Diaporthe eres (apple leaf, branch and fruit fungus)
- Summary of Invasiveness
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Distribution Table
- History of Introduction and Spread
- Risk of Introduction
- Habitat List
- Host Plants and Other Plants Affected
- List of Symptoms/Signs
- Biology and Ecology
- Means of Movement and Dispersal
- Pathway Causes
- Impact Summary
- Economic Impact
- Risk and Impact Factors
- Detection and Inspection
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Principal Source
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Diaporthe eres Nitschke
Preferred Common Name
- apple leaf, branch and fruit fungus
Other Scientific Names
- Diaporthe biguttusis Y.H. Gao & L. Cai
- Diaporthe camptothecicola C.M. Tian & Qin Yang
- Diaporthe camptothecicola Y.H. Gao & L. Cai
- Diaporthe conorum (Desm.) Niessl
- Diaporthe controversa (Desm.) Nitschke
- Diaporthe ellipicola C.M. Tian & Qin Yang
- Diaporthe ellipicola Y.H. Gao & L. Cai
- Diaporthe longicicola C.M. Tian & Qin Yang
- Diaporthe longicicola Y.H. Gao & L. Cai
- Diaporthe mahothocarpus (Y.H. Gao, W. Sun & L. Cai) Y.H. Gao & L. Cai
- Diaporthe mali Miura
- Diaporthe momicola Dissan., J.Y. Yan, Xing H. Li & K.D. Hyde
- Diaporthe occulta (Fuckel) Nitschke
- Diaporthe perniciosa Marchal
- Phoma conorum Sacc.
- Phoma controversa Sacc.
- Phoma mali Schulzer & Sacc.
- Phoma oblonga Desm.
- Phoma occulta Sacc., non Desm.
- Phomopsis conorum (Sacc.) Died.
- Phomopsis controversa Traverso
- Phomopsis cotoneastri Punith.
- Phomopsis mali (Schulzer & Sacc.) Roberge
- Phomopsis oblonga (Desm.) Höhnel (anamorph)
- Phomopsis occulta (Sacc.) Traverso
- Phomopsis perniciosa Grove
- Phomopsis scobina Höhnel
- Phomopsis velata (Sacc.) Traverso (Anamorph)
- Sphaeria conorum Desm.
- Sphaeria controversa Desm.
- Valsa occulta Fuckel
International Common Names
- English: bark canker of pome fruit; dieback of conifers; dieback of fruit trees; fungal canker of pome fruit; phyllostictosis; rough bark of apple; storage rot of apple
- Spanish: chancro de la corteza de los frutales; quemadura fomopsiana del peral
- French: chancre de l'ecorce des arbres fruitiers; chancre du pommier
- DIAPER (Diaporthe eres)
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page
Diaporthe eres was first reported on twigs of Ulmus sp. in Germany and is a plant pathogen, endophyte or saprobe. This species causes plant disease in Juglans regia, Castanea mollissima, Prunus persica, Vitis vinifera, J. cinerea, Hordeum sp. and Vaccinium corymbosum; it is an endophyte in Aralia elata, Citrus and elms [Ulmus]. D. eres also causes diseases in forest plants and fruit crops resulting in losses for natural ecosystems and commercial crops.
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Fungi
- Phylum: Ascomycota
- Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
- Class: Sordariomycetes
- Subclass: Sordariomycetidae
- Order: Diaporthales
- Family: Diaporthaceae
- Genus: Diaporthe
- Species: Diaporthe eres
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page
The genus Diaporthe (Diaporthaceae, Diaporthales, Diaporthomycetidae, Sordariomycetes, Pezizomycotina, Ascomycota) is distributed worldwide and consists mainly of endophytes, plant pathogens and saprobes (Gomes et al., 2013; Udayanga et al., 2014; Fan et al., 2018). Several species are host-specific, which has influenced the taxonomy of the genus (Udayanga et al., 2011). The type species of Diaporthe, D. eres, mainly causes plant diseases and is an endophytic fungus in several plant species from Asia, North America and Europe (Gomes et al., 2013; Udayanga et al., 2014; Fan et al., 2018) and according to some reports also plant species from South America and Oceania (Udayanga et al., 2014; Sessa et al., 2017). D. eres is mostly reported in temperate regions and the species is considered “a pathogen with plant health inspection and quarantine significance” (Udayanga et al., 2014).
D. eres was first described by Nitschke in 1870 on twigs of Ulmus sp. in Germany. Udayanga et al. (2014) designated the lectotype (MBT178528) and epitype (BPI: 892912) and provided a description, a phylogenetic inference and a discussion about the species included in the D. eres complex. Rossman et al. (2014) proposed the conservation of the name D. eres against 21 competing names based on historical importance and scientific studies. The authors also included brief information about the asexual morph, Phomopsis velata (Sacc.) Traverso, which was introduced by Bubak in 1905 and treated as a synonym of D. eres. Several names have been related to D. eres and some synonyms are listed in the Index Fungorum (http://www.indexfungorum.org/) and MycoBank databases (http://www.mycobank.org/).
Phylogenetic analysis is an essential tool to differentiate between different species and introduce new taxa because of similar morphological features shared by several Diaporthe species and related species (Fan et al., 2018; Yang et al., 2018). A group of closely related species based on morphology or phylogenetic analyses is called a complex group. Complex groups are also present in the genus Diaporthe and the D. eres complex is an important species-group (Udayanga et al., 2014; Fan et al., 2018; Yang et al., 2018). Recently, Yang et al. (2018) classified the species in this complex (e.g. D. biguttusis; D. camptothecicola; D. ellipicola; D. longicicola; D. mahothocarpus; D. momicola) as synonyms of D. eres based on phylogenetic analyses and the lack of morphological differences.
DescriptionTop of page
The following description is from Udayanga et al. (2014):
Perithecia: on dead twigs, 200–300 μm diameter, black, globose, subglobose or irregular, densely clustered in groups, deeply immersed in host tissue with tapering necks, 300–700 μm long protruding through substrata. Asci: (39–)48.5–58.5(−61) μm × (6.5–)7–9(−11) μm, unitunicate, 8-spored, sessile, elongate to clavate. Ascospores: (11–)12.5–14.5(−15.5) × 3–4 μm, hyaline, two-celled, often 4-guttulate, with larger guttules at the center and smaller ones at the ends, elongated to elliptical. Pycnidia: on alfalfa twigs, 200–250 μm diam, globose, embedded in tissue, erumpent at maturity, with 200–300 μm long, black, elongated neck, often with yellowish, conidial cirrus extruding from ostiole, walls parenchymatous, consisting of 3–4 layers of medium brown textura angularis. Conidiophores: 10–15 × 2–3 μm, hyaline, smooth, unbranched, ampulliform, straight to sinuous. Conidiogenous cells: 0.5–1 μm diam, phialides, cylindrical, terminal, slightly tapering towards the apex. Paraphyses: absent. Alpha conidia: (6–)6.5–8.5(−9) × 3–4 μm, abundant in culture and on alfalfa twigs, aseptate, hyaline, smooth, ovate to ellipsoidal, often biguttulate, base sub-truncate. Beta conidia: (18–)22–28(29) × 1–1.5 μm, formed in culture and alfalfa stems in some isolates, aseptate, hyaline, smooth, fusiform to hooked, base sub-truncate.
Cultural characteristics from Udayanga et al. (2014) and Fan et al. (2018): incubated in the dark at 25°C for 1 week, colonies on PDA fast-growing, 5.5 ± 0.2 mm/day (n = 8), white, aerial, fluffy or felty mycelium, reverse dark pigmentation developing in the centre; production abundant, black stromata at maturity, conidiomata irregularly distributed over agar surface.
DistributionTop of page
Diaporthe eres has a worldwide distribution in temperate regions. However, some reports also list the species in South America and Australia (Udayanga et al., 2014). Several plant species, including native plants and crops, have been affected by D. eres (Gomes et al., 2013; Udayanga et al., 2014; Fan et al., 2018; Abramczyk et al., 2018)
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 12 May 2022
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|-Jammu and Kashmir||Present|
|-New South Wales||Present|
History of Introduction and SpreadTop of page
Diaporthe eres is a minor pathogen causing leaf spots, stem cankers and diseases of woody plants, mostly in temperate regions worldwide (Udayanga et al., 2014). This species was first reported on the twigs of Ulmus sp. (Ulmaceae) collected in Germany by Nitschke in 1870. Since then, several other reports used either this name or the name of related species as a synonym. Information about the asexual morph of D. eres, Phomopsis velata, from branches of Tilia europaea L. (Malvaceae) collected in Italy was given by Traverso in 1906. D. eres is considered a pathogen with plant health inspection and quarantine significance (Cline and Farr, 2006; Udayanga et al., 2014).
Risk of IntroductionTop of page
Diaporthe eres is an endophyte, plant pathogen and saprobe of several plant species from a variety of families (e.g. Fagaceae, Juglandaceae, Malvaceae, Rutaceae, Ulmaceae, Vitaceae among others). This fungal species can be considered a risk because of the ecology, life form and relationships with several hosts: the endophytic life stage, for example, might not be visible in simple analyses of plant tissues, seeds and fruits. The distribution range that is mostly limited to temperate regions might form a natural climate barrier preventing further spread. In 2006, D. eres was included in a list of regulated plant pests of concern to the USA, developed by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) of the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) (Cline and Farr, 2006). The list includes more than 50 species of fungi that have the potential to cause severe economic or environmental damage; the fungi on the APHIS Regulated Plant Pest List are said to represent some of the most significant threats to US agriculture (Cline and Farr, 2006).
HabitatTop of page
Reports of D. eres are mainly from temperate regions worldwide (Udayanga et al., 2014). Hosts of D. eres are found in forestry and crop areas in 17 Chinese provinces (Fan et al., 2018; Yang et al., 2018, Manawasinghe et al., 2019), in crops in Europe (Gomes et al., 2013; Udayanga et al., 2014; Lorenzini and Zapparoli, 2018), in the USA (Baumgartner et al., 2013; Udayanga et al., 2014). In addition, two D. eres hosts have been reported in Australia and New Zealand (Udayanga et al., 2014) and there are a few records from fruit trees in Uruguay and Chile (Lombard et al., 2014; Sessa et al., 2017). To date, only one host (Diospyros kaki) has been reported in South Africa (Moyo et al., 2016). D. eres is primarily related to forest trees in natural areas and fruit crops in traditional or commercial areas in the Northern Hemisphere; there are very few records in countries from the Southern Hemisphere.
Habitat ListTop of page
|Terrestrial||Managed||Cultivated / agricultural land||Present, no further details||Natural|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Protected agriculture (e.g. glasshouse production)||Present, no further details||Natural|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Managed forests, plantations and orchards||Present, no further details||Natural|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Disturbed areas||Present, no further details||Natural|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Rail / roadsides||Present, no further details||Natural|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Urban / peri-urban areas||Present, no further details||Natural|
Host Plants and Other Plants AffectedTop of page
|Diospyros kaki (persimmon)||Ebenaceae||Main|
|Fagus sylvatica (common beech)||Fagaceae||Main|
|Helianthus annuus (sunflower)||Asteraceae||Other|
|Hypericum perforatum (St John's wort)||Clusiaceae||Other|
|Malus domestica (apple)||Rosaceae||Main|
|Picea abies (common spruce)||Pinaceae||Main|
|Picea pungens (blue spruce)||Pinaceae||Main|
|Podocarpus macrophyllus (Long-leaf podocarpus)||Podocarpaceae||Unknown|
|Prunus armeniaca (apricot)||Rosaceae||Main|
|Prunus avium (sweet cherry)||Rosaceae||Other|
|Prunus domestica (plum)||Rosaceae||Main|
|Prunus dulcis (almond)||Rosaceae||Main|
|Prunus persica (peach)||Rosaceae||Main|
|Pyrus communis (European pear)||Rosaceae||Main|
|Pyrus pyrifolia (Oriental pear tree)||Rosaceae||Main|
|Vitis vinifera (grapevine)||Vitaceae||Other|
|Ziziphus jujuba (common jujube)||Rhamnaceae||Unknown|
SymptomsTop of page
As plant pathogens, Diaporthe species mainly cause cankers, diebacks and leaf spot diseases. The initial symptoms appear at the petiole, the leaf or a branch with discoloured areas. On leaves or petioles, streak lesions that are enlarged beyond the lesion margin sometimes produce black pycnidia on dead tissues. The inner bark and the bark above the infected cambium on branches may appear sunken and split along the canker margin. Thereafter, the fungus quickly kills branches and twigs, producing several prominent black pycnidia erupted through the bark, sometimes forming long neck-like rostrates. Perithicia are subsequently commonly found on diseased overwintering branches.
List of Symptoms/SignsTop of page
|Leaves / fungal growth|
|Stems / canker on woody stem|
|Stems / dieback|
Biology and EcologyTop of page
The reproductive strategy of D. eres includes sexual and asexual morphs. The sexual morph produces a perithecial ascomata and asci with eight ascospores. The asexual morph is a coelomycetous fungus producing a pycnidial conidiomata having at least two types of conidia described as alpha and beta conidia. The two reproductive morphs are associated with tissues in several plant species (mainly with branches for phytopathogens and with leaves for endophytes). The sexual and asexual morphs occur primarily in temperate regions.
Diseases caused by D. eres are mainly reported in temperate regions.
ClimateTop of page
|C - Temperate/Mesothermal climate||Preferred||Average temp. of coldest month > 0°C and < 18°C, mean warmest month > 10°C|
|Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer||Preferred||Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers|
|Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter||Preferred||Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)|
|Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year||Preferred||Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year|
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page
Diaporthe eres is associated with plant tissues, mainly branches and leaves and causes cankers, diebacks and leaf spot diseases. The fungus may be naturally dispersed in association with plant tissues, or dispersed by abiotic factors, such as water and wind, based on the morphological structures, including sexual and asexual spores.
Pathway CausesTop of page
|Crop production||Associated with grapevine dieback; from apple rootstocks; from Vitis vinifera wood cankers; from different fruit trees such as apple, pear, cherry and plum||Yes||Yes||Kaliterna et al. (2012); Udayanga et al. (2014); Lorenzini et al. (2016); Sessa et al. (2017); Abramczyk et al. (2018); Lorenzini and Zapparoli (2018); Ali et al. (2020)|
|Food||From apples stored under different conditions; on Castanea sativa (chestnuts in store)||Yes||Yes||Udayanga et al. (2014); Juhnevica-Radenkova et al. (2016); Florian et al. (2018)|
|Forestry||Several plant species||Yes||Yes|
|Horticulture||Umbel browning and stem necrosis on carrot||Yes||Yes||Bastide et al. (2017)|
Impact SummaryTop of page
Economic ImpactTop of page
The most common plant host diseases caused by D. eres are cankers, diebacks and leaf spot diseases. Diaporthe species infection has resulted in the loss of crops and forest areas (Udayanga et al., 2011; Udayanga et al., 2014; Manawasinghe et al., 2019). D. eres has been reported as a pathogen of forest trees, fruits such as grapes (Vitis vinifera) and apples (Malus domestica), chestnuts (Castanea sativa) and flowers in Europe, Canada, China and the USA (Udayanga et al., 2014; Abramczyk et al., 2018; Fan et al., 2018; Guarnaccia et al., 2018; Wanasinghe et al., 2018; Gomzhina et al. 2019; Zhu et al. 2019; Ali et al., 2020). This species also infected stored apples in Latvia and Romania (Juhnevica-Radenkova et al., 2016; Florian et al., 2018) and stored chestnuts in Australia (Udayanga et al., 2014). The D. eres species complex has also been reported for the first time in Serbia, causing seed decay in soyabeans (Glycine max) (Petrović et al., 2015).
Risk and Impact FactorsTop of page
- Abundant in its native range
- Tolerant of shade
- Reproduces asexually
- Damaged ecosystem services
- Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
- Host damage
- Negatively impacts agriculture
- Negatively impacts forestry
- Negatively impacts animal/plant collections
- Damages animal/plant products
- Negatively impacts trade/international relations
- Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
- Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
- Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
- Difficult to identify/detect in the field
Detection and InspectionTop of page
Detection and Inspection Methods
The inspection of petioles, leaves and branches with discoloured areas is an essential step for the detection of D. eres infection. The leaves and petioles should be examined for streak lesions enlarged beyond the lesion margin that occasionally produce black pycnidia on dead tissues. On branches, the inner bark and the bark above the infected cambium may appear sunken and split along the canker margin. The fungus eventually kills branches and twigs, producing black pycnidia erupted through the bark, sometimes forming a long neck-like rostrate. Perithicia can subsequently be commonly found on diseased overwintering branches.
Diaporthe eres infection can be observed in a transverse section of conidiomata or perithecia growing on or in the host plant tissue. A mucoid spore mass is removed from the conidiomata and the suspension spread on the surface of culture media (Yang et al., 2018). Thereafter, morphological and phylogenetic analyses are performed using DNA sequences data to identify the fungal pathogen (Fan et al., 2018; Yang et al., 2018).
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page
Diaporthe eres belongs to a complex of several species (D. eres, D. helicis, D. pulla, D. phragmitis, D. maritima, D. bicincta, D. celastrina, D. alleghaniensis, D. vaccini [Phomopsis vaccini], D. padina, D. chensiensis, D. betulina and D. alnea) (Fan et al., 2018). Six species were recently determined as synonyms of D. eres by Fan et al. (2018), based on phylogenetic analyses using DNA sequences from five genes: D. biguttusis, D. ellipicola, D. longicicola and D. mahothocarpus (Gao et al., 2015), D. momicola (Dissanayake et al., 2017) and D. camptothecicola (Yang et al., 2017). Udayanga et al. (2014) list other synonyms of D. eres in the Index Fungorum (http://www.indexfungorum.org/) and MycoBank (http://www.mycobank.org/) databases. According to Fan et al. (2018), the plasticity of morphological features and the diverse host association of D. eres do not contribute to the accurate identification of species in the D. eres complex (see Wehmeyer, 1933; Udayanga et al., 2011; Gomes et al., 2013; Du et al., 2016; Gao et al., 2016; Tanney et al., 2016). Fan et al. (2018) suggested the use of at least three genes (calmodulin, translation elongation factor EF-1 alpha and tubulin) for the determination of species in the D. eres complex.
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.
ReferencesTop of page
Abramczyk, B. A., Król, E. D., Zalewska, E. D., Zimowska, B., 2018. Morphological characteristics and pathogenicity of Diaporthe eres isolates to the fruit tree shoots. Acta Scientiarum Polonorum - Hortorum Cultus, 17(6), 125-133. doi: 10.24326/asphc.2018.6.13
Ali, S, Renderos, W, Bevis, E, Hebb, J, Abassi, PA, 2020. Diaporthe eres causes stem cankers and death of young apple rootstocks in Canada. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 42(2), 218-227. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/07060661.2019.1653377
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Principal SourceTop of page
Draft datasheet under review
ContributorsTop of page
08/12/2019 Original text by:
Jadson Diogo Pereira Bezerra, Tropical Pathology and Public Health Institute (IPTSP), Federal University of Goiás, Brazil
Xinlei Fan, The Key Laboratory for Silviculture and Conservation of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Forestry University, China
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