Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Abies balsamea
(balsam fir)

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Datasheet

Abies balsamea (balsam fir)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 25 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Abies balsamea
  • Preferred Common Name
  • balsam fir
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Gymnospermae
  •         Class: Pinopsida
  • Uses List
  • Agroforestry
  • Essential oils
  • Ornamental
  • Religious
  • Windbreak

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
High forest stand (60 years old) with natural regeneration. Matane, Canada.
TitleForest stand and natural regeneration
CaptionHigh forest stand (60 years old) with natural regeneration. Matane, Canada.
CopyrightR. Zarnovican
High forest stand (60 years old) with natural regeneration. Matane, Canada.
Forest stand and natural regenerationHigh forest stand (60 years old) with natural regeneration. Matane, Canada.R. Zarnovican
Typical narrow pyramidal crown. Metis, Canada.
TitleCrown
CaptionTypical narrow pyramidal crown. Metis, Canada.
CopyrightR. Zarnovican
Typical narrow pyramidal crown. Metis, Canada.
CrownTypical narrow pyramidal crown. Metis, Canada.R. Zarnovican
Bark is smooth, greyish, dotted with raised resin blisters when young, becoming broken into irregular brownish scales. The resin blisters can be seen in this photograph.
TitleBark
CaptionBark is smooth, greyish, dotted with raised resin blisters when young, becoming broken into irregular brownish scales. The resin blisters can be seen in this photograph.
CopyrightR. Zarnovican
Bark is smooth, greyish, dotted with raised resin blisters when young, becoming broken into irregular brownish scales. The resin blisters can be seen in this photograph.
BarkBark is smooth, greyish, dotted with raised resin blisters when young, becoming broken into irregular brownish scales. The resin blisters can be seen in this photograph.R. Zarnovican
(Note mm/cm grid scale).
TitleFoliage
Caption(Note mm/cm grid scale).
CopyrightR. Zarnovican
(Note mm/cm grid scale).
Foliage(Note mm/cm grid scale).R. Zarnovican
Branchlet with mature closed cones.
TitleCones
CaptionBranchlet with mature closed cones.
CopyrightR. Zarnovican
Branchlet with mature closed cones.
ConesBranchlet with mature closed cones.R. Zarnovican
Abies balsamea leaves with stomata and buds covered with a wax-like resin. Metis, Canada.
TitleFoliage and buds
CaptionAbies balsamea leaves with stomata and buds covered with a wax-like resin. Metis, Canada.
CopyrightR. Zarnovican
Abies balsamea leaves with stomata and buds covered with a wax-like resin. Metis, Canada.
Foliage and budsAbies balsamea leaves with stomata and buds covered with a wax-like resin. Metis, Canada.R. Zarnovican
(Note mm/cm grid scale).
TitleCone scales
Caption(Note mm/cm grid scale).
CopyrightR. Zarnovican
(Note mm/cm grid scale).
Cone scales(Note mm/cm grid scale).R. Zarnovican
(Note mm/cm grid scale).
TitleSeeds
Caption(Note mm/cm grid scale).
CopyrightR. Zarnovican
(Note mm/cm grid scale).
Seeds(Note mm/cm grid scale).R. Zarnovican
Metis, Canada.
TitleButt rot
CaptionMetis, Canada.
CopyrightR. Zarnovican
Metis, Canada.
Butt rotMetis, Canada.R. Zarnovican

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.

Preferred Common Name

  • balsam fir

Variety

  • Abies balsamea f. hudsonia (Jacques) Fernald & Weath.

Other Scientific Names

  • Abies balsamea f. nana (J. Nelson) Beissner
  • Abies balsamea f. phanerolepis (Fernald) Rehder
  • Abies balsamea var. phanerolepis Fernald
  • Abies phanerolepis (Fernald) Tang S. Liu
  • Pinus balsamea L.

International Common Names

  • English: balsam; Canadian balsam; eastern fir
  • Spanish: abeto de balsamo
  • French: baume du Canada; sapin balsamier; sapin baumier; sapin du Canada

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Balsamtanne
  • Italy: abete balsamifero
  • Netherlands: balsamspar; canadabalsam
  • Sweden: balsamgran

EPPO code

  • ABIBA (Abies balsamea)

Trade name

  • SPF

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Gymnospermae
  •                 Class: Pinopsida
  •                     Family: Pinaceae
  •                         Genus: Abies
  •                             Species: Abies balsamea

List of Pests

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Major host of:

Acleris variana (hemlock budworm); Adelges piceae (balsam woolly adelgid); Armillaria ostoyae (armillaria root rot); Choristoneura fumiferana (spruce budworm); Coleotechnites piceaella (spruce leaf miner); Lambdina fiscellaria (eastern hemlock looper); Megastigmus specularis (fir seed chalcid); Melampsorella caryophyllacearum (fir broom rust); Monochamus marmorator (balsam fir sawyer); Orgyia leucostigma (white-marked tussock moth); Paradiplosis tumifex (balsam gall midge); Pestalotia hartigii (stem girdling of balsam fir); Phacidium infestans (snow mould); Pucciniastrum goeppertianum (cone blister rust); Senecio vulgaris; Sirex juvencus (steel-blue woodwasp); Stereum sanguinolentum (bleeding conk fungus); Trypodendron lineatum (striped ambrosia beetle)

Minor host of:

Arceuthobium pusillum (eastern dwarf mistletoe); Armillaria mellea (armillaria root rot); Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (pine wilt nematode); Dryocoetes confusus (western balsam bark beetle); Fomitopsis pinicola (brown crumbly rot); Gibberella avenacea (Fusarium blight); Gilpinia hercyniae (spruce sawfly); Gremmeniella abietina (Brunchorstia disease); Heterobasidion annosum; Heterobasidion parviporum; Megastigmus milleri (fir seed chalcid); Monochamus titillator (southern pine sawyer); Phytophthora cactorum (apple collar rot); Pityokteines curvidens (fir engraver beetle); Polyporus balsameus (balsam butt rot); Sphaeropsis sapinea (Sphaeropsis blight); Sydowia polyspora (dieback of pine)

Wild host of:

Peridroma saucia (pearly underwing moth)

Host of (source - data mining):

Dasineura balsamicola (introduced false balsam gall midge); Hepialus gracilis (graceful ghost moth); Mindarus abietinus (balsam twig aphid); Neodiprion abietis (balsam fir sawfly); Phytophthora citricola (black hop root rot); Pissodes dubius (balsam bark weevil); Pityokteines sparsus (balsam fir bark beetle); Polygraphus rufipennis (foureyed spruce bark beetle); Uredinopsis americana (balsam fir-fern rust)

Uses List

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Drugs, stimulants, social uses

  • Religious

Environmental

  • Agroforestry
  • Windbreak

General

  • Ornamental

Materials

  • Essential oils
  • Fibre
  • Gum/resin
  • Miscellaneous materials
  • Wood/timber

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical
  • Traditional/folklore

Wood Products

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Containers

  • Boxes
  • Cases
  • Cooperage
  • Crates

Furniture

Pulp

  • Long-fibre pulp

Sawn or hewn building timbers

  • For light construction

Wood-based materials

  • Fibreboard
  • Laminated veneer lumber
  • Laminated wood
  • Parallel strand lumber
  • Particleboard
  • Plywood