Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

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Lygodium flexuosum
(maidenhair creeper)

Vélez-Gavilán J, 2019. Lygodium flexuosum (maidenhair creeper). Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CABI. DOI:10.1079/ISC.18796786.20203483144

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Lygodium flexuosum (maidenhair creeper)

Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Lygodium flexuosum (maidenhair creeper); Habit. Howrah, West Bengal, India. June 2018.
TitleHabit
CaptionLygodium flexuosum (maidenhair creeper); Habit. Howrah, West Bengal, India. June 2018.
Copyright©Yercaud-elango/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Lygodium flexuosum (maidenhair creeper); Habit. Howrah, West Bengal, India. June 2018.
HabitLygodium flexuosum (maidenhair creeper); Habit. Howrah, West Bengal, India. June 2018.©Yercaud-elango/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Lygodium flexuosum (maidenhair creeper); Leaves. December 2017.
TitleLeaves
CaptionLygodium flexuosum (maidenhair creeper); Leaves. December 2017.
Copyright©Edward Steven/via Flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Lygodium flexuosum (maidenhair creeper); Leaves. December 2017.
LeavesLygodium flexuosum (maidenhair creeper); Leaves. December 2017.©Edward Steven/via Flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Lygodium flexuosum (maidenhair creeper); Leaves. Tungareshwar Wildlife Sanctuary, Palghar, India. September 2009.
TitleLeaves
CaptionLygodium flexuosum (maidenhair creeper); Leaves. Tungareshwar Wildlife Sanctuary, Palghar, India. September 2009.
Copyright©Dinesh Valke/via Flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Lygodium flexuosum (maidenhair creeper); Leaves. Tungareshwar Wildlife Sanctuary, Palghar, India. September 2009.
LeavesLygodium flexuosum (maidenhair creeper); Leaves. Tungareshwar Wildlife Sanctuary, Palghar, India. September 2009.©Dinesh Valke/via Flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Lygodium flexuosum (maidenhair creeper); Foliage. Tungareshwar Wildlife Sanctuary, Palghar, India. September 2009.
TitleFoliage
CaptionLygodium flexuosum (maidenhair creeper); Foliage. Tungareshwar Wildlife Sanctuary, Palghar, India. September 2009.
Copyright©Dinesh Valke/via Flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Lygodium flexuosum (maidenhair creeper); Foliage. Tungareshwar Wildlife Sanctuary, Palghar, India. September 2009.
FoliageLygodium flexuosum (maidenhair creeper); Foliage. Tungareshwar Wildlife Sanctuary, Palghar, India. September 2009.©Dinesh Valke/via Flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Lygodium flexuosum (maidenhair creeper); Foliage. Tungareshwar Wildlife Sanctuary, Palghar, India. September 2009.
TitleFoliage
CaptionLygodium flexuosum (maidenhair creeper); Foliage. Tungareshwar Wildlife Sanctuary, Palghar, India. September 2009.
Copyright©Dinesh Valke/via Flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Lygodium flexuosum (maidenhair creeper); Foliage. Tungareshwar Wildlife Sanctuary, Palghar, India. September 2009.
FoliageLygodium flexuosum (maidenhair creeper); Foliage. Tungareshwar Wildlife Sanctuary, Palghar, India. September 2009.©Dinesh Valke/via Flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Lygodium flexuosum (maidenhair creeper); Leaf detail. Maluku,  Kota Saparua, Indonesia. January 2012.
Titleleaves
CaptionLygodium flexuosum (maidenhair creeper); Leaf detail. Maluku, Kota Saparua, Indonesia. January 2012.
Copyright©Michael Kesl/via biolib.cz - CC BY-NC
Lygodium flexuosum (maidenhair creeper); Leaf detail. Maluku,  Kota Saparua, Indonesia. January 2012.
leavesLygodium flexuosum (maidenhair creeper); Leaf detail. Maluku, Kota Saparua, Indonesia. January 2012.©Michael Kesl/via biolib.cz - CC BY-NC
Lygodium flexuosum (maidenhair creeper); Foliage. February 2013.
TitleFoliage
CaptionLygodium flexuosum (maidenhair creeper); Foliage. February 2013.
Copyright©Vinayaraj/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 3.0
Lygodium flexuosum (maidenhair creeper); Foliage. February 2013.
FoliageLygodium flexuosum (maidenhair creeper); Foliage. February 2013.©Vinayaraj/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 3.0
Lygodium flexuosum (maidenhair creeper); Leaves. May 2015.
TitleLeaves
CaptionLygodium flexuosum (maidenhair creeper); Leaves. May 2015.
Copyright©Mark Marathon/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Lygodium flexuosum (maidenhair creeper); Leaves. May 2015.
LeavesLygodium flexuosum (maidenhair creeper); Leaves. May 2015.©Mark Marathon/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Lygodium flexuosum (maidenhair creeper); Plant. Morris Arboretum, Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. May 2013.
TitlePlant
CaptionLygodium flexuosum (maidenhair creeper); Plant. Morris Arboretum, Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. May 2013.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by Daderot/via Wikimedia Commons - CC0 1.0
Lygodium flexuosum (maidenhair creeper); Plant. Morris Arboretum, Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. May 2013.
PlantLygodium flexuosum (maidenhair creeper); Plant. Morris Arboretum, Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. May 2013.Public Domain - Released by Daderot/via Wikimedia Commons - CC0 1.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Lygodium flexuosum (L.) Sw.

Preferred Common Name

  • maidenhair creeper

Other Scientific Names

  • Hydroglossum flexuosum (L.) Willd.
  • Ophioglossum flexuosum L.
  • Ramondia flexuosa (L.) Mirb.

International Common Names

  • German: Bogenkletterfarn

Local Common Names

  • China: qu zhou hai jin sha
  • India: kopow-lota
  • Malaysia: akar sidin; ribu-ribu gajah
  • Vietnam: bong bong

Summary of Invasiveness

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L. flexuosum is a climbing fern from the tropical and subtropical regions of Asia and Australia (Yadav et al., 2012). Although it is not listed as invasive in native habitats, it is reported as a weed of rice fields, rubber, oil palm and tea plantations (USDA-APHIS-PPQ, 2009). It is reported as invasive in rice fields in Asia (Araflora, 2019). Although there is little information available about the species in general, it shares traits with other Lygodium species that are invasive. These traits are: massive production of wind-dispersed spores; self-compatible gametophytes; tolerance to fire; fast growth; and high photosynthetic rate (USDA-APHIS-PPQ, 2009). L. flexuosum is classified as one of the 15 species with great invasive potential in the USA (Yadav et al., 2012).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Pteridophyta
  •             Class: Filicopsida
  •                 Family: Schizaeaceae
  •                     Genus: Lygodium
  •                         Species: Lygodium flexuosum

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Lygodium is a small genus of climbing ferns with about 35 species, mostly with a pantropical distribution and with a few species extending into temperate areas (Flora Mesoamericana, 2019). The genus comes from the Greek word ‘lygodes’ meaning flexible, in reference to its twining rachis (Flora of North America, 2019). All species of the genus have an elongated climbing rachis with indefinite growth, often reaching lengths of several metres.

Description

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The following description is from Flora of China (2019):

Rhizome shortly creeping and densely covered with roots, stipes very close together; apex of rhizome covered with dark brown to nearly black hairs. Juvenile fronds once or twice dichotomous, each branch bearing a single pinna deeply palmately 3-7-lobed, lobes almost equal, base of whole pinna cordate, margins serrate and sometimes crenately lobed. Rachis of scandent fronds narrowly winged, flattened and puberulent on adaxial surface between wings; primary rachis branches up to 3 mm (lower ones longest), dormant apex covered with pale brown hairs; secondary rachis branches pinnate to somewhat bipinnate, narrowly ovate to deltoid in outline, commonly ca. 15 × 8 cm; sterile pinnae of lower branches palmate, often 5-lobed, base strongly cordate; higher secondary branches bearing 3-5 (sometimes up to 7) pinnae on each side and an apical one, apical and lower pinnae asymmetrical or ± lobed at base, lowest of branches with 2 or 3(-6) separate quaternary pinnae at base; sterile pinnae 3-10 × 8-15 mm above lobed base, margin serrate, apex subacute, lower pinnae stalked, upper pinnae sessile, lamina rather thin; costae usually with scattered long hairs, less often with dense short hairs, veins often with scattered short hairs on abaxial surface, lamina sometimes similarly hairy; fertile pinnae smaller than sterile pinnae, sorophores 3-5 mm (rarely up to 10 mm), at apices of small triangular lobes; indusia glabrous or with a few hairs like those of abaxial surface of lamina; spores finely evenly verrucose.

Plant Type

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Broadleaved
Herbaceous
Perennial
Seed / spore propagated
Vegetatively propagated
Vine / climber

Distribution

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L. flexuosum is a climbing fern native to the tropics and subtropics of South-East Asia and Oceania (India Biodiversity Portal, 2019). Outside its native range, it is only reported in Nigeria and Guyana (Pemberton and Ferriter, 1998; Nwosu, 2002). A report from Jamaica is a misidentification of a L. microphyllum specimen (Pemberton and Ferriter, 1998). The species is reported from Asia, Africa, Oceania and South America (Pemberton and Ferriter, 1998; Koh et al., 2002USDA-APHIS-PPQ, 2009; Yadav et al., 2012; Flora of China, 2019; Flora of Karnataka, 2019; The DNA of Singapore, 2019).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 30 Jul 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

NigeriaPresentIntroduced

Asia

BhutanPresentNative
ChinaPresentNative
-FujianPresentNative
-GuangdongPresentNative
-GuangxiPresentNative
-GuizhouPresentNative
-HainanPresentNative
-HunanPresentNative
-YunnanPresentNative
IndiaPresentNative
-KarnatakaPresentNative
-KeralaPresentNative
-Madhya PradeshPresentNative
IndonesiaPresentNative
JapanPresentNativeSouth
MalaysiaPresentNative
MyanmarPresentNative
NepalPresentNative
PhilippinesPresentNative
SingaporePresentNativeCommon
Sri LankaPresentNative
ThailandPresentNative
VietnamPresentNative

North America

JamaicaAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)A misidentification of L. microphyllum

Oceania

AustraliaPresentNative
-Northern TerritoryPresentNative
-QueenslandPresentNative
-Western AustraliaPresentNative
Papua New GuineaPresentNative

South America

GuyanaPresentIntroduced1992As naturalized

History of Introduction and Spread

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L. flexuosum is only reported as introduced in Nigeria and Guyana (Pemberton and Ferriter, 1998; Nwosu, 2002). No details for its means of introduction are available for either country. The species is used as an ornamental and in the production of baskets, hats and bags, which could be the pathways for moving into these countries (USDA-APHIS-PPQ, 2009; Araflora, 2019). It can spread into nearby areas through wind-borne spores and vegetatively through its rhizomes (Yadav et al., 2012).

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Guyana 1992 Yes No Pemberton and Ferriter (1998)

Risk of Introduction

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L. flexuosum is only known from two countries outside its native range, but without any details available (Pemberton and Ferriter, 1998; Nwosu, 2002). There is limited information about the species in general to properly assess its risk of introduction. At present, L. flexuosum is regarded with a medium to high risk of introduction, because it shares some biological traits with other Lygodium species that are invasive (Yadav et al., 2012). L. flexuosum is considered by USDA-APHIS-PPQ (2009) as having a high risk of introduction into the USA due to its use in the production of baskets, hats and bags and its availability as an ornamental on Internet websites.

Habitat

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L. flexuosum is a climbing fern reported in moist, open places, climbing over shrubs, teak and bamboo forest, coastal plains, secondary forests, moist deciduous and semideciduous forests; from sea level to altitudes of 1500 m (Yadav et al., 2012; Flora of Karnataka, 2019; India Biodiversity Portal, 2019; Useful Tropical Plants, 2019). It does not grow well in shaded forests (Useful Tropical Plants, 2019).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalScrub / shrublands Present, no further details Natural
LittoralCoastal areas Present, no further details Natural

Hosts/Species Affected

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L. flexuosum is considered as an agricultural weed in its native range (USDA-APHIS-PPQ, 2009). It is reported as a weed of rice fields, rubber, oil palm and tea plantations. It competes with other species for resources and obstructs harvesting operations (USDA-APHIS-PPQ, 2009). It is also reported as lowering rice yields (Yadav et al., 2012). No further details are given.

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Camellia sinensis (tea)TheaceaeMain
    Elaeis guineensis (African oil palm)ArecaceaeMain
      Hevea brasiliensis (rubber)EuphorbiaceaeMain
        Oryza sativa (rice)PoaceaeMain

          Biology and Ecology

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          Genetics

          The chromosome numbers reported for L. flexuosum are n=58, 60; with a 4x polyploidy and sexual sporophyte production (Yadav et al., 2012).

          Reproductive Biology

          L. flexuosum reproduces by spores, through its rhizomes and by serpentine layering (Yadav et al., 2012; Useful Tropical Plants, 2019).

          Physiology and Phenology

          Chandra (1963) reports the spores of L. flexuosum as remaining viable for a long time. The spores germinate within 2 weeks of sowing (Russell-Smith and Lee, 1992).

          Longevity

          L. flexuosum is a perennial fern (Russell-Smith and Lee, 1992).

          Environmental Requirements

          There is very little information available about the environmental requirements of L. flexuosum. The species when planted in a shaded position will climb into open areas. It prefers neutral to slightly acid soils and it is reported as not growing well in limestone soils in Vietnam (Thin, 1997; Useful Tropical Plants, 2019). Yadav et al. (2012) reports the species as able to grow on moist or swampy soils of any quality.

          Climate

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          ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
          Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
          Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
          Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
          Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

          Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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          Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
          26 24

          Air Temperature

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          Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
          Mean annual temperature (ºC) 15 35

          Rainfall

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          ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
          Mean annual rainfall7254000mm; lower/upper limits

          Rainfall Regime

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          Bimodal
          Summer
          Uniform
          Winter

          Soil Tolerances

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          Soil drainage

          • impeded

          Soil reaction

          • acid
          • neutral

          Soil texture

          • heavy
          • light
          • medium

          Natural enemies

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          Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
          Siamusotima aranea Herbivore Plants|Stems to species Solis et al. (2005)

          Notes on Natural Enemies

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          Siamusotima aranea is a stem-boring moth reported from L. flexuosum (Solis et al., 2005).

          Means of Movement and Dispersal

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          Natural Dispersal

          The spores of L. flexuosum are wind dispersed (Russell-Smith and Lee, 1992; Yadav et al., 2012). The species can also spread through its rhizomes growth and by climbing over vegetation (Yadav et al., 2012).

          Accidental Introduction

          Although there are no details of the introduction of L. flexuosum to Nigeria and Guyana; it is possible that it was brought in accidentally by its use in the production of baskets, hats or bags (Yadav et al., 2012).

          Intentional Introduction

          L. flexuosum is cultivated at some parts of its range; with reports of it being sold at nurseries and online (Huttleston, 1972; USDA-APHIS-PPQ, 2009).

          Pathway Causes

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          CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
          Botanical gardens and zoosAt the permanent collection of a Botanic Garden in India Yes Yes Sharma and Goel (1994)
          Crop productionIt might be dispersed by agricultural practices as it is a weed of various crops Yes Yes USDA-APHIS-PPQ (2009)
          Escape from confinement or garden escapeNo information available but it is a possibility as it is used as an ornamental. Yes Yadav et al. (2012)
          ForageThe species is foraged locally for medicinal practices and to manufacture various articles. Yes Yadav et al. (2012)
          Garden waste disposalNo information available but it could be a possibility as it is reported an ornamental Yes Yadav et al. (2012)
          HorticultureNo information available but it could be a possibility as it is reported an ornamental Yes Yadav et al. (2012)
          Internet salesAvailable at nurseries and on Internet websites. Yes Yes USDA-APHIS-PPQ (2009)
          Medicinal useIt is used for traditional medicinal purposes Yes Yadav et al. (2012)
          Nursery tradeIt is sold at nurseries Yes Yes USDA-APHIS-PPQ (2009)
          Ornamental purposesUsed as an ornamental Yes Yes USDA-APHIS-PPQ (2009)
          People foragingIt is foraged for medicinal purposes Yes USDA-APHIS-PPQ (2009)

          Pathway Vectors

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          VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
          Debris and waste associated with human activitiesNo information available but it could be a possibility as it is reported as cultivated as an ornamental Yes Yadav et al. (2012)
          MailIt is sold on the Internet as an ornamental Yes Yes USDA-APHIS-PPQ (2009)
          Mulch, straw, baskets and sodIt is used to make baskets Yes Yadav et al. (2012)
          Soil, sand and gravelNo information available but it could be a possibility as it is used as an ornamental Yes USDA-APHIS-PPQ (2009)
          WindNo information available but it could be a possibility as it is used as an ornamental Yes Yes USDA-APHIS-PPQ (2009)

          Impact Summary

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          CategoryImpact
          Cultural/amenity Positive
          Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
          Environment (generally) Positive
          Human health Positive

          Economic Impact

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          L. flexuosum is an agricultural weed in its native range (USDA-APHIS-PPQ, 2009). It is reported as causing reductions of rice yields, interfering with harvesting operations of rubber trees and oil palm plantations, and competing with tea plants for resources.

          Environmental Impact

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          Very little information is available on the effects of L. flexuosum in natural habitats. It is reported as a weed of natural lowlands in Asia, without further details (Yadav et al., 2012).

          Impact: Biodiversity

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          Apart from the effects of L. flexuosum on cultivated species (USDA-APHIS-PPQ, 2009), there are no reports of the species effects on the biodiversity of an area.

          Social Impact

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          There are no reports of toxicity related to the consumption of L. flexuosum but many ferns contain thiaminase which can deprive the body of the vitamin B complex. Cooking the leaves will destroy the thiaminase (Useful Tropical Plants, 2019).

          Risk and Impact Factors

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          Invasiveness
          • Invasive in its native range
          • Has a broad native range
          • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
          • Tolerant of shade
          • Long lived
          • Fast growing
          • Has high reproductive potential
          • Gregarious
          • Reproduces asexually
          Impact outcomes
          • Negatively impacts agriculture
          Impact mechanisms
          • Competition - monopolizing resources
          • Competition - shading
          Likelihood of entry/control
          • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

          Uses

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          Economic Value

          L. flexuosum is used as an ornamental, being available in nurseries and on Internet websites (Huttleston, 1972; USDA-APHIS-PPQ, 2009). The stems are used in the production of different articles such as baskets, boxes, hats and bags (The DNA of Singapore, 2019; Useful Tropical Plants, 2019).

          Social Benefit

          Some of the medicinal uses reported for L flexuosum are to treat female infertility, gonorrhoea, herpes, ringworm, loss of appetite, sleeplessness, chills, night sweats, inflammation, fractured bones, scabies, ulcers, eczema, cuts, haemorrhoids, rheumatism, jaundice, sprains, carbuncles, and as an expectorant, a pain killer and a diuretic (Puri, 1970; Siddiqui et al., 1989; Colfer et al., 1997; Nwosu, 2002; Yadav et al., 2012; The DNA of Singapore, 2019). In India, L flexuosum is used in Ayurveda medicinal practices (Yadav et al., 2012). Extracts of the species have hepatoprotective, antibacterial, antiproliferative and apoptotic properties (Yadav et al., 2012).

          L flexuosum is also used as an ornamental, especially to cover unattractive structures, and to provide shade. The stems are used to manufacture baskets, hats, handbags, fancy boxes and to tie rice bundles (The DNA of Singapore, 2019; Useful Tropical Plants, 2019).

          The young fronds are eaten as a vegetable (The DNA of Singapore, 2019). L flexuosum is used as famine food, forage for cattle, for making ‘bidi’ (a type of hand rolled cigarette) and as part of religious beliefs in India (Yadav et al., 2012).

          Uses List

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          Animal feed, fodder, forage

          • Fodder/animal feed

          Drugs, stimulants, social uses

          • Religious
          • Smoking

          Environmental

          • Amenity

          General

          • Botanical garden/zoo
          • Ritual uses
          • Sociocultural value

          Human food and beverage

          • Emergency (famine) food
          • Vegetable

          Materials

          • Baskets
          • Miscellaneous materials

          Medicinal, pharmaceutical

          • Traditional/folklore

          Ornamental

          • garden plant

          Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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          L. flexuosum is similar to L. microphyllum and L. japonicum. The bases of the pinnules are articulate in L. microphyllum, whereas in L. flexuosum and L. japonicum the pinnules are not articulate. L. japonicum has subdimorphic sterile and fertile pinnae, with pinnules 4-6 mm wide, whereas L. flexuosum has monomorphic pinnae and pinnules 1-3 cm wide. The pinnules of L. microphyllum are smaller than L. flexuosum and L. japonicum (Flora of China, 2019).

          Prevention and Control

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          Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

          Early Warning Systems

          Although L. flexuosum is not present in the USA, it is listed as a Federal Noxious Weed due to the similarity of some traits present in L. japonicum and L. microphyllum, both invasive climbing ferns (Hutchinson and Lageland, 2010). The USA government has issued a Federal Import Quarantine Order to prevent the importation from all countries of any part of L. flexuosum capable of propagation, including plants, spores and leaves (Yadav et al., 2012).

          Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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          More information is needed about the biology, environmental requirements and the effects of L. flexuosum over natural habitats. Further information on its effects on agriculture are also required.

          References

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          Araflora, 2019. Schipol, Netherlands: Araflora.https://www.araflora.com/

          Chandra P, 1963. The gametophytes of Lygodium circinatum (Burm.) Sw. and L. flexuosum (L.) Sw. Current Science, 32(1), 34-35.

          Colfer, C. J. P., Peluso, N. L., Chin, S. C., 1997. Beyond slash and burn: building on indigenous management of Borneo's tropical rain forests, Bronx, USA: New York Botanical Garden.247 pp.

          Esha Yadav, Munesh Mani, Phool Chandra, Neetu Sachan, Ghosh, A. K., 2012. A review on therapeutic potential of Lygodium flexuosum Linn. Pharmacognosy Reviews, 6(12), 107-114. http://www.phcogrev.com/article.asp?issn=0973-7847;year=2012;volume=6;issue=12;spage=107;epage=114;aulast=Yadav

          Flora Mesoamericana, 2019. Flora Mesoamericana. (Flora Mesoamericana). In: Flora Mesoamericana St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.http://www.tropicos.org/Project/fm

          Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2019. Flora of China. In: Flora of China St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

          Flora of Karnataka, 2019. Digital Flora of Karnataka. Karnataka, india: Indian Institute of Science.http://florakarnataka.ces.iisc.ac.in/hjcb2/herbsheet.php?id=143&cat=3

          Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2019. Flora of North America North of Mexico. In: Flora of North America North of Mexico St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1

          Hutchinson, J. T., Langeland, K. A., 2010. Review of two non-native, invasive climbing ferns (Lygodium japonicum and L. microphyllum), sympatric records and additional distribution records from Florida. American Fern Journal, 100(1), 57-66. doi: 10.1640/0002-8444-100.1.57

          Huttleston DG, 1972. Fern sources in the United States: 1972. American Fern Journal, 62(1), 9-15.

          India Biodiversity Portal, 2019. Online Portal of India Biodiversity. In: Online Portal of India Biodiversity . http://indiabiodiversity.org/species/list

          Koh LianPin, Sodhi, N. S., Tan TiangWah [Tan, T. W. H. ], Peh, K. S. H., 2002. Factors affecting the distribution of vascular plants, springtails, butterflies and birds on small tropical islands. Journal of Biogeography, 29(1), 93-108. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2699.2002.00657.x

          Nwosu, M. O., 2002. Ethnobotanical studies on some pteridophytes of Southern Nigeria. Economic Botany, 56(3), 255-259. doi: 10.1663/0013-0001(2002)056[0255:ESOSPO]2.0.CO;2

          Pemberton, RW, Ferriter, AP, 1998. Old World climbing fern (Lygodium microphyllum), a dangerous invasive weed in Florida. American Fern Journal, 88(4), 165-175.

          Puri HS, 1970. Indian pteridophytes used in folk remedies. American Fern Journal, 60(4), 137-143.

          Russell-Smith J, Lee AH, 1992. Plant populations and monsoon rain forest in the Northern Territory, Australia. Biotropica, 24(4), 471-487.

          Sharma SC, Goel AK, 1994. The National Botanical Research Institute (NBRI) Botanic Garden - a national facility for India. Botanic Gardens Conservation News, 2(3), 59-62.

          Siddiqui, M. B., Alam, M. M., Wazahat Husain, 1989. Traditional treatment of skin diseases in Uttar Pradesh, India. Economic Botany, 43(4), 480-486. doi: 10.1007/BF02935922

          Solis, M. A., Yen ShenHorn, Goolsby, J. H., Wright, T., Pemberton, R., Winotai, A., Chattrukul, U., Thagong, A., Rimbut, S., 2005. Siamusotima aranea, a new stem-boring musotimine (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) from Thailand feeding on Lygodium flexuosum (Schizaeaceae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 98(6), 887-895. doi: 10.1603/0013-8746(2005)098[0887:SAANSM]2.0.CO;2

          The DNA of Singapore, 2019. The Digital Nature Archive (DNA) of Singapore. Lee Kong Chian Natural History Museum.https://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/dna/organisms/details/585

          Thin NN, 1997. The vegetation of Cucphuong National Park, Vietnam. SIDA, Contributions to Botany, 17(4), 719-759.

          USDA-APHIS-PPQ, 2009. Weed risk assessment for Lygodium microphyllum (Old world climbing fern), Lygodium japonicum (Japanese climbing fern), and Lygodium flexuosum. In: Weed risk assessment for Lygodium microphyllum (Old world climbing fern), Lygodium japonicum (Japanese climbing fern), and Lygodium flexuosum Raleigh, USA: USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Services.38 pp. http://www.aphis.usda.gov/plant_health/plant_pest_info/weeds/downloads/wra/lygodium-spp.pdf

          USDA-APHIS-PPQ, 2009. Weed risk assessment for Lygodium microphyllum (Old world climbing fern), Lygodium japonicum (Japanese climbing fern), and Lygodium flexuosum. In: Weed risk assessment for Lygodium microphyllum (Old world climbing fern), Lygodium japonicum (Japanese climbing fern), and Lygodium flexuosum Raleigh, USA: USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Services.38 pp. http://www.aphis.usda.gov/plant_health/plant_pest_info/weeds/downloads/wra/lygodium-spp.pdf

          Useful Tropical Plants, 2019. Useful tropical plants database. In: Useful tropical plants database : K Fern.http://tropical.theferns.info/

          World Flora Online, 2019. World Flora Online. In: World Flora Online : World Flora Online Consortium.www.worldfloraonline.org

          Distribution References

          Esha Yadav, Munesh Mani, Phool Chandra, Neetu Sachan, Ghosh A K, 2012. A review on therapeutic potential of Lygodium flexuosum Linn. Pharmacognosy Reviews. 6 (12), 107-114. http://www.phcogrev.com/article.asp?issn=0973-7847;year=2012;volume=6;issue=12;spage=107;epage=114;aulast=Yadav

          Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2019. Flora of China. In: Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

          Flora of Karnataka, 2019. Digital Flora of Karnataka., Karnataka, india: Indian Institute of Science. http://florakarnataka.ces.iisc.ac.in/hjcb2/herbsheet.php?id=143&cat=3

          Koh LianPin, Sodhi N S, Tan TiangWah [Tan T W H ], Peh K S H, 2002. Factors affecting the distribution of vascular plants, springtails, butterflies and birds on small tropical islands. Journal of Biogeography. 29 (1), 93-108. DOI:10.1046/j.1365-2699.2002.00657.x

          Pemberton RW, Ferriter AP, 1998. Old World climbing fern (Lygodium microphyllum), a dangerous invasive weed in Florida. American Fern Journal. 88 (4), 165-175.

          Siddiqui M B, Alam M M, Wazahat Husain, 1989. Traditional treatment of skin diseases in Uttar Pradesh, India. Economic Botany. 43 (4), 480-486. DOI:10.1007/BF02935922

          The DNA of Singapore, 2019. The Digital Nature Archive (DNA) of Singapore., Singapore: Lee Kong Chian Natural History Museum. https://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/dna/organisms/details/585

          USDA-APHIS-PPQ, 2009. Weed risk assessment for Lygodium microphyllum (Old world climbing fern), Lygodium japonicum (Japanese climbing fern), and Lygodium flexuosum. In: Weed risk assessment for Lygodium microphyllum (Old world climbing fern), Lygodium japonicum (Japanese climbing fern), and Lygodium flexuosum. Raleigh, USA: USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Services. 38 pp. http://www.aphis.usda.gov/plant_health/plant_pest_info/weeds/downloads/wra/lygodium-spp.pdf

          Contributors

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          31/10/19 Original text by:

          Jeanine Vélez-Gavilán, University of Puerto Rico at Mayagüez, Puerto Rico

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