (dumb cane); habit. Wailua, Maui, Hawaii, USA. September 2014.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Dieffenbachia seguine (dumb cane); habit, showing leaves and stem. Haiku, Maui, Hawaii, USA. December 2006.
TitleHabit
CaptionDieffenbachia seguine (dumb cane); habit, showing leaves and stem. Haiku, Maui, Hawaii, USA. December 2006.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Dieffenbachia seguine (dumb cane); habit, showing leaves and stem. Haiku, Maui, Hawaii, USA. December 2006.
HabitDieffenbachia seguine (dumb cane); habit, showing leaves and stem. Haiku, Maui, Hawaii, USA. December 2006.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Dieffenbachia seguine (Jacq.) Schott

Preferred Common Name

  • dumb cane

Other Scientific Names

  • Caladium seguine (Jacq.) Vent.
  • Dieffenbachia grandis Engl.
  • Dieffenbachia variegata Engl.
  • Dieffenbachia wallisii Linden
  • Arum crudele Salisb.
  • Arum regnium Rodschied ex G.F.Mey.
  • Arum seguine Jacq.
  • Arum seguinum L.
  • Caladium maculatum Lodd.
  • Caladium seguinum (Jacq.) Vent.
  • Dieffenbachia barraquiniana Verschaff. & Lem.
  • Dieffenbachia brasiliensis H.J.Veitch
  • Dieffenbachia cognata Schott
  • Dieffenbachia consobrina Schott
  • Dieffenbachia conspurcata Schott
  • Dieffenbachia gigantea Verschaff
  • Dieffenbachia gollmeriana Schott
  • Dieffenbachia illustris Voss
  • Dieffenbachia irrorata Schott
  • Dieffenbachia jenmanii Veitch ex Regel
  • Dieffenbachia lineata K.Koch & C.D.Bouché
  • Dieffenbachia lingulata Schott
  • Dieffenbachia liturata Schott
  • Dieffenbachia maculata (Lodd.) Sweet
  • Dieffenbachia magnifica Linden & Rodigas
  • Dieffenbachia mirabilis Verschaff. ex Engl.
  • Dieffenbachia neglecta Schott
  • Dieffenbachia nobilis Verschaff. ex Engl.
  • Dieffenbachia picta Schott
  • Dieffenbachia picturata L.Linden & Rodigas
  • Dieffenbachia plumieri Schott
  • Dieffenbachia poeppigii Schott
  • Dieffenbachia robusta K. Koch
  • Dieffenbachia seguine var. nobilis Engl.
  • Dieffenbachia ventenatiana Schott
  • Dieffenbachia verschaffeltii Engl.
  • Seguinum maculatum (Lodd.) Raf.
  • Spathiphyllum pictum W. Bull

International Common Names

  • English: dumb-cane; mother-in-law-plant; poison arum
  • Spanish: aro seguino; caña muda; chucha; cucaracho; hoja de coche; malanga de la dicha; millionaria; pataquiña; rábano; rábano cimarrón; retamo cimmarón; salon verde
  • French: canne à gratter; canne madere; pédiveau vénéneux; tue belle-mère

Local Common Names

  • Argentina: cuyanigua
  • Brazil: aninga; bananeira d’água; canna-de-imbe
  • Cuba: dicha; malanga de la dicha
  • Fiji: yalu ni vavalagi
  • French Polynesia: taro upu reva
  • Germany: Dieffenbachie; Dieffenbachie, Schierlings-; Schweigrohrwurzel
  • Guyana: donkin
  • Portugal: cana marona
  • Sweden: prickblad
  • Tonga: talo

EPPO code

  • DIFSE (Dieffenbachia seguine)

Summary of Invasiveness

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Dieffenbachia seguine, commonly called dumb cane, is a herbaceous plant native from the Caribbean and South America that is widely cultivated as an ornamental. It has invaded intact forest ecosystems in Samoa and become widely naturalized where planted as an ornamental. Plants are considered weeds in some tropical plantations within and outside the plant’s native range. The species can spread via seed and vegetatively from discarded garden waste. All parts of the plant are highly toxic to people and pets.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  •                     Order: Arales
  •                         Family: Araceae
  •                             Genus: Dieffenbachia
  •                                 Species: Dieffenbachia seguine

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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There are about 135 species of Dieffenbachia, mostly occurring in Central and South America (Croat, 2004). The genus was first described by Schott in 1860 and many of the species he described were synonymized by Engler in 1915 (Croat, 2004). D. picta and D. maculata are now synonymized under D. seguine (Croat, 2004).

Description

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D. seguine is a terrestrial herbaceous plant that grows in tropical environments. The basal stems are often thick and root at the nodes. Stems can grow to 1.5 m tall. Stems may trail along the ground long distances. Leaves and stems contain a white sap. Leaves have elongated, grooved, petioles (10-35 cm long), which are usually medium green, but may be spotted. The petioles are covered in a sheath to 2/3 or more of its length. Leaves cluster in a tight whorl at the apex of the stem. Leaves are simple, ovate-lanceolate and acuminate at the apex, acute to obtuse at the base, 17-38 cm long and 10-20 cm wide. Leaves are somewhat leathery and are often variegated with pale green or white, especially along the midribs. Midribs are slightly off-center. There are 13-19  primary lateral veins on each side. Flowers are a spathe and spadix with 1-4 inflorescences per axil. The pale green spathe is usually shorter than the leaves, 11-24 cm long, acuminate at the apex, gradually constricted above the tube (spathe tube 7-10 cm long). The spadix is slightly shorter than the spathe (10-19 cm long) and is divided into pistillate and staminate portions with the pistillate flowers basal. Flowers are naked and unisexual. Fruits mature to bright red or orange and are 2- or 3- lobed, each fruit containing 1 to 3 seeds (Croat, 2004).

Plant Type

Top of page Broadleaved
Herbaceous
Perennial
Seed propagated
Vegetatively propagated

Distribution

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D. seguine naturally ranges throughout much of the Caribbean south into Venezuela, Suriname, French Guiana, eastern Brazil, and west into the lowlands of Colombia, eastern Ecuador and Bolivia (Croat, 2004). It is listed as occurring in Mexico and much of Central America (HEAR, 2017), but it is not considered native to Central America, where it may have been confused with Central American and Mexican species (Croat, 2004). D. seguine is widely cultivated around the world as a houseplant, but it only survives outdoors in tropical climates (Croat, 2004). The species is cultivated and naturalized in Sri Lanka (SL Flora, 2017), Singapore (Neo et al., 2012), Malaysia (Hashim et al., 2010), Nigeria (NCF, 2017), Samoa (Space and Flynn, 2002), Fiji, Hawaii and other south Pacific islands (HEAR, 2017).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

BurundiPresentIntroducedFlora of Central Africa (2017)
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresentIntroducedFlora of Central Africa (2017)
MayottePresentIntroducedInvasiveCABI (Undated)Also cultivated; Original citation: INPN (2017)
NigeriaPresent, LocalizedIntroducedInvasiveNCF (2017)Niger Delta
RéunionPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)Original citation: INPN (2017)
RwandaPresentIntroducedFlora of Central Africa (2017)

Asia

ChinaPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated a)Based on regional distribution
Hong KongPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedHEAR (2017)
MalaysiaPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated a)Based on regional distribution
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresent, LocalizedIntroducedNor Rasidah Hashim et al. (2010)
PakistanPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedCABI (Undated)Original citation: Tropicos (2017)
SingaporePresentIntroducedHEAR (2017); Keng et al. (1998)
Sri LankaPresentIntroducedInvasiveCABI (Undated)Original citation: SL Flora (2017)

Europe

United KingdomPresentIntroducedBarnes and Fox (1955)

North America

Antigua and BarbudaPresentNativeGraveson (2012)
British Virgin IslandsPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2005)Tortola
Costa RicaPresentNativeHEAR (2017)
CubaPresentIntroducedInvasiveOviedo Prieto et al. (2012)
DominicaPresentNativeGraveson (2012)
El SalvadorPresentNativeHEAR (2017)
GuadeloupePresentNativeCABI (Undated)Original citation: Tela-Botanica (2017)
GuatemalaPresentNativeHEAR (2017)
HondurasPresentNativeHEAR (2017)
MartiniquePresentNativeInvasiveQuénéhervé et al. (2006)
MexicoPresentNative and IntroducedCuartas-Hernández and Núñez-Farfán (2006); Croat (2004)Considered both native and introduced in the country
NicaraguaPresentNativeHEAR (2017)
Puerto RicoPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2005)
Saint Kitts and NevisPresentNativeGraveson (2012)
Saint LuciaPresentNativeGraveson (2012)
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentNativeGraveson (2012)
Trinidad and TobagoPresentNativeGraveson (2012)
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2005)St. John and St. Thomas
United StatesPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated a)Based on regional distribution
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedInvasiveHEAR (2017)Also in cultivation; Kauai, Maui

Oceania

American SamoaPresentIntroducedInvasiveHEAR (2017)
Cook IslandsPresentIntroducedHEAR (2017)Also in cultivation; Penrhyn, ‘Atiu, Mangaia, Rarotonga
Federated States of MicronesiaPresentIntroducedInvasiveHEAR (2017); Fosberg et al. (1987); Space and Flynn (2000); Herrera et al. (2010)Also in cultivation; Weno, Kosrae, Pohnpei, Yap
FijiPresentIntroducedInvasiveHEAR (2017)
French PolynesiaPresentIntroducedInvasiveHEAR (2017)Also in cultivation; Fatu Hiva, Hiva Oa, Nuku Hiva, Tahuata, Ua Pou, Moorea, Raiatea, Taha’a, Tahiti, Tetiaroa Atoll, Makatea, Rurutu
GuamPresentIntroducedHEAR (2017)
Marshall IslandsPresentIntroducedHEAR (2017)Also in cultivation; Kwajalein, Majuro
NauruPresentIntroducedHEAR (2017)Also in cultivation
New CaledoniaPresentIntroducedInvasiveHEAR (2017)Île Grande Terre
NiuePresentIntroducedHEAR (2017)Also in cultivation
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentIntroducedHEAR (2017)
PalauPresentIntroducedInvasiveHEAR (2017)Babeldaob, Koror, Malakal, Ngerkebesan, Peleliu
SamoaPresentIntroducedInvasiveHEAR (2017)Savai‘I, Upolu
TongaPresentIntroducedHEAR (2017)Also in cultivation; ‘Eua
U.S. Minor Outlying IslandsPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated a)Based on regional distribution
-Wake IslandPresentIntroducedHEAR (2017)Also in cultivation

South America

BoliviaPresentNativeCroat (2004)
BrazilPresentNativeCABI (Undated a)Based on regional distribution
-AcrePresentNativeReflora (2017)
-AmazonasPresentNativeReflora (2017)
-GoiasPresentNativeReflora (2017)
-ParaPresentNativeReflora (2017)
ColombiaPresentNativeHEAR (2017)
EcuadorPresentNativeHEAR (2017)
-Galapagos IslandsPresentIntroducedHEAR (2017)Also in cultivation; Floreana, Isabela, San Cristobal, Santa Cruz
French GuianaPresentNativeReflora (2017)
SurinamePresentNativeCroat (2004)
VenezuelaPresentNativeReflora (2017)

History of Introduction and Spread

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D. seguine was cultivated as a houseplant in England as early as 1759 (Barnes and Fox, 1955), although other sources list it as introduced to England in either 1820 or 1830 (Lowe and Howard, 1870; Lowe, 1872). The species is listed as cultivated in St. Kitts in 1901 (Alexander, 1901) and in Bermuda in 1918 (Britton, 1918).

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
UK South America 1759 Horticulture (pathway cause) No No Barnes and Fox (1955)

Risk of Introduction

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D. seguine is widely cultivated as a houseplant and used as an outdoor ornamental plant in tropical areas (Croat, 2004; USDA-ARS, 2017). Plants may spread vegetatively by the dumping of garden waste (Space and Flynn, 2002).

Habitat

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In Brazil, herbarium specimens have been collected along roadsides, riverbanks and in forested areas (Reflora, 2017). In French Guiana, plants have been most commonly found growing on large stream boulders (Gibernau, 2015). In Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, D. seguine is found in swamps, moist forests and wet seepage areas, in sun to part sun conditions (Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2005). In Sri Lanka, D. seguine occurs along roadsides and in forested areas (SL Flora, 2017). In Fiji, it is considered a minor weed in waste places, along roadsides and in coconut plantations (HEAR, 2017). It has invaded intact forest ecosystems in Samoa (Space and Flynn, 2000), it is found in riparian secondary forests in Malaysia (Hashim et al., 2010) and in the Cook Islands it thrives in stream bottoms and moist areas in forests (Space and Flynn, 2002).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number for D. seguine is 2n = 34 (Croat, 2004). Genetic diversity is relatively high, compared to that of other clonal species (Cuartas-Hernández and Núñez-Farfán, 2006). In forest fragments, populations have reduced arrays of multilocus genotypes and reduced seed production, due to lack of pollen flow (Cuartas-Hernández and Núñez-Farfán, 2006), although this data may refer to D. oerstedii instead (Croat, 2004). A complete chloroplast sequence for D. seguine has been published (Wang Bin et al., 2016).

Reproductive Biology

D. seguine reproduces vegetatively from rhizomes (Space and Flynn, 2000). Flowers are pollinated by small beetles (Cuartas-Hernández et al., 2010). Female flowers are receptive one to two days before male flowers and inflorescences are thermogenic on the first night of female flower receptivity (Gibernau, 2015). Plants with more leaves have a greater number of inflorescences (Gibernau, 2015).

Physiology and Phenology

D. seguine can flower and mature fruit year-round, but most flowering takes place at the beginning and end of the dry season, between March and September (Croat, 2004).

Population Size and Structure

In Veracruz, Mexico, populations are dense, but patchily distributed, with only a few individuals flowering at any time (Cuartas-Hernández et al., 2010).

Associations

Flowers are pollinated by beetles (Croat, 2004). In French Guiana, the beetles Cyclocephala rustica and Erioscelis proba visited flowers of D. seguine (Gibernau, 2015). Seeds are bird-dispersed (Cuartas-Hernández and Núñez-Farfán, 2006).

Environmental Requirements

D. seguine grows in sun to part shade, in moist soils (Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2005).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
22 20

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) 1.7
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 26 27
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 31 33
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 21 22

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration20number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall15742899mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

Top of page Bimodal
Uniform

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free
  • impeded

Soil reaction

  • neutral

Special soil tolerances

  • shallow

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Dickeya dadantii Pathogen Roots/Stems not specific
Glomerella cingulata Pathogen Leaves not specific
Hoplolaimus seinhorsti Parasite Roots not specific
Meloidogyne Parasite Roots not specific
Myrothecium roridum Pathogen Leaves not specific Kirk, 2017
Rotylenchulus reniformis Parasite Roots not specific

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Most information on natural enemies comes from house plant disease research (Balestra and Impiglia, 1996; Caliman et al., 2013; Hong et al., 2013) and research on parasitic nematodes that also affect banana trees (Quénéhervé et al., 2006).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal

Seeds have been reported to be bird-dispersed (Cuartas-Hernández and Núñez-Farfán, 2006), although this report may refer to D. oerstedii instead (Croat, 2004).

Accidental Introduction

The species has repeatedly escaped from cultivation (Space and Flynn, 2002; SL Flora, 2017; HEAR, 2017; NCF, 2017).

Intentional Introduction

D. seguine is widely cultivated as an ornamental plant (Croat, 2004).

Pathway Causes

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Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Debris and waste associated with human activities Yes Space and Flynn, 2002
Mail Yes Dave’s Garden, 2017

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Positive and negative
Human health Positive and negative

Economic Impact

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The species is considered a minor weed in coconut plantations in Fiji (HEAR, 2017). It is also a weed of banana plantations in Martinique and host to several species of parasitic nematodes (Quénéhervé et al., 2006).

Environmental Impact

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Impact on Biodiversity

D. seguine crowds out species in moist forested areas and stream sides in Samoa (Space and Flynn, 2002).

Social Impact

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All parts of D. seguine are highly poisonous to people and animals (Arditti and Rodriguez, 1982; NCF, 2017). When ingested, sap causes blistering and swelling in the mouth that can be severe enough to prevent speaking and swallowing (NCF, 2017). Contact with sap can cause blistering (Arditti and Rodriguez, 1982).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Invasive in its native range
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Negatively impacts forestry
  • Negatively impacts human health
  • Negatively impacts animal health
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Causes allergic responses
  • Pest and disease transmission
  • Poisoning
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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Economic Value

D. seguine is sold as an ornamental plant all around the world (USDA-ARS, 2017). The genus Dieffenbachia is among the top 10 foliage plants with the highest annual sales volume in the USA (Croat, 2004).

Social Benefit

D. seguine is used as poison for arrows in Brazil (Arditti and Rodriguez, 1982; NCF, 2017) and is also used in traditional medicine (Arditti and Rodriguez, 1982; Duke, 2009; USDA-ARS, 2017).

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Amenity
  • Landscape improvement

General

  • Botanical garden/zoo
  • Sociocultural value

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Ornamental

  • garden plant
  • Potted plant
  • Propagation material

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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D. seguine can be confused with other species of Dieffenbachia. In this species, petioles are shorter than the leaf blade and sharply sulcate (ribbed) on the free portion (Croat, 2004). The spadix of D. seguine is cylindrical and protrudes from the spathe, compared to Central American species of Dieffenbachia (for example, D. oerstedii and D. wendlandii), which have spathes tapered to the apex. D. seguine’s spathe is “caught in the protruded position when the spathe re-closes” (Croat, 2004). The spathe also has large, bicarpellate ovaries in D. seguine (Croat, 2004).

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Prevention

Public awareness

An important measure is to discourage further planting of this species in areas where it can become invasive (Space and Flynn, 2002).

Control

Cultural control and sanitary measures

Given that D. seguine may spread by the dumping of garden waste, Space and Flynn (2002) suggest inter-island quarantine on the movement of this species in the Cook Islands.

Chemical control

The closely related D. oerstedii is controlled in banana plantations by using herbicides (Brenes-Prendas and Aguero-Alvarado, 2012).

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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Little information is available on the impact of this species where it has naturalized.

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez, P., Strong, M. T., 2005. Monocotyledons and gymnosperms of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 52, 415 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/PRFlora/monocots/vol52web.pdf

Alexander, W. H., 1901. Bulletin of the American Geographical Society, 33. 207-219.

Arditti, J., Rodriguez, E., 1982. Dieffenbachia: uses, abuses and toxic constituents: a review. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 5(3), 293-302. http://escholarship.org/uc/item/26b242zs#page-1 doi: 10.1016/0378-8741(82)90015-0

Balestra, G. M., Impiglia, A, 1996. Occurrence of Erwinia chrysanthemi on Dieffenbachia maculata in Syria. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 35(2), 127-128.

Barnes BA, Fox LE, 1955. Poisoning with “Dieffenbachia”. Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences, 10(2), 173-181.

BGCI, 2017. Dieffenbachia seguine. Richmond, UK: Botanic Gardens Conservation International. https://www.bgci.org/plant_details.php?plantID=10997

Brenes-Prendas, S., Aguero-Alvarado, R., 2012. Toxicity of banana suckers by promisory herbicides for the control of Dieffenbachia oerstedii. Agronomía Mesoamericana, 23(1), 47-53. http://redalyc.uaemex.mx/redalyc/src/inicio/HomRevRed.jsp?iCveEntRev=437

Britton, N. L., 1918. Flora of Bermuda, New York, USA: C. Scribner's Sons.

Caliman, M.E., Oliveira, C.S.L. de, Pereira, J., Bezerra, J.L., 2013. First report of Glomerella cingulata causing leaf spot on Dieffenbachia seguine in Brazil. Agrotrópica, 25(2), 125-128. http://www.ceplac.gov.br/paginas/agrotropica/revistas/agrotropica_25_2.pdf

Croat TB, 2004. Revision of Dieffenbachia (Araceae) of Mexico, Central America, and the West Indies. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 91, 668-772. http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/27275321#page/682/mode/1up

Cuartas-Hernández, S., Núñez-Farfán, J., 2006. The genetic structure of the tropical understory herb Dieffenbachia seguine L. before and after forest fragmentation. Evolutionary Ecology Research, 8(6), 1061-1075. http://www.evolutionary-ecology.com

Cuartas-Hernández, S., Núñez-Farfán, J., Smouse, P. E., 2010. Restricted pollen flow of Dieffenbachia seguine populations in fragmented and continuous tropical forest. Heredity, 105(2), 197-204. http://www.nature.com/hdy doi: 10.1038/hdy.2009.179

Dave’s Garden, 2017. Dave’s Garden. Online resources. California, USA: Internet Brands. http://davesgarden.com/

Duke JA, 2009. Duke’s handbook of medicinal plants of Latin America, New York, USA: CRC Press.

Flora of Central Africa, 2017. The Checklist Flore d'Afrique Centrale. http://floreafriquecentrale.org/

Fosberg FR, Sachet MH, Royce O, 1987. A geographical checklist of the Micronesian monocotyledonae. Micronesica : Journal of the University of Guam, 20, 1-126.

Gibernau M, 2015. Pollination ecology of two Dieffenbachia in French Guiana. Aroideana, 38(2), 38-66. http://www.aroid.org/aroideana/supplement/Aroideana38EN2.pdf#page=38

Graveson R, 2012. The Plants of Saint Lucia (in the Lesser Antilles of the Caribbean). http://www.saintlucianplants.com/

Hashim NR, Hughes F, Bayliss-Smith T, 2010. Non-native species in floodplain secondary forests in Peninsular Malaysia. Environment Asia, 3(Special issue), 43-49. http://www.tshe.org/ea/pdf/vol3s%20p43-49.pdf

HEAR, 2017. Alien species in Hawaii. Hawaii Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/

Herrera K, Lorence DH , Flynn T, Balick MJ , 2010. Allertonia, in press, Lawai, Hawaii, USA: National Tropical Botanical Garden.146 pp.

Hong, C.F., Tsai, S.F., Yeh, H.C., Fan, M.C., 2013. First report of Myrothecium roridum causing myrothecium leaf spot on Dieffenbachia picta 'Camilla' in Taiwan. Plant Disease, 97(9), 1253. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis doi: 10.1094/PDIS-02-13-0177-PDN

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Keng H, Chin SC, Tan HTW, 1998. The Concise Flora of Singapore Vol. II Monocotyledons, Singapore: Singapore University Press.

Lowe EJ, 1872. Beautiful leaved plants, London, England: Bell and Daldy. http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/50167090#page/9/mode/1up

Lowe EJ, Howard W, 1870. [English title not available]. (Les plantes a feuillage coloré : histoire, description, culture, emploi des espèces les plus remarquables pour la décoration des parcs, jardins, serres, appartements précédé d'une introduction par Charles Naudin), Paris, France: Rothschild. http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/16490584#page/98/mode/1up

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017. Tropicos database. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/

NCF, 2017. Beware of the dumb cane plant (Dieffenbachia seguine). Lagos, Nigeria: Nigerian Conservation Foundation. http://www.ncfnigeria.org/membership/item/113-beware-of-the-dumb-cane-plant-dieffenbachia-seguine

Neo L, Yee ATK, Chong KY, Tan HTW, 2012. The vascular plant flora of abandoned plantations in Singapore I: Clementi forest. Nature in Singapore, 5, 275-283.

Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff MG, et al., 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la Republica de Cuba - 2011). Bissea, 6(Special Issue 1), 22-96.

Quénéhervé, P., Chabrier, C., Auwerkerken, A., Topart, P., Martiny, B., Marie-Luce, S., 2006. Status of weeds as reservoirs of plant parasitic nematodes in banana fields in Martinique. Crop Protection, 25(8), 860-867. doi: 10.1016/j.cropro.2005.11.009

Reflora, 2017. Brazilian Flora Virtual Herbarium. http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/herbarioVirtual/ConsultaPublicoHVUC/ConsultaPublicoHVUC.do

SL Flora, 2017. Flowers and plants in Sri Lanka. http://slflora.blogspot.com/

Space JC, Flynn T, 2000. Observations on invasive plant species in American Samoa. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: USDA Forest Service. http://www.hear.org/pier/reports/asreport.htm#m-native

Space JC, Flynn T, 2002. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. . Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: USDA Forest Service. 146 pp. http://www.hear.org/pier/pdf/cook_islands_report.pdf

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Wang Bin, Han LiMin, Chen Chen, Wang ZheZhi, 2016. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Dieffenbachia seguine (Araceae). Mitochondrial DNA Part A, 27(4), 2913-2914. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.3109/19401736.2015.1060436#abstract

Distribution References

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2005. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, Washington, USA: Department of Systematic Biology - Botany, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution. 52, 415 pp.

Barnes BA, Fox LE, 1955. Poisoning with “Dieffenbachia”. In: Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences, 10 (2) 173-181.

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Croat TB, 2004. Revision of Dieffenbachia (Araceae) of Mexico, Central America, and the West Indies. In: Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 91 668-772. http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/27275321#page/682/mode/1up

Cuartas-Hernández S, Núñez-Farfán J, 2006. The genetic structure of the tropical understory herb Dieffenbachia seguine L. before and after forest fragmentation. Evolutionary Ecology Research. 8 (6), 1061-1075. http://www.evolutionary-ecology.com

Flora of Central Africa, 2017. The Checklist Flore d'Afrique Centrale., http://floreafriquecentrale.org/

Fosberg FR, Sachet MH, Royce O, 1987. A geographical checklist of the Micronesian monocotyledonae. In: Micronesica : Journal of the University of Guam, 20 1-126.

Graveson R, 2012. The Plants of Saint Lucia (in the Lesser Antilles of the Caribbean)., http://www.saintlucianplants.com/

HEAR, 2017. HEAR species information index. In: HEAR species information index. Puunene, Hawaii, USA: Hawaii Ecosystems at Risk project. http://www.hear.org/species/

Herrera K, Lorence DH, Flynn T, Balick MJ, 2010. Allertonia., Lawai, Hawaii, USA: National Tropical Botanical Garden. 146 pp.

Keng H, Chin SC, Tan HTW, 1998. The Concise Flora of Singapore. Monocotyledons., II Singapore: Singapore University Press.

NCF, 2017. Beware of the dumb cane plant (Dieffenbachia seguine)., Lagos, Nigeria: Nigerian Conservation Foundation. http://www.ncfnigeria.org/membership/item/113-beware-of-the-dumb-cane-plant-dieffenbachia-seguine

Nor Rasidah Hashim, Hughes F, Bayliss-Smith T, 2010. Non-native species in floodplain secondary forests in Peninsular Malaysia. Environment Asia. 3 (Special issue), 43-49. http://www.tshe.org/ea/pdf/vol3s%20p43-49.pdf

Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff M G, et al, 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba. 6 (Special Issue No. 1), 22-96.

Quénéhervé P, Chabrier C, Auwerkerken A, Topart P, Martiny B, Marie-Luce S, 2006. Status of weeds as reservoirs of plant parasitic nematodes in banana fields in Martinique. Crop Protection. 25 (8), 860-867. DOI:10.1016/j.cropro.2005.11.009

Reflora, 2017. Brazilian Flora Virtual Herbarium., http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/herbarioVirtual/ConsultaPublicoHVUC/ConsultaPublicoHVUC.do

Space JC, Flynn T, 2000. Observations on invasive plant species in American Samoa., Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: USDA Forest Service. http://www.hear.org/pier/reports/asreport.htm#m-native

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Contributors

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27/02/17 Original text by:

Sylvan Kaufman, Sylvan Green Earth Consulting, Santa Fe, USA

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