Invasive Species Compendium

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Diaeretiella rapae

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Datasheet

Diaeretiella rapae

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 11 October 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Diaeretiella rapae
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution map More information

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Diaeretiella rapae (M'Intosh, 1855)

Other Scientific Names

  • Aphidius brassicae Marshall
  • Aphidius piceus
  • Aphidius rapae (Curtis)
  • Diaeretiella brassicae
  • Diaeretus brassicae
  • Diaeretus chenopodiaphidis
  • Diaeretus napus
  • Diaeretus nipponensis
  • Diaeretus plesiorapae
  • Diaeretus rapae M'Intosh
  • Diaraetiella rapae

EPPO code

  • DIAERA (Diaeretiella rapae)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hymenoptera
  •                         Family: Braconidae
  •                             Genus: Diaeretiella
  •                                 Species: Diaeretiella rapae

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

ChinaPresentGreathead and Greathead, 1992
-ShanxiPresentZheng et al., 1987
-YunnanPresent
-ZhejiangPresentLiu et al., 1990
Georgia (Republic of)PresentGreathead and Greathead, 1992
IndiaPresentDhiman and Kumar, 1985; Tripathi and Tripathi, 1991
-AssamPresentTripathi, 1995
-Himachal PradeshPresentThakur et al., 1989; Raj and Sharma, 1993
-Indian PunjabPresentAtwal et al., 1971; Kumar et al., 1989
-Jammu and KashmirPresent
-Madhya PradeshPresentSingh and Rawat, 1981a; Singh and Rawat, 1981b; Veda and Shaw, 1988; Verma et al., 1993; Veda et al., 1994
-ManipurPresentSingh et al., 1994
-MeghalayaPresent
-RajasthanPresentChandra and Kushwaha, 1987
-SikkimPresentAgarwala and Raychaudhuri, 1981
-Uttar PradeshPresentPandey et al., 1985; Dhiman and Kumar, 1986; Chakrabarti, 1987; Das and Chakrabarti, 1990
IranPresentAlishah and Zareh, 1986
IraqPresentGreathead and Greathead, 1992
IsraelPresentBODENHEIMER and SWIRSKI, 1957; Tremblay, 1984; Mescheloff and Rosen, 1990
JapanPresentTakada, 1976a; Takada, 1976b; Takaoka, 1975; Takada and Takenaka, 1982
JordanPresentMustafa and Masha'l, 1994
Korea, Republic ofPresentPaik, 1975
LebanonPresentTalhouk, 1961; Hussein and Kawar, 1984; Tremblay, 1984
PakistanPresentMukerji and Chatterjee, 1949; Rehana-Habib, 1973
Saudi ArabiaPresentAlhag et al., 1996
Sri LankaPresent
SyriaPresentRechmany et al., 1993
TaiwanPresentTakahashi, 1925
TajikistanPresentKadamshoev, 1983
TurkeyPresentKilincer, 1982; Ozkan and Turkyilmaz, 1987
UzbekistanPresentGreathead and Greathead, 1992

Africa

AlgeriaPresent
EgyptPresentAbul-Nasr and Assem, 1968; Herakly and El-Ezz, 1970; El-Heneidy and Attia, 1991
KenyaPresentBahana and Karuhize, 1986
LibyaPresent
MoroccoPresentMimeur, 1934
South AfricaPresentGourlay, 1930; Daiber, 1971; Aalbersberg et al., 1988
Spain
-Canary IslandsWidespreadMackauer, 1962
TunisiaPresentHalima-Kamel and Hamouda, 1993

North America

BermudaPresent
CanadaPresentGreathead and Greathead, 1992
-British ColumbiaPresentRaworth, 1984; Raworth et al., 1984
MexicoPresentGibson and Carillo Sánchez, 1959; Robinson, 1992
USAPresentCresson, 1880; Muesebeck and Walkley, 1951
-CaliforniaPresentHorn, 1989; Titayavan and Altieri, 1990; Gonzalez et al., 1992; Zuparko and Dahlsten, 1993; Costello and Altieri, 1995
-ColoradoPresentWraight et al., 1993
-HawaiiPresentFullaway, 1913
-IdahoPresentFeng et al., 1991; Feng and Nowierski, 1992; Feng et al., 1992
-MassachusettsPresentLopez et al., 1990
-MichiganPresent
-MinnesotaPresentWeires and Chiang, 1973
-New YorkPresentSheehan and Shelton, 1989
-OhioPresentHorn, 1983; Horn, 1984; Horn, 1989
-TennesseePresentBoyd and Lentz, 1994
-TexasPresentWalker et al., 1973; Kring and Gilstrap, 1983; Gilstrap et al., 1984
-WashingtonPresentTamaki et al., 1981; Wright and Cone, 1988; Tanigoshi et al., 1995; Pike et al., 1997

Central America and Caribbean

El SalvadorPresent
HondurasPresent

South America

ArgentinaPresentBotto, 1980
BrazilPresentGravena, 1979; Arce and Gomez Rumiatto, 1989; de and Souza Bueno, 1992; Bueno and de Souza, 1993
-Minas GeraisPresent
ChilePresentSuzuki and Sone Vargas Mesina, 1980
ColombiaPresentRamirez and Guevara Zuluaga, 1995
PeruPresentde and Huiza Ortiz, 1980
UruguayPresentBlanchard, 1940

Europe

AustriaWidespread
BulgariaWidespreadKaitazov, 1963; Tsachev, 1972; Straka, 1976
CyprusPresentGreathead and Greathead, 1992
Czech RepublicWidespread
Czechoslovakia (former)WidespreadQuilis Pérez, 1934
DenmarkWidespread
FinlandWidespreadMarkkula, 1960
Former USSRPresent
FranceWidespreadBonemaisson, 1951; Rabasse and Dedryver, 1983; Tremblay, 1984; Hopper et al., 1995
GermanyPresentNahif and Madel, 1990; Lehmhus et al., 1995; Vidal, 1997
GreecePresent
HungaryWidespread
ItalyWidespreadTremblay, 1984; Ferrari and Burgio, 1996
NetherlandsWidespreadHafez, 1961
PolandWidespreadNawrocka and Wegorek, 1972; Pankanin-Franczyk, 1982; Jankowska Filipowicz, 1995; Gabrys et al., 1997
PortugalWidespreadCruz de Boelpaepe et al., 1992
RomaniaWidespread
Russian FederationPresentSlabospitskii, 1980; Tregubenko, 1980
SpainWidespreadQuilis Pérez, 1931; Tremblay, 1984
SwedenWidespread
SwitzerlandWidespread
UKWidespreadSmith, 1976; Chua, 1977; Chua, 1978; Gu, 1988
UkraineWidespreadShlyakhovoi and Bobonich, 1975; Yastrebov, 1979; Berest, 1980
Yugoslavia (former)WidespreadQuilis Pérez, 1934
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)Present

Oceania

AustraliaIntroduced, established1902
-South AustraliaIntroduced, established1902Robertson, 1976
New ZealandIntroduced, established1902Gourlay, 1930; Valentine et al., 1975

Natural enemy of

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SpeciesStages attackedCountries where known to occurReferences
Acyrthosiphon kondoiAdults/Nymphs
Acyrthosiphon pisumAdults/Nymphs
Aphis craccivoraAdults/Nymphs
Aphis fabaeAdults/Nymphs
Aphis gossypiiAdults/Nymphs
Aphis nasturtiiAdults/Nymphs
Aphis pomiAdults/Nymphs
Brachycorynella asparagiAdults/Nymphs
Brevicoryne brassicaeAdults/Nymphs
Ceratovacuna lanigeraAdults/Nymphs
Chromaphis juglandicolaAdults/Nymphs
Cryptomyzus galeopsidisAdults/Nymphs
Diuraphis noxiaAdults/Nymphs
Dysaphis plantagineaAdults/Nymphs
Hayhurstia atriplicisAdults/Nymphs
Hyadaphis foeniculiAdults/Nymphs
Illinoia liriodendriAdults/Nymphs
Lipaphis erysimiAdults/Nymphs
Macrosiphum euphorbiaeAdults/Nymphs
Metopolophium dirhodumAdults/Nymphs
Microlophium carnosumAdults/Nymphs
Myzus certusAdults/Nymphs
Myzus persicaeAdults/Nymphs
Plutella xylostellaLarvae
Rhopalosiphum insertumAdults/Nymphs
Rhopalosiphum maidisAdults/Nymphs
Rhopalosiphum padiAdults/Nymphs
Scaeva latimaculata
Schizaphis graminumAdults/Nymphs
Sitobion avenaeAdults/Nymphs
Toxoptera aurantiiAdults/Nymphs

References

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Aalbersberg YK; Westhuizen MC van der; Hewitt PH, 1988. Natural enemies and their impact on Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) populations. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 78(1):111-120

Abul-Nasr S; Assem MAH, 1968. Studies on the biological processes of the bean fly, Melanagromyza phaseoli (Tryon) (Diptera:Agromyzidae). Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique d'Egypte, 52:283-295

Achterberg C van, 1998. Subfamily Aphidiinae. In: Wharton RA, Marsh PM, Sharkey MJ, eds. Manual of the New World Genera of the Family Braconidae (Hymenoptera). Washington DC, USA: The International Society of Hymenopterists, 119-132.

Adashkevich BP; Adashkevich AP; Shiiko ES; Tregubenko ES, 1975. Mass rearing and storage of Diaeretiella rapae - a parasite of aphids. Zoologicheskii Zhurnal, 54(8):1239-1245

Agarwala BK; Raychaudhuri DN, 1981. Note on some aphids affecting economically important plants in Sikkim. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 51(9):690-692

Akinlosotu TA, 1978. Some aspects of the host finding behaviour of the female Dipretiella rapae McIntosh (Hymenoptera, Aphidiidae). Nigerian Journal of Entomology, 3(1):11-18

Akinlosotu TA, 1980. Some aspects of the host finding behaviour of the female Diaeretiella rapae McIntosh (Hymenoptera, Aphidiidae). Nigerian Journal of Entomology, 1(3):11-18.

Alhag EA; Al-Rokaibah AA; Zaitoon AA, 1996. Natural enemies of cereal aphids in sprinkler-irrigated wheat in central Saudi Arabia. Bulletin of Faculty of Agriculture, University of Cairo, 47(4):649-663; 19 ref.

Alishah A; Zareh N, 1986. Evaluation of soil-applied systemic insecticides against cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae (L.), and resultant survival of the primary parasitoid, Dipretiella rapae (McIntosh), on cabbage. Iran Agricultural Research, 5(1):1-12

Arce Gomez S; Rumiatto M, 1989. Evaluation of the biological control of Schizaphis graminum (Rondani, 1852) by exotic introduced parasites. Documentos, Unidade de Execucao de Pesquisa de Ambito Estadual de Dourados, EMBRAPA, Brazil, No. 39:163-164

Askari A; Abivardi C; Alishah A, 1984. Effect of camphor on cabbage aphid and its primary parasitoid. Annals of Applied Biology, 104(Suppl.):24-25

Atwal AS; Chaudhary JP; Ramzan M, 1971. Mortality factors in the natural population of cabbage-aphid, Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) (Aphididae: Homoptera), in relation to parasites, predators and weather conditions. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 41(5):507-510

Ayal Y, 1987. The foraging strategy of Dipretiella rapae. I. The concept of the elementary unit of foraging. Journal of Animal Ecology, 56(3):1057-1068

Bahana J; Karuhize G, 1986. The role of Dipretiella rapae (Mc'Intosh) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in the population control of the cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae L. (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in Kenya. Insect Science and its Application, 7(5):605-609

Batra HN; Wadhi SR, 1962. Additional notes on insects of economic importance in Kulu Valley, Punjab. Indian Journal of Entomology, 24:135-136.

Berest ZL, 1980. Parasites and predators of the aphids Brachycolus noxius and Schizaphis graminum in crops of barley and wheat in the Nikolpv and Odessa regions. Vestnik Zoologii, 2:80-81

Bernal J; Gonzalez D, 1993. Temperature requirements of four parasites of the Russian wheat aphid Diuraphis noxia. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 69(2):173-182

Bernal J; Gonzalez D, 1995. Thermal requirements of Diaeretiella rapae (M'Intosh) on Russian wheat aphid (Diuraphis noxia Mordwilko, Hom., Aphididae) hosts. Journal of Applied Entomology, 119(4):273-277

Bernal J; González D, 1997. Reproduction of Diaeretiella rapae on Russian wheat aphid hosts at different temperatures. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 82:159-166.

Blanchard EE, 1940. Descripcion de un nuevo Afidiino argentino, util para la agricultura. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural, 44:45-48.

Bodenheimer FS; Swirski E, 1957. Weizmann Sci. Pr. Israel. Jerusalem, 5 + ] 378 pp.

Bonemaisson L, 1951. Contribution à l'étude des facteurs provoquant l'apparition des formes ailées et sexuées chez les Aphidinae. Thesis, Université de Paris.

Botto EN, 1980. Aphelinus asychis Walker and Aphelinus abdominalis (Dalman), two new parasites of the 'green and yellow cereal aphids' in Argentina. Revista de la Sociedad Entomologica Argentina, 39(3/4):197-202

Boyd ML; Lentz GL, 1994. Seasonal incidence of aphids and the aphid parasitoid Diaeretiella rapae (M'Intosh) (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) on rapeseed in Tennessee. Environmental Entomology, 23(2):349-353

Bueno VHP; Souza BM de, 1993. Occurrence and diversity of predatory insects and parasitoids in spring greens (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) in Lavras, MG, Brazil. Anais da Sociedade Entomologica do Brasil, 22(1):5-18

Burd JD; Elliott NC; Reed DK, 1996. Effects of the aphicides 'gaucho' and CGA-215944 on feeding behavior and tritrophic interactions of Russian wheat aphids. Southwestern Entomologist, 21(2):145-152; 23 ref.

Carver M; Star8 P, 1974. A preliminary review of the Aphidiidae (Hymenoptera:Ichneumonoidea) of Australia and New Zealand. Journal of the Australian Entomological Society, 13(3):235-240

Chakrabarti S, 1987. Biosystematics of gall aphids (Aphididae, Homoptera) of western Himalaya, India. Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences, Animal Sciences, 96(5):561-572

Chandra S; Kushwaha KS, 1987. Impact of environmental resistance on aphid complex of cruciferous crops under the agroclimatic conditions of Udaipur II. Biotic components. Indian Journal of Entomology, 49(1):86-113

Chua TH, 1977. Population studies of Brevicoryne brassicae (L.), its parasites and hyperparasites in England. Researches on Population Ecology, 19(1):125-139

Chua TH, 1978. Pattern and influencing factors of emergence in Dipretiella rapae and its parasites. Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Entomologie, 85(4):436-442

Ciomperlik MA, 1995. Characterization and separation of indigenous and exotic populations of Diaeretiella rapae (M'Intosh) (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae). PhD. dissertation, Texas A&M University, College Station.

Clausen CP, 1978. Aphididae. In: Clausen CP, ed. Introduced Parasites of Predators of Arthropod Pests and Weeds: A World Review. US Department of Agriculture Agricultural Handbook 480, 35-46.

Costello M; Altieri MA, 1995. Abundance, growth rate and parasitism of Brevicoryne brassicae and Myzus persicae (Homoptera: Aphididae) on broccoli grown in living mulches. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 52(2/3):187-196

Couchman JR; King PE, 1977. Morphology of the larval stages of Diaretiella rapae (M'Intosh) (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae). International Journal of Insect Morphology and Embryology, 6(3/4):127-136

Cresson ET, 1880. (untitled). In: Comstock JH, Report of the Entomologist. Report Commisioner Agriculture. US Department of Agriculture 1879, pp. 185-347.

Croft BA, 1990. Arthropod biological control agents and pesticides. New York, USA; John Wiley and Sons Inc., 723 pp.

Cruz de Boelpaepe MO; Forra MR; Fernandes JE, 1992. Aphid pests of vegetable crops and aphidophagous insects caught in a suction trap in the Algarve, Portugal. Bulletin OILB/SROP, 15(4):16-27

Daiber CC, 1971. Cabbage aphids in South Africa: their parasites, predators and disease. Phytophylactica, 3(4):137-146.

Das BC; Chakrabarti S, 1990. New and little known aphidiid parasitoids (Hymenoptera; Aphidiidae) of gall forming aphids in western Himalaya, with notes on their seasonal history. Oriental Insects, 24:399-414

Delorme R, 1975. Toxicity for Dipretiella rapae (Hymenoptera Aphidiidae) and for its host Myzus persicae of twelve pesticides used in sprays. Phytiatrie-Phytopharmacie, 24(4):265-278

Delorme R, 1976. Relative importance of various factors influencing the toxicity shown by some pesticides towards Dipretiella rapae M'Intosh. Bulletin SROP, 86-98

Dhiman SC; Kumar V, 1985. First record of two hyperparasites of Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) (Homoptera - Aphididae) parasitizing Aphidius rapae (Curtis) (Hymenoptera - Aphidiinp). Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, 82(3):681-682

Dhiman SC; Kumar V, 1986. Biological control of mustard aphid Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt) by using the parasitoid Aphidius (Dipretiella) rapae (Curtis). I. Influence of parasitism on aphids. Proceedings of a national symposium on pesticide residues and environmental pollution, Muzaffarnagar, India, 2-4 October, 1985 Muzaffarnagar, India; Sanatan Dharm College, 219-222

El-Ghar GESA; El-Sayed pGM, 1989. Impact of two synthetic pyrethroids and methomyl on management of the cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae (L.) and its associated parasitoid, Dipretiella rapae (M'Intosh). Pesticide Science, 25(1):35-41

El-Heneidy AH; Attia AA, 1991. Evaluation of the role of parasitoids and predators associated with aphids in wheat fields, Egypt. Bulletin of the Entomological Society of Egypt, Economic Series, 17:137-147

Elliott NC; Burd JD; Armstrong JS; Walker CB; Reed DK; Peairs FB, 1995. Release and recovery of imported parasitoids of the Russian wheat aphid in eastern Colorado. Southwestern Entomologist, 20(2):125-129

El-Sayed AM; El-Ghar GESA, 1989. Selective toxicity of organophosphorus insecticides to the cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae (Homoptera: Aphididae), and its parasitoid, Dipretiella rapae (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) Zeitschrift fur Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz, 96(3):281-288.

Faraq AI; Darwish ETE; Hegab AM, 1985. On the action of precocene 2 and fenarimol on the cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae (L.) and its parasitoid Dipretiella rapae (M'Intosh). Anzeiger fur Schadlingskunde, Pflanzenschutz, Umweltschutz, 58(8):149-152

Feng MG; Johnson JB; Halbert SE, 1991. Natural control of cereal aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) by entomopathogenic fungi (Zygomycetes: Entomophthorales) and parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae and Encyrtidae) on irrigated spring wheat in southwestern Idaho. Environmental Entomology, 20(6):1699-1710

Feng MG; Johnson JB; Halbert SE, 1992. Parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae and Aphelinidae) and their effect on aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) populations in irrigated grain in southwestern Idaho. Environmental Entomology, 21(6):1433-1440

Feng MG; Nowierski RM, 1992. Spatial patterns and sampling plans for cereal aphids (Hom.: Aphididae) killed by entomophthoralean fungi and hymenopterous parasitoids in spring wheat. Entomophaga, 37(2):265-275

Ferrari R; Burgio G, 1996. Primary and secondary parasitoids of Aphis gossypii Glover on primary and secondary hosts (Hibiscus syriacus L. and Citrullus lanatus Thunb.), in Bologna and Ferrara provinces (Italy.). Bollettino dell'Istituto di Entomologia `Guido Grandi' della Universita degli Studi di Bologna, No. 50:57-71; 29 ref.

Fullaway DT, 1913. Preliminary list of the hymenopterous parasites of Coccidea and Aphidae in Hawaii. Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2:215-216.

GabryS BJ; Gadomski HJ; Klukowski Z; Pickett JA; Sobota GT; Wadhams LJ; Woodcock CM, 1997. Sex pheromone of cabbage aphid Brevicoryne brassicae: identification and field trapping of male aphids and parasitoids. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 23(7):1881-1890; 31 ref.

Gamal ES; El-Ghar A; El-Ghany A; El-Sayed M, 1992. Long-term effects of insecticides on Diaeretiella rapae (M'Intosh), a parasite of the cabbage aphid. Pesticide Science, 36(2):109-114

Gibson WW; Carillo Sánchez; JL, 1959. Lista de insectos en la coleccion entomologica de la oficina de estudios especiales, Folleto Miscelaneo, Secretarfa de Agricultura y Ganaderia, Mexico, 9:254.

Gilstrap FE; Kring TJ; Brooks GW, 1984. Parasitism of aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) associated with Texas sorghum. Environmental Entomology, 13(6):1613-1617

Gonzalez D; Summers CG; Qualset CO, 1992. Russian wheat aphid: natural enemies, resistant wheat offer potential control. California Agriculture, 46(1):32-34

Gourlay ES, 1930. Some parasitic Hymenoptera of economic importance in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Science and Technology, 11:339-343.

Gravena S, 1979. Population dynamics of the greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani, 1852) (Homoptera, Aphididae) and its natural enemies associated with grain sorghum in Jaboticabal, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Anais da Sociedade Entomologica do Brasil, 8(2):325-334

Greathead DJ; Greathead AH, 1992. Biological control of insect pests by insect parasitoids and predators: the BIOCAT database. Biocontrol News and Information, 13(4):61N-68N.

Gruber F; Dureseau L, 1978. Rearing container for cereal aphids to obtain their parasites (Homoptera, Aphididae). Annales de la Societe Entomologique de France, 14(4):595-597

Gu DJ, 1988. Effects of pirimicarb sprays on the foraging behaviour and abundance of the aphid parasitoid Dipretiella rapae Mintosh. Natural Enemies of Insects, 10(1):1-5

Gu DJ; Waage JK, 1990. The effect of insecticides on the distribution of foraging parasitoids, Dipretiella rapae (Hym: Braconidae) on plants. Entomophaga, 35(1):49-56

Hafez M, 1961. Seasonal fluctuations in population density of the cabbage aphid Brevicoryne brassicae (L.) in The Netherlands, and the role of its parasite Aphidius (Diaeretiella) rapae (Curtis). Tijdschrift over Plantenziekten Nederlands, 67:445-548.

Hagvar EB; Hofsvang T, 1991. Aphid parasitoids (Hymenoptera, Aphidiidae): biology, host selection and use in biological control. Biocontrol News and Information, 12(1):13-42

Halima-Kamel MBB; Hamouda MHB, 1993. Aphids from protected crops and their enemies in Tunisia. Tropicultura, 11(2):50-53.

Hassan SA, 1985. Standard methods to test the side-effects of pesticides on natural enemies of insects and mites developed by the IOBC/WPRS Working Group 'Pesticides and Beneficial Organisms'. Bulletin, Organisation Europeenne et Mediterraneenne pour la Protection des Plantes, 15(2):214-255

Hassan SA, 1989. Testing methodology and concept of the IOBC/WPRS working group. In: Jepson PC (ed.), Pesticides and Non-Target Invertebrates. Andover, UK: Intercept, 1-18.

Hayakawa DL; Grafius E; Stehr FW, 1990. Effect of temperature on longevity, reproduction, and development of the asparagus aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) and the parasitoid, Dipretiella rapae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Environmental Entomology, 19(4):890-897

Herakly FA; El-Ezz AA, 1970. Seasonal abundance and natural enemies of the cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae (L.), in U.A.R. Agricultural Research Review, 48(1):119-122

Hopper KR; Aidara S; Agret S; Cabal J; Coutinot D; Dabire R; Lesieux C; Kirk G; Reichert S; Tronchetti F; Vidal J, 1995. Natural enemy impact on the abundance of Diuraphis noxia (Homoptera: Aphididae) in wheat in southern France. Environmental Entomology, 24(2):402-408

Horn DJ, 1983. Selective mortality of parasitoids and predators of Myzus persicae on collards treated with malathion, carbaryl, or Bacillus thuringiensis.. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 34(2):208-211; 17 ref.

Horn DJ, 1984. Vegetational complexity and parasitism of green peach aphids (Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Homoptera: Aphidae)) on collards. Journal of the New York Entomological Society, 92(1):19-26

Horn DJ, 1989. Secondary parasitism and population dynamics of aphid parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, 62(2):203-210

Hsieh CY; Allen WW, 1986. Effects of insecticides on emergence, survival, longevity, and fecundity of the parasitoid Dipretiella rapae (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) from mummified Myzus persicae (Homoptera: Aphididae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 79(6):1599-1602

Huiza IR de; Ortiz P MS, 1980. Some Aphidiinae (Hymenopt.: Braconidae) that parasitise aphids (Homopt.: Aphididae) in Peru. Revista Peruana de Entomologia, 23(1):129-132

Hunter CD, 1994. Suppliers of beneficial organisms in North America. Sacramento, USA: California Environmental Protection Agency, Department of Pesticide Regulation.

Hussein MK; Kawar NS, 1984. A study of aphids and their natural enemies in South Lebanon. Arab Journal of Plant Protection, 2(2):77-82

Jankowska B, 1995. Occurrence of the cabbage aphid and its natural enemies on different types of cabbage. Materialy ogolnopolskiej konferencji naukowej Nauka Praktyce Ogrodniczej z okazji XXV-lecia Wydzialu Ogrodniczego Akademii Rolniczej w Lublinie., 367-370; 6 ref.

Kadamshoev M, 1983. The cabbage aphid (Brevicoryne brassicae L.) and its natural enemies in the western Pamir Mts. Izvestiya Akademii Nauk Tadzhikskoi SSR, 4:58-60

Kaitazov A, 1963. The parasites and predators of the pests of common and forage cabbage in the Sofia district. Zashchita Rastenii, 11:20-24.

Kakakhel SA; Ahad K; Amjad M; Hassan SA, 1998. The side-effects of pesticides on Diaeretiella rapae, a parasitoid of the turnip aphid (Lipaphis erysimi). Anzeiger fu^umlaut~r Scha^umlaut~dlingskunde, Pflanzenschutz, Umweltschutz, 71(3):61-63; 23 ref.

Kilincer N, 1982. Investigations on the parasite complex of the cabbage aphid (Brevicoryne brassicae (L.)-Homoptera: Aphididae) in Ankara. Bitki Koruma Bulteni, 22(1):1-12

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