Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Diaporthe citri
(melanose of Citrus)

Toolbox

Datasheet

Diaporthe citri (melanose of Citrus)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 21 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Diaporthe citri
  • Preferred Common Name
  • melanose of Citrus
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Ascomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •         Class: Sordariomycetes

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Melanose is essentially a non-progressive skin blemish since, as the fruit develops on the tree, the fungus dies back and causes no further damage; this is in marked contrast to its behaviour when infecting the stem-end.
TitleD. citri on grapefruit
CaptionMelanose is essentially a non-progressive skin blemish since, as the fruit develops on the tree, the fungus dies back and causes no further damage; this is in marked contrast to its behaviour when infecting the stem-end.
Copyright©Anna L. Snowdon
Melanose is essentially a non-progressive skin blemish since, as the fruit develops on the tree, the fungus dies back and causes no further damage; this is in marked contrast to its behaviour when infecting the stem-end.
D. citri on grapefruitMelanose is essentially a non-progressive skin blemish since, as the fruit develops on the tree, the fungus dies back and causes no further damage; this is in marked contrast to its behaviour when infecting the stem-end.©Anna L. Snowdon

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Diaporthe citri F. A. Wolf

Preferred Common Name

  • melanose of Citrus

Other Scientific Names

  • Phomopsis californica H. S. Fawcett
  • Phomopsis caribaea W. T. Horne
  • Phomopsis citri H. S. Fawcett
  • Phomopsis cytosporella Penz. & Sacc.

International Common Names

  • English: gummosis: Citrus spp.; mango dieback; phomopsis stem-end rot; stem-end rot of Citrus
  • Spanish: melanosis de los cítricos; podredumbre peduncular melanosis
  • French: mélanose des agrumes; pourriture pedonculaire; pourriture phomopsienne des agrumes

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Fruchtfaeule: Zitrus; Gummose: Zitrus; stiedenfäule melanose

EPPO code

  • DIAPCI (Diaporthe citri)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Ascomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •                 Class: Sordariomycetes
  •                     Subclass: Sordariomycetidae
  •                         Order: Diaporthales
  •                             Family: Diaporthaceae
  •                                 Genus: Diaporthe
  •                                     Species: Diaporthe citri

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 30 Jun 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresent
Côte d'IvoirePresent
EgyptPresent
EthiopiaPresent
GuineaPresent
KenyaPresent
MauritiusPresent
MoroccoPresent
MozambiquePresent
NigerPresent
NigeriaPresent
SenegalPresent
South AfricaPresent
TunisiaPresent
ZambiaPresent
ZimbabwePresent

Asia

BangladeshPresent
CambodiaPresent
ChinaPresent
-AnhuiPresent
-FujianPresent
-GuangdongPresent
-GuangxiPresent
-GuizhouPresent
-HunanPresent
-JiangsuPresent
-JiangxiPresent
-SichuanPresent
-ZhejiangPresent
GeorgiaPresent
IndiaPresent
-Jammu and KashmirPresent
-KarnatakaPresent
-MaharashtraPresent
-MizoramPresent
-PunjabPresent
-Uttar PradeshPresent
IndonesiaPresent
-JavaPresent
IraqPresent
IsraelPresent
JapanPresent
-HonshuPresent
-KyushuPresent
MyanmarPresent
North KoreaPresent
PakistanPresent
PhilippinesPresent
Saudi ArabiaPresent
South KoreaPresent
Sri LankaPresent
TaiwanPresent
ThailandPresent
TurkeyPresent

Europe

CyprusPresent
FranceAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)
-CorsicaAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)
GreeceAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)
-CreteAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)
HungaryAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)
ItalyAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)
-SicilyAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)
PortugalPresent
-AzoresPresent
SpainAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)
United KingdomAbsent, Intercepted only

North America

BarbadosPresent
Cayman IslandsPresent
Costa RicaPresent
CubaPresent
HaitiPresent
JamaicaPresent
MexicoPresent
MontserratPresent
PanamaPresent
Puerto RicoPresent
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresent
Trinidad and TobagoPresent
United StatesPresent
-AlabamaPresent
-ArizonaPresent
-CaliforniaPresent
-FloridaPresent
-HawaiiPresent
-LouisianaPresent
-MississippiPresent
-TexasPresent

Oceania

American SamoaPresent
AustraliaPresent
-New South WalesPresent
-Northern TerritoryPresent
-QueenslandPresent
-South AustraliaPresent
-VictoriaPresent
Cook IslandsPresent
FijiPresent
New ZealandPresent
Papua New GuineaPresent

South America

ArgentinaPresent
BoliviaPresent
BrazilPresent
-CearaPresent
-Espirito SantoPresent
-Minas GeraisPresent
-PernambucoPresent
-Rio de JaneiroPresent
-Sao PauloPresent
ChilePresent
GuyanaPresent
ParaguayPresent
SurinamePresent
UruguayPresent
VenezuelaPresent

Growth Stages

Top of page
Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Fruit / extensive mould
Fruit / lesions: black or brown
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal forms
Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
Leaves / necrotic areas
Stems / discoloration of bark

Plant Trade

Top of page
Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bark fungi/hyphae; fungi/spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Fruits (inc. pods) fungi/hyphae; fungi/spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Leaves fungi/hyphae; fungi/spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches fungi/hyphae; fungi/spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Growing medium accompanying plants
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
Wood

References

Top of page

Bains SS; Gill RS; Mahajan BVC; Manchanda JS, 1993. Relationship between fruit drop in Kinnow and various biotic factors. Agricultural Science Digest Karnal, 13(2):104-106.

Brown GE; Wilson WC, 1968. Mode of entry of Diplodia natalensis and Phomopsis citri into Florida oranges. Phytopathology, 58:736-739.

Dhrub Singh; Andotra PS, 1990. Field evaluation of fungicides against melanose in Kinnow mandarin. Progressive Horticulture, 22(1-4):212-213

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

FAWCETT HS, 1936. Citrus diseases and their control, Second edition. New York and London, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., xv+656 pp.

Fisher FE, 1972. Chemical control of melanose on citrus in Florida. Phytopathology, 62:757.

Grasso S, 1982. A decline of lemon associated wtih Phomopsis citri. Rivista di Patologia Vegetale, 18(1/2):65-70

Hopkins EF; Loucks KW, 1948. A curing procedure for the reduction of mold decay in citrus fruits. Florida Agriculture Experiment Station Bulletin, No. 450.

Huang Feng; Hou Xin; Dewdney MM; Fu YuShi; Chen GuoQing; Hyde KD; Li HongYe, 2013. Diaporthe species occurring on citrus in China. Fungal Diversity, 61(1):237-250. http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13225-013-0245-6

IMI, 1996. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No. 126. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Isoda T; Yamada K, 1988. Occurrence of citrus melanose in Kumamoto Prefecture in 1987. Proceedings of the Association for Plant Protection of Kyushu, 34(63):59-61

Koizumi M, 1992. Iminoctadine for control of citrus storage diseases. Japan Pesticide Information, 60:12-14

Laville E; Blondel L, 1973. Various causes of damage to clementines in Corsica during the 1972-1973 season. Fruits, 28(6):441-443

Mahadevakumar S; Vandana Yadav; Tejaswini GS; Sandeep SN; Janardhana GR, 2014. First report of Phomopsis citri associated with dieback of Citrus lemon in India. Plant Disease, 98(9):1281. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Nam KW; Kweon HM; Song NH, 1993. Storage of satsuma mandarin. I. Storability of satsuma mandarin influenced by thiophanate-methyl treatment and mechanical injuries. Journal of the Korean Society for Horticultural Science, 34(4):279-284

Naqvi SAMH; Dass HC, 1994. Assessment of post-harvest losses in Nagpur mandarin - a pathological perspective. Plant Disease Research, 9(2):215-218; 5 ref.

Olson MH; Blank RH; Read AJ, 1992. Control of Alternaria and melanose on citrus using chlorothalonil and cupric hydroxide. Proceedings of the forty fifth New Zealand plant protection conference, Wellington, New Zealand, 11-13 August 1992 [edited by Popay, A.J.] Rotorua, New Zealand; New Zealand Plant Protection Society, 95-98

Punithalingam E; Holliday P, 1973. Diaporthe citri (conidial state: Phomopsis citri). CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria No. 396. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Simay EI, 1989. New pycnidial fungi (Sphaeropsidales) and their hosts in Hungary. Novenyvedelem, 25(12):546-549

Simsek S; Kabasakal A; Eraslan M; Borekci E, 1980. The incidence and cause of citrus spoilage [Icel ilinde bazi turuncgil meyvelerinin (Citrus spp.) ambalajlanmasinda iskartaya ayrilma oranlari ve nedenleri.]. Tarimsal Arastirma Dergisi, 2(1):17-21.

Skaria M, 1990. Incidence and severity of melanose disease on grapefruit trees in Texas, after the 1989 freeze. Journal of the Rio Grande Valley Horticultural Society, 43:17-21

Srivastava RC, 1982. Fungi causing plant diseases at Jaunpur (U.P.) V. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 12(2):244-246

Tuset JJ, 1987. Citrus Fruits Decay (edition 1). Valencia, Spain: Generalitat Valenciana, Conselleria d'Agricultura i Pesca, 113-117.

Tuset JJ, 1988. Diaporthe citri Wolf. In: Smith IM, Dunez J, Lelliot RA, Phillips DH, Archer SA, eds. European Handbook of Plant Diseases. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Scientific Publications.

Udayanga D; Castlebury LA; Rossman AY; Hyde KD, 2014. Species limits in Diaporthe: molecular re-assessment of D. citri, D. cytosporella, D. foeniculina and D. rudis. Persoonia, 32:83-101. http://www.persoonia.org

Ushiyama K, 1973. Studies on citrus melanose disease of Satsuma orange. II. Perfect stage of the causal fungus, Diaporthe citri (Fawc.) Wolf and inoculations with ascospores. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan, 39(2):120-125

Vyas NL, 1990. A note on melanose disease of oranges in Mizoram. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 20(2):194

Wehmeyer LE, 1933. The genus Diaporthe Nitschke and its segregates. University of Michigan, Student Scientific Service No. 9.

Whiteside JO, 1977. Sites of action of fungicides in the control of citrus melanose. Phytopathology, 67(8):1067-1072

Yamato H, 1979. Citrus melanose and its related disease in Japan. In: Grierson W, ed. Proceedings of the International Society of Citriculture, 3:997-998

Zhang BC; Huang YC, 1990. A list of important plant diseases in China. Review of Plant Pathology, 69(3):97-118

Distribution References

Bains S S, Gill R S, Mahajan B V C, Manchanda J S, 1993. Relationship between fruit drop in Kinnow and various biotic factors. Agricultural Science Digest (Karnal). 13 (2), 104-106.

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

EPPO, 2021. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO. https://gd.eppo.int/

Grasso S, 1982. A decline of lemon associated wtih Phomopsis citri. (Un deperimento di piante di limone associato a Phomopsis citri.). Rivista di Patologia Vegetale. 18 (1/2), 65-70.

Guarnaccia V, Crous P W, 2018. Species of Diaporthe on Camellia and Citrus in the Azores Islands. Phytopathologia Mediterranea. 57 (2), 307-319. https://oajournals.fupress.net/index.php/pm/article/view/5769/5767

Huang Feng, Hou Xin, Dewdney M M, Fu YuShi, Chen GuoQing, Hyde K D, Li HongYe, 2013. Diaporthe species occurring on citrus in China. Fungal Diversity. 61 (1), 237-250. http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13225-013-0245-6 DOI:10.1007/s13225-013-0245-6

Isoda T, Yamada K, 1988. Occurrence of citrus melanose in Kumamoto Prefecture in 1987. ([Diaporthe citri].). Proceedings of the Association for Plant Protection of Kyushu. 34 (63), 59-61.

Laville E, Blondel L, 1973. Various causes of damage to clementines in Corsica during the 1972-1973 season. (Causes diverses d'alteration des clementines de Corse durant la campagne 1972-1973.). Fruits. 28 (6), 441-443.

Mahadevakumar S, Vandana Yadav, Tejaswini G S, Sandeep S N, Janardhana G R, 2014. First report of Phomopsis citri associated with dieback of Citrus lemon in India. Plant Disease. 98 (9), 1281. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-04-14-0388-PDN

Naqvi S A M H, Dass H C, 1994. Assessment of post-harvest losses in Nagpur mandarin - a pathological perspective. Plant Disease Research. 9 (2), 215-218.

Simay E I, 1989. New pycnidial fungi (Sphaeropsidales) and their hosts in Hungary. (Magyarországon új gombák és új gasdanövények a piknidiumos gombák (Sphaeropsidales) köréből.). Növényvédelem. 25 (12), 546-549.

Simsek S, Kabasakal A, Eraslan M, Borekci E, 1980. The incidence and cause of citrus spoilage. (Icel ilinde bazi turuncgil meyvelerinin (Citrus spp.) ambalajlanmasinda iskartaya ayrilma oranlari ve nedenleri.). Tarimsal Arastirma Dergisi. 2 (1), 17-21.

UK, CAB International, 1996. Diaporthe citri. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases. Map 126. DOI:10.1079/DMPD/20046500126

Ushiyama K, 1973. Studies on citrus melanose disease of Satsuma orange. II. Perfect stage of the causal fungus, Diaporthe citri (Fawc.) Wolf and inoculations with ascospores. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan. 39 (2), 120-125. DOI:10.3186/jjphytopath.39.120

Vyas N L, 1990. A note on melanose disease of oranges in Mizoram. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology. 20 (2), 194.

Zhang B C, Huang Y C, 1990. A list of important plant diseases in China. Review of Plant Pathology. 69 (3), 97-118.

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map
Select a dataset
Map Legends
  • CABI Summary Records
Map Filters
Extent
Invasive
Origin
Third party data sources: