Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Diaporthe citri
(melanose of Citrus)

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Datasheet

Diaporthe citri (melanose of Citrus)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 21 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Diaporthe citri
  • Preferred Common Name
  • melanose of Citrus
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Ascomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •         Class: Sordariomycetes

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Melanose is essentially a non-progressive skin blemish since, as the fruit develops on the tree, the fungus dies back and causes no further damage; this is in marked contrast to its behaviour when infecting the stem-end.
TitleD. citri on grapefruit
CaptionMelanose is essentially a non-progressive skin blemish since, as the fruit develops on the tree, the fungus dies back and causes no further damage; this is in marked contrast to its behaviour when infecting the stem-end.
Copyright©Anna L. Snowdon
Melanose is essentially a non-progressive skin blemish since, as the fruit develops on the tree, the fungus dies back and causes no further damage; this is in marked contrast to its behaviour when infecting the stem-end.
D. citri on grapefruitMelanose is essentially a non-progressive skin blemish since, as the fruit develops on the tree, the fungus dies back and causes no further damage; this is in marked contrast to its behaviour when infecting the stem-end.©Anna L. Snowdon

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Diaporthe citri F. A. Wolf

Preferred Common Name

  • melanose of Citrus

Other Scientific Names

  • Phomopsis californica H. S. Fawcett
  • Phomopsis caribaea W. T. Horne
  • Phomopsis citri H. S. Fawcett
  • Phomopsis cytosporella Penz. & Sacc.

International Common Names

  • English: gummosis: Citrus spp.; mango dieback; phomopsis stem-end rot; stem-end rot of Citrus
  • Spanish: melanosis de los cítricos; podredumbre peduncular melanosis
  • French: mélanose des agrumes; pourriture pedonculaire; pourriture phomopsienne des agrumes

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Fruchtfaeule: Zitrus; Gummose: Zitrus; stiedenfäule melanose

EPPO code

  • DIAPCI (Diaporthe citri)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Ascomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •                 Class: Sordariomycetes
  •                     Subclass: Sordariomycetidae
  •                         Order: Diaporthales
  •                             Family: Diaporthaceae
  •                                 Genus: Diaporthe
  •                                     Species: Diaporthe citri

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 17 Jul 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
Côte d'IvoirePresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
EgyptPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
EthiopiaPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
GuineaPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
KenyaPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
MauritiusPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
MoroccoPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
MozambiquePresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
NigerPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
NigeriaPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
SenegalPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
South AfricaPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
TunisiaPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
ZambiaPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
ZimbabwePresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)

Asia

BangladeshPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
CambodiaPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
ChinaPresentEPPO (2020); Huang Feng et al. (2013)
-AnhuiPresentZhang and Huang (1990); EPPO (2020)
-FujianPresentZhang and Huang (1990); EPPO (2020)
-GuangdongPresentZhang and Huang (1990); EPPO (2020)
-GuangxiPresentZhang and Huang (1990); EPPO (2020)
-GuizhouPresentZhang and Huang (1990); EPPO (2020)
-HunanPresentZhang and Huang (1990); EPPO (2020)
-JiangsuPresentZhang and Huang (1990); EPPO (2020)
-JiangxiPresentZhang and Huang (1990); EPPO (2020)
-SichuanPresentZhang and Huang (1990); EPPO (2020)
-ZhejiangPresentZhang and Huang (1990); EPPO (2020)
GeorgiaPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
IndiaPresentEPPO (2020)
-Jammu and KashmirPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-KarnatakaPresentMahadevakumar et al. (2014); EPPO (2020)
-MaharashtraPresentNaqvi and Dass (1994); EPPO (2020)
-MizoramPresentVyas (1990); EPPO (2020)
-PunjabPresentBains et al. (1993); EPPO (2020)
-Uttar PradeshPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
IndonesiaPresentEPPO (2020)
-JavaPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
IraqPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
IsraelPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
JapanPresentEPPO (2020)
-HonshuPresentUshiyama (1973); EPPO (2020)
-KyushuPresentIsoda and Yamada (1988); EPPO (2020)
MyanmarPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
North KoreaPresentEPPO (2020)
PakistanPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
PhilippinesPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
Saudi ArabiaPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
South KoreaPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
Sri LankaPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
TaiwanPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
ThailandPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
TurkeyPresentSimsek et al. (1980); EPPO (2020)

Europe

CyprusPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
FranceAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)EPPO (2020); EPPO (2014)
-CorsicaAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)EPPO (2020); Laville and Blondel (1973)
GreeceAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)EPPO (2020); EPPO (2014)
-CreteAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)EPPO (2020); UK, CAB International (1996)
HungaryAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)EPPO (2020); Simay (1989)
ItalyAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)EPPO (2020); UK, CAB International (1996)
-SicilyAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)EPPO (2020); Grasso (1982)
PortugalPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
-AzoresPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
SpainAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)EPPO (2020); UK, CAB International (1996)
United KingdomAbsent, Intercepted onlyEPPO (2020); UK, CAB International (1996)

North America

BarbadosPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
Cayman IslandsPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
Costa RicaPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
CubaPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
HaitiPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
JamaicaPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
MexicoPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
MontserratPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
PanamaPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
Puerto RicoPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
Trinidad and TobagoPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
United StatesPresentEPPO (2020)
-AlabamaPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
-ArizonaPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
-CaliforniaPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
-FloridaPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
-HawaiiPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
-LouisianaPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
-MississippiPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
-TexasPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)

Oceania

American SamoaPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
AustraliaPresentEPPO (2020)
-New South WalesPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
-Northern TerritoryPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
-QueenslandPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
-South AustraliaPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
-VictoriaPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
Cook IslandsPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
FijiPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
New ZealandPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
Papua New GuineaPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)

South America

ArgentinaPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
BoliviaPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
BrazilPresentEPPO (2020)
-CearaPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
-Espirito SantoPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
-Minas GeraisPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
-PernambucoPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
-Rio de JaneiroPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
-Sao PauloPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
ChilePresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
GuyanaPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
ParaguayPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
SurinamePresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
UruguayPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
VenezuelaPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)

Growth Stages

Top of page Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / extensive mould
Fruit / lesions: black or brown
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal forms
Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
Leaves / necrotic areas
Stems / discoloration of bark

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bark hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Fruits (inc. pods) hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Leaves hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Growing medium accompanying plants
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
Wood

References

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Bains SS; Gill RS; Mahajan BVC; Manchanda JS, 1993. Relationship between fruit drop in Kinnow and various biotic factors. Agricultural Science Digest Karnal, 13(2):104-106.

Brown GE; Wilson WC, 1968. Mode of entry of Diplodia natalensis and Phomopsis citri into Florida oranges. Phytopathology, 58:736-739.

Dhrub Singh; Andotra PS, 1990. Field evaluation of fungicides against melanose in Kinnow mandarin. Progressive Horticulture, 22(1-4):212-213

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

FAWCETT HS, 1936. Citrus diseases and their control, Second edition. New York and London, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., xv+656 pp.

Fisher FE, 1972. Chemical control of melanose on citrus in Florida. Phytopathology, 62:757.

Grasso S, 1982. A decline of lemon associated wtih Phomopsis citri. Rivista di Patologia Vegetale, 18(1/2):65-70

Hopkins EF; Loucks KW, 1948. A curing procedure for the reduction of mold decay in citrus fruits. Florida Agriculture Experiment Station Bulletin, No. 450.

Huang Feng; Hou Xin; Dewdney MM; Fu YuShi; Chen GuoQing; Hyde KD; Li HongYe, 2013. Diaporthe species occurring on citrus in China. Fungal Diversity, 61(1):237-250. http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13225-013-0245-6

IMI, 1996. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No. 126. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Isoda T; Yamada K, 1988. Occurrence of citrus melanose in Kumamoto Prefecture in 1987. Proceedings of the Association for Plant Protection of Kyushu, 34(63):59-61

Koizumi M, 1992. Iminoctadine for control of citrus storage diseases. Japan Pesticide Information, 60:12-14

Laville E; Blondel L, 1973. Various causes of damage to clementines in Corsica during the 1972-1973 season. Fruits, 28(6):441-443

Mahadevakumar S; Vandana Yadav; Tejaswini GS; Sandeep SN; Janardhana GR, 2014. First report of Phomopsis citri associated with dieback of Citrus lemon in India. Plant Disease, 98(9):1281. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Nam KW; Kweon HM; Song NH, 1993. Storage of satsuma mandarin. I. Storability of satsuma mandarin influenced by thiophanate-methyl treatment and mechanical injuries. Journal of the Korean Society for Horticultural Science, 34(4):279-284

Naqvi SAMH; Dass HC, 1994. Assessment of post-harvest losses in Nagpur mandarin - a pathological perspective. Plant Disease Research, 9(2):215-218; 5 ref.

Olson MH; Blank RH; Read AJ, 1992. Control of Alternaria and melanose on citrus using chlorothalonil and cupric hydroxide. Proceedings of the forty fifth New Zealand plant protection conference, Wellington, New Zealand, 11-13 August 1992 [edited by Popay, A.J.] Rotorua, New Zealand; New Zealand Plant Protection Society, 95-98

Punithalingam E; Holliday P, 1973. Diaporthe citri (conidial state: Phomopsis citri). CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria No. 396. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Simay EI, 1989. New pycnidial fungi (Sphaeropsidales) and their hosts in Hungary. Novenyvedelem, 25(12):546-549

Simsek S; Kabasakal A; Eraslan M; Borekci E, 1980. The incidence and cause of citrus spoilage [Icel ilinde bazi turuncgil meyvelerinin (Citrus spp.) ambalajlanmasinda iskartaya ayrilma oranlari ve nedenleri.]. Tarimsal Arastirma Dergisi, 2(1):17-21.

Skaria M, 1990. Incidence and severity of melanose disease on grapefruit trees in Texas, after the 1989 freeze. Journal of the Rio Grande Valley Horticultural Society, 43:17-21

Srivastava RC, 1982. Fungi causing plant diseases at Jaunpur (U.P.) V. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 12(2):244-246

Tuset JJ, 1987. Citrus Fruits Decay (edition 1). Valencia, Spain: Generalitat Valenciana, Conselleria d'Agricultura i Pesca, 113-117.

Tuset JJ, 1988. Diaporthe citri Wolf. In: Smith IM, Dunez J, Lelliot RA, Phillips DH, Archer SA, eds. European Handbook of Plant Diseases. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Scientific Publications.

Udayanga D; Castlebury LA; Rossman AY; Hyde KD, 2014. Species limits in Diaporthe: molecular re-assessment of D. citri, D. cytosporella, D. foeniculina and D. rudis. Persoonia, 32:83-101. http://www.persoonia.org

Ushiyama K, 1973. Studies on citrus melanose disease of Satsuma orange. II. Perfect stage of the causal fungus, Diaporthe citri (Fawc.) Wolf and inoculations with ascospores. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan, 39(2):120-125

Vyas NL, 1990. A note on melanose disease of oranges in Mizoram. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 20(2):194

Wehmeyer LE, 1933. The genus Diaporthe Nitschke and its segregates. University of Michigan, Student Scientific Service No. 9.

Whiteside JO, 1977. Sites of action of fungicides in the control of citrus melanose. Phytopathology, 67(8):1067-1072

Yamato H, 1979. Citrus melanose and its related disease in Japan. In: Grierson W, ed. Proceedings of the International Society of Citriculture, 3:997-998

Zhang BC; Huang YC, 1990. A list of important plant diseases in China. Review of Plant Pathology, 69(3):97-118

Distribution References

Bains S S, Gill R S, Mahajan B V C, Manchanda J S, 1993. Relationship between fruit drop in Kinnow and various biotic factors. Agricultural Science Digest (Karnal). 13 (2), 104-106.

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

EPPO, 2014. EPPO Global database (available online). Paris, France: EPPO. https://gd.eppo.int/

EPPO, 2020. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO.

Grasso S, 1982. A decline of lemon associated wtih Phomopsis citri. (Un deperimento di piante di limone associato a Phomopsis citri.). Rivista di Patologia Vegetale. 18 (1/2), 65-70.

Huang Feng, Hou Xin, Dewdney M M, Fu YuShi, Chen GuoQing, Hyde K D, Li HongYe, 2013. Diaporthe species occurring on citrus in China. Fungal Diversity. 61 (1), 237-250. http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13225-013-0245-6 DOI:10.1007/s13225-013-0245-6

Isoda T, Yamada K, 1988. Occurrence of citrus melanose in Kumamoto Prefecture in 1987. ([Diaporthe citri].). Proceedings of the Association for Plant Protection of Kyushu. 34 (63), 59-61.

Laville E, Blondel L, 1973. Various causes of damage to clementines in Corsica during the 1972-1973 season. (Causes diverses d'alteration des clementines de Corse durant la campagne 1972-1973.). Fruits. 28 (6), 441-443.

Mahadevakumar S, Vandana Yadav, Tejaswini G S, Sandeep S N, Janardhana G R, 2014. First report of Phomopsis citri associated with dieback of Citrus lemon in India. Plant Disease. 98 (9), 1281. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-04-14-0388-PDN

Naqvi S A M H, Dass H C, 1994. Assessment of post-harvest losses in Nagpur mandarin - a pathological perspective. Plant Disease Research. 9 (2), 215-218.

Simay E I, 1989. New pycnidial fungi (Sphaeropsidales) and their hosts in Hungary. (Magyarországon új gombák és új gasdanövények a piknidiumos gombák (Sphaeropsidales) köréből.). Növényvédelem. 25 (12), 546-549.

Simsek S, Kabasakal A, Eraslan M, Borekci E, 1980. The incidence and cause of citrus spoilage. (Icel ilinde bazi turuncgil meyvelerinin (Citrus spp.) ambalajlanmasinda iskartaya ayrilma oranlari ve nedenleri.). Tarimsal Arastirma Dergisi. 2 (1), 17-21.

UK, CAB International, 1996. Diaporthe citri. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases. Map 126.

Ushiyama K, 1973. Studies on citrus melanose disease of Satsuma orange. II. Perfect stage of the causal fungus, Diaporthe citri (Fawc.) Wolf and inoculations with ascospores. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan. 39 (2), 120-125. DOI:10.3186/jjphytopath.39.120

Vyas N L, 1990. A note on melanose disease of oranges in Mizoram. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology. 20 (2), 194.

Zhang B C, Huang Y C, 1990. A list of important plant diseases in China. Review of Plant Pathology. 69 (3), 97-118.

Distribution Maps

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