Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Didymella bryoniae
(gummy stem blight of cucurbits)

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Datasheet

Didymella bryoniae (gummy stem blight of cucurbits)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 24 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Didymella bryoniae
  • Preferred Common Name
  • gummy stem blight of cucurbits
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Ascomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •         Class: Dothideomycetes

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Cucurbit stem rot, D. bryoniae.
TitleSlide mount
CaptionCucurbit stem rot, D. bryoniae.
Copyright©J.M. Waller/CABI BioScience
Cucurbit stem rot, D. bryoniae.
Slide mountCucurbit stem rot, D. bryoniae.©J.M. Waller/CABI BioScience

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Didymella bryoniae (Auersw.) Rehm

Preferred Common Name

  • gummy stem blight of cucurbits

Other Scientific Names

  • Ascochyta citrullina (CHESTER) SMITH
  • Ascochyta cucumis Fautrey & Roum.
  • Ascochyta melonis Potebnja
  • Cercospora citrullina Cooke
  • Cercospora cucurbitae Ell. & Ev.
  • Didymella melonis Pass.
  • Didymosphaeria bryoniae (AUERSW.) NIESSL
  • Didymosphaeria effusa Sacc.
  • Didymosphaeria melonis Pidoplichko
  • Mycosphaerella citrullina (C.O.Sm.) Grossenbacher
  • Mycosphaerella melonis (Pass.) Chiu & Walker
  • Phoma cucurbitacearum (Fr. ex Fr.) Sacc.
  • Phyllosticta citrullina Chester
  • Sphaerella bryoniae AUERSW.
  • Sphaeria bryoniae FUCKEL

International Common Names

  • English: black rot of cucumber and pumpkin; cercospora leafspot of squash; early leaf spot of groundnut; leaf spot of cucurbits
  • Spanish: caries negra del pepino; chamuscado de los tallos del pepino
  • French: brulure des tiges du concombre et du melon; chancre gommeux des tiges; taches foliaires de la pastèque

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Schwarzfaeule: Gurkengewaechse; Stengelbrand: Gurkengewaechse

EPPO code

  • CERCCI (Cercospora citrullina)
  • DIDYBR (Didymella bryoniae)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Ascomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •                 Class: Dothideomycetes
  •                     Subclass: Pleosporomycetidae
  •                         Order: Pleosporales
  •                             Genus: Didymella
  •                                 Species: Didymella bryoniae

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

EthiopiaPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
GabonPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
KenyaPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
MalawiPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
MauritiusPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
MoroccoPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
NigeriaPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
South AfricaPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
TanzaniaPresentJensen et al. (2011); UK, CAB International (1984)
TunisiaPresentBoughalleb et al. (2007)
UgandaPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
ZambiaPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
ZimbabwePresentUK, CAB International (1984)

Asia

BangladeshPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
BruneiPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
ChinaPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
-GansuPresentCABI (Undated b)
-GuangxiPresentYe YunFeng et al. (2018)
-JiangsuPresentLi Wei et al. (2008)
-XinjiangPresentJia (1993)
-ZhejiangPresentChen et al. (1992)
Hong KongPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
IndiaPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
-BiharPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
-KarnatakaPresentCABI (Undated b)
IraqPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
IsraelPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
JapanPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
LaosPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
MalaysiaPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
-SabahPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
-SarawakPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
MyanmarPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
PakistanPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
PhilippinesPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
South KoreaPresentUK, CAB International (1984); Hong SunHee et al. (2014); Choi et al. (2015)
Sri LankaPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
TaiwanPresentUK, CAB International (1984); Tsai and Chen (2012)
ThailandPresentUK, CAB International (1984)

Europe

AustriaPresentBedlan (1992)
BulgariaPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
CzechoslovakiaPresentVoženílková et al. (1992)
Union of Soviet Socialist RepublicsPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
DenmarkPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
GermanyPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
GreecePresentUK, CAB International (1984)
IrelandPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
ItalyPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
NetherlandsPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
NorwayPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
PolandPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
RomaniaPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
RussiaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-Russia (Europe)PresentUK, CAB International (1984)
-Russian Far EastPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
SerbiaPresentMitrović (2006)
SwedenPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
SwitzerlandPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
UkrainePresentUK, CAB International (1984)
United KingdomPresentO'Neil (1991)

North America

BarbadosPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
BelizePresentUK, CAB International (1984)
BermudaPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
CanadaPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
-British ColumbiaPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
-ManitobaPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
-Nova ScotiaPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
-OntarioPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
CubaPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
DominicaPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
Dominican RepublicPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
El SalvadorPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
HondurasPresentMartínez and Figueroa (2009)
JamaicaPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
MexicoPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
NicaraguaPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
Puerto RicoPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
Trinidad and TobagoPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
United StatesPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1984)
-FloridaPresentCABI (Undated b)
-GeorgiaPresentStevenson et al. (2004)
-New YorkPresentCABI (Undated b)
-North CarolinaPresentCABI (Undated b)
-South CarolinaPresentCABI (Undated b)

Oceania

American SamoaPresentBrooks (2002)
AustraliaPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
-New South WalesPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
-QueenslandPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
-South AustraliaPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
-VictoriaPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
FijiPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
French PolynesiaPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
New CaledoniaPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
New ZealandPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
PitcairnPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
SamoaPresentGerlach (1988)
Solomon IslandsPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
TongaPresentUK, CAB International (1984)

South America

ArgentinaPresentCABI (Undated b)
BoliviaPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
BrazilPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
-Minas GeraisPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
-Rio Grande do SulPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
-Santa CatarinaPresentGallotti and Tôrres (2004)
-Sao PauloPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
-TocantinsPresentSantos and CaféFilho (2006)
ChilePresentUK, CAB International (1984)
PeruPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Turkensteen & Pinedo, 1982
VenezuelaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Cedeno, 2000

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / gummosis
Fruit / lesions: black or brown
Fruit / ooze
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / necrotic areas
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Stems / gummosis or resinosis
Stems / mould growth on lesion
Stems / ooze
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback
Whole plant / wilt

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Bacillus subtilis Pathogen

References

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Bedlan G, 1992. Cucumber diseases. Pflanzenschutz (Wien), No. 2:4-7.

Belypva VB, Blinova ZP, 1975. Survival rate of Ascochyta cucumeris Fautr. & Roum. under glass. Mikologiya i Fitopatologiya, 9(6):490-494

Bharath BG, Lokesh S, Prakash HS, Shetty HS, 2006. Evaluation of different plant protectants against seed mycoflora of watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum and Nakai]. Research Journal of Botany, 1(1):1-5. http://academicjournals.net/2/c4p.php?id=2&theme=2&jid=jb

Boughalleb N, El-Mahjoub M, Abad-Campos P, Pérez-Sierra A, García-Jiménez J, Armengol J, 2007. First report of gummy stem blight caused by Didymella bryoniae on grafted watermelon in Tunisia. Plant Disease, 91(4):468. HTTP://www.apsnet.org

Brooks F, 2002. List of Plant Diseases in American Samoa 2002. Land Grant Technical Report No. 44. Pago Pago, American Samoa: American Samoa Community College Land Grant Program.

Brown ME, Howard EM, Knight BC, 1970. Seedborne Mycosphaerella melonis on cucumber. Plant Pathology, 19:198.

Chen X, Zhong HM, Chen EM, Zhao GQ, Zheng YM, 1992. Occurrence and control of watermelon blight. Bulletin of Agricultural Science and Technology, No. 6:26-27

Choi IY, Kim JH, Lee WH, Park JH, Shin HD, 2015. First report of black rot caused by Phoma cucurbitacearum on Momordica charantia in Korea. Plant Disease, 99(5):727-728. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Ellis MB, Ellis JP, 1985. Microfungi on land plants. An identification handbook. London, UK/Sydney, Australia: Croom Helm Ltd., 818 pp.

Frolova VS, 1976. Seed infection of cucumber by Ascochyta disease and its control. Trudy Kuban. S.-Kh. Inst., No. 125(153):32-36

Gallotti GJM, Tôrres ANL, 2004. Stem canker of melon. (Cancro-das-hastes do melão.) Agropecuária Catarinense, 17(1):50-52.

Gerlach WWP, 1988. Plant diseases of Western Samoa. Apia, Western Samoa: Samoan German Crop Protection Project, 215 pp.

Hong SunHee, Park JiHyun, Cho SungEun, Shin HyeonDong, 2014. First report of cercospora leaf spot of burcucumber caused by Cercospora citrullina in Korea. Journal of Phytopathology, 162(5):338-341. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1439-0434

Jensen BD, Massawe A, Swai IS, 2011. First report of gummy stem blight caused by Didymella bryoniae on watermelon and confirmation of the disease on pumpkin in Tanzania. Plant Disease, 95(6):768. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Jia JS, 1993. The gummy stem blight of Hami melon and its control in Xinjiang. Acta Phytopathologica Sinica, 23(1):85-90

Lee DH, 1982. Morphological and cultural characters of Didymella bryoniae on seeds and culture media. Korean Journal of Mycology, 10(1):7-15.

Lee DH, Mathur SB, Neergaard P, 1984. Detection and location of seed-borne inoculum of Didymella bryonip and its transmission in seedlings of cucumber and pumpkin. Phytopathologische Zeitschrift, 109(4):301-308

Li Wei, Zhang AiXiang, Jiang Jiao, Yang XingPing, Chen HuaiGu, 2008. Identification of muskmelon gummy stem blight pathogen and its biological characters. Jiangsu Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 24(2):148-152. http://www.jaas.ac.cn

Martínez B, Figueroa O, 2009. Status of sudden death of melon in Choluteca, Honduras. (Estatus acerca de la muerte súbita en el melón en Choluteca, Honduras.) Revista Mexicana de Fitopatología, 27(1):73. http://members.tripod.com/~sociedad/Sociedad.htm

Miller SA, Rowe CR, Riedel MR, 2001. The Ohio State University Gummy Stem Blight and Black Rot of Cucurbits HYG-3126-96. Gummy Stem Blight and Black Rot of Cucurbits. Columbus, Ohio, USA: Ohio State University.

Mitrovic M, 2006. Production and protection of watermelon. (Proizvodnja i za?tita lubenice.) Glasnik Za?tite Bilja, 29(6):48-60. http://www.zastitabilja.com.hr

Mukhtar I, Mushtaq S, Khokhar I, Hannan A, 2013. First record of Cercospora citrullina leaf spot on Lagenaria siceraria in Pakistan. JAPS, Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences, 23(6):1756-1757. http://www.thejaps.org.pk/docs/v-23-6/42.pdf

O'Neil TM, 1991. Investigation of glasshouse structure, growing medium and silicon nutrition as factors affecting disease incidence in cucumber crops. Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwwetenschappen, Rijksuniversiteit Gent, 56(2b):359-367

Rankin HW, 1954. Effectiveness of seed treatment in controlling gummy stem blight of watermelon. Phytopathology, 44:657-680.

Santos GR, CaféFilho AC, 2006. Occurrence of gummy stem blight in watermelon in the state of Tocantins caused by Didymella bryoniae. (Ocorrência do crestamento gomoso do caule em melancia no Tocantins causado por Didymella bryoniae.) Fitopatologia Brasileira, 31(2):208. http://www.scielo.br/pdf/fb/v31n2/30020.pdf

Stevenson KL, Langston DB Jr, Seebold KW, 2004. Resistance to azoxystrobin in the gummy stem blight pathogen documented in Georgia. Plant Health Progress, December:1-8. http://www.plantmanagementnetwork.org/pub/php/research/2004/gummy/

Tamietti G, Garibaldi A, 1983. Gummous stem canker of squash: epidemiology and control. Agricoltura Italiana, No.1/2:103-119

Thomas A, Langston DB Jr, Walcott RR, Gitaitis RD, Stevenson KL, 2014. Evidence for fungicide-resistant seed-borne inoculum for gummy stem blight of watermelon. Seed Science and Technology, 42(1):92-96. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/ista/sst/2014/00000042/00000001/art00010

Tsai YC, Chen JF, 2012. First report of Didymella bryoniae causing gummy stem blight of chayote in Taiwan. Plant Disease, 96(10):1578. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Turkensteen LJ, Pinedo HM, 1982. Didymella bryonip as a potato pathogen in warm regions of Peru. Fitopatologia, 17(1):54-55

UK CAB International, 1984. Didymella bryoniae. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, December (Edition 4):Map 450.

University of Hawaii, 2012. Knowledge Master - Didymella bryoniae. Manoa, Hawaii, USA: University of Hawaii.

Utkhede RS, Koch CA, 2002. Chemical and biological treatments for control of gummy stem blight of greenhouse cucumbers. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 108(5):443-448.

Vozenilkova B, Zvara J, Skorepa J, 1992. The use of Trichoderma spp. for biological protection of greenhouse cucumbers. Sbornik-Jihoceska Univerzita Zemedelska Faculta, Ceske Budejovice. Fytotechnicka Rada, No. 1:93-105

Ye YunFeng, Du ChanJuan, Qin SiHua, Liu TangJing, Hong RiXin, Fu Gang, Li GuiFen, Huang JinYan, 2018. Isolation and identification of pathogen causing Cercospora leaf spot of muskmelon., 49(3), 476-480. http://www.nfnyxb.com/EN/Default.aspx

Distribution References

Bedlan G, 1992. Cucumber diseases. (Gurkenkrankheiten.). Pflanzenschutz (Wien). 4-7.

Boughalleb N, El-Mahjoub M, Abad-Campos P, Pérez-Sierra A, García-Jiménez J, Armengol J, 2007. First report of gummy stem blight caused by Didymella bryoniae on grafted watermelon in Tunisia. Plant Disease. 91 (4), 468. HTTP://www.apsnet.org DOI:10.1094/PDIS-91-4-0468B

Brooks F, 2002. List of Plant Diseases in American Samoa 2002. In: Land Grant Technical Report No. 44, Pago Pago, American Samoa: American Samoa Community College Land Grant Program.

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Chen X, Zhong H M, Chen E M, Zhao G Q, Zheng Y M, 1992. Occurrence and control of watermelon blight. Bulletin of Agricultural Science and Technology. 26-27.

Choi I Y, Kim J H, Lee W H, Park J H, Shin H D, 2015. First report of black rot caused by Phoma cucurbitacearum on Momordica charantia in Korea. Plant Disease. 99 (5), 727-728. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Gallotti G J M, Tôrres A N L, 2004. Stem canker of melon. (Cancro-das-hastes do melão.). Agropecuária Catarinense. 17 (1), 50-52.

Gerlach W W P, 1988. Plant diseases of Western Samoa. Apia, Western Samoa: Samoan German Crop Protection Project. vii + 215 pp.

Hong SunHee, Park JiHyun, Cho SungEun, Shin HyeonDong, 2014. First report of cercospora leaf spot of burcucumber caused by Cercospora citrullina in Korea. Journal of Phytopathology. 162 (5), 338-341. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1439-0434 DOI:10.1111/jph.12190

Jensen B D, Massawe A, Swai I S, 2011. First report of gummy stem blight caused by Didymella bryoniae on watermelon and confirmation of the disease on pumpkin in Tanzania. Plant Disease. 95 (6), 768. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-01-11-0044

Jia J S, 1993. The gummy stem blight of Hami melon and its control in Xinjiang. Acta Phytopathologica Sinica. 23 (1), 85-90.

Li Wei, Zhang AiXiang, Jiang Jiao, Yang XingPing, Chen HuaiGu, 2008. Identification of muskmelon gummy stem blight pathogen and its biological characters. Jiangsu Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 24 (2), 148-152. http://www.jaas.ac.cn

Martínez B, Figueroa O, 2009. Status of sudden death of melon in Choluteca, Honduras. (Estatus acerca de la muerte súbita en el melón en Choluteca, Honduras.). Revista Mexicana de Fitopatología. 27 (1), 73. http://members.tripod.com/˜sociedad/Sociedad.htm

Mitrović M, 2006. Production and protection of watermelon. (Proizvodnja i zaštita lubenice.). Glasnik Zaštite Bilja. 29 (6), 48-60. http://www.zastitabilja.com.hr

O'Neil T M, 1991. Investigation of glasshouse structure, growing medium and silicon nutrition as factors affecting disease incidence in cucumber crops. In: Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwwetenschappen, Rijksuniversiteit Gent, 56 (2b) 359-367.

Santos G R, CaféFilho A C, 2006. Occurrence of gummy stem blight in watermelon in the state of Tocantins caused by Didymella bryoniae. (Ocorrência do crestamento gomoso do caule em melancia no Tocantins causado por Didymella bryoniae.). Fitopatologia Brasileira. 31 (2), 208. http://www.scielo.br/pdf/fb/v31n2/30020.pdf DOI:10.1590/S0100-41582006000200017

Stevenson K L, Langston D B Jr, Seebold K W, 2004. Resistance to azoxystrobin in the gummy stem blight pathogen documented in Georgia. Plant Health Progress. 1-8. http://www.plantmanagementnetwork.org/pub/php/research/2004/gummy/

Tsai Y C, Chen J F, 2012. First report of Didymella bryoniae causing gummy stem blight of chayote in Taiwan. Plant Disease. 96 (10), 1578. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-02-12-0185-PDN

UK, CAB International, 1984. Didymella bryoniae. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases. Map 450.

Voženílková B, Zvára J, Skořepa J, 1992. The use of Trichoderma spp. for biological protection of greenhouse cucumbers. (Využití hub rodu Trichoderma v biologické ochraně skleníkových okurek.). Sborník-Jihočeská Univerzita Zemědělská Faculta, České Budějovice. Fytotechnická Řada. 93-105.

Ye YunFeng, Du ChanJuan, Qin SiHua, Liu TangJing, Hong RiXin, Fu Gang, Li GuiFen, Huang JinYan, 2018. Isolation and identification of pathogen causing Cercospora leaf spot of muskmelon. Journal of Southern Agriculture. 49 (3), 476-480. http://www.nfnyxb.com/EN/Default.aspx

Distribution Maps

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