Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Diaphorina citri
(Asian citrus psyllid)

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Datasheet

Diaphorina citri (Asian citrus psyllid)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 04 December 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Vector of Plant Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Diaphorina citri
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Asian citrus psyllid
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Diaphorina citri (Asiatic citrus psyllid); adult, museum set specimen. East Timor KAB DILI, ex. sweeping Fortunella japonica. 30 January, 2000. Adults 3-4 mm long, body brown mottled, head light brown. Forewing broadest apical half, mottled with brown band extending around periphery of outer half of wing, the band slightly interrupted near apex. Antennae with black tip and two small light brown spots on middle segments. Living insect covered with whitish, waxy, secretion, making it appear dusty.
TitleAdult, museum set specimen
CaptionDiaphorina citri (Asiatic citrus psyllid); adult, museum set specimen. East Timor KAB DILI, ex. sweeping Fortunella japonica. 30 January, 2000. Adults 3-4 mm long, body brown mottled, head light brown. Forewing broadest apical half, mottled with brown band extending around periphery of outer half of wing, the band slightly interrupted near apex. Antennae with black tip and two small light brown spots on middle segments. Living insect covered with whitish, waxy, secretion, making it appear dusty.
Copyright©K. Walker-2005/PaDIL- CC BY 3.0 AU
Diaphorina citri (Asiatic citrus psyllid); adult, museum set specimen. East Timor KAB DILI, ex. sweeping Fortunella japonica. 30 January, 2000. Adults 3-4 mm long, body brown mottled, head light brown. Forewing broadest apical half, mottled with brown band extending around periphery of outer half of wing, the band slightly interrupted near apex. Antennae with black tip and two small light brown spots on middle segments. Living insect covered with whitish, waxy, secretion, making it appear dusty.
Adult, museum set specimenDiaphorina citri (Asiatic citrus psyllid); adult, museum set specimen. East Timor KAB DILI, ex. sweeping Fortunella japonica. 30 January, 2000. Adults 3-4 mm long, body brown mottled, head light brown. Forewing broadest apical half, mottled with brown band extending around periphery of outer half of wing, the band slightly interrupted near apex. Antennae with black tip and two small light brown spots on middle segments. Living insect covered with whitish, waxy, secretion, making it appear dusty.©K. Walker-2005/PaDIL- CC BY 3.0 AU
Diaphorina citri (Asiatic citrus psyllid); eggs, are orange-coloured and almond-shaped; 0.01-0.15 mm.
TitleEggs
CaptionDiaphorina citri (Asiatic citrus psyllid); eggs, are orange-coloured and almond-shaped; 0.01-0.15 mm.
Copyright©Ching-Chin Chien
Diaphorina citri (Asiatic citrus psyllid); eggs, are orange-coloured and almond-shaped; 0.01-0.15 mm.
EggsDiaphorina citri (Asiatic citrus psyllid); eggs, are orange-coloured and almond-shaped; 0.01-0.15 mm. ©Ching-Chin Chien
Diaphorina citri (Asiatic citrus psyllid); 5th instar nymphs. Nymphs are light-yellow to dark-brown, bearing well-developed wing pads.
TitleNymphs
CaptionDiaphorina citri (Asiatic citrus psyllid); 5th instar nymphs. Nymphs are light-yellow to dark-brown, bearing well-developed wing pads.
Copyright©Ching-Chin Chien
Diaphorina citri (Asiatic citrus psyllid); 5th instar nymphs. Nymphs are light-yellow to dark-brown, bearing well-developed wing pads.
NymphsDiaphorina citri (Asiatic citrus psyllid); 5th instar nymphs. Nymphs are light-yellow to dark-brown, bearing well-developed wing pads. ©Ching-Chin Chien
Diaphorencyrtus diaphorinae (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae); parasitizing Diaphorina citri (Asiatic citrus psyllid).
TitleNatural enemy
CaptionDiaphorencyrtus diaphorinae (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae); parasitizing Diaphorina citri (Asiatic citrus psyllid).
Copyright©Ching-Chin Chien
Diaphorencyrtus diaphorinae (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae); parasitizing Diaphorina citri (Asiatic citrus psyllid).
Natural enemyDiaphorencyrtus diaphorinae (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae); parasitizing Diaphorina citri (Asiatic citrus psyllid).©Ching-Chin Chien

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Diaphorina citri Kuwayama

Preferred Common Name

  • Asian citrus psyllid

Other Scientific Names

  • Euphalerus citri

International Common Names

  • English: citrus psylla (Asian)
  • Spanish: psila de los cítricos
  • French: psylle de l'oranger
  • Chinese: ganju musi
  • Portuguese: psilideo da l'aranjeira

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Suedostasiatischer Citrus-Blattfloh

EPPO code

  • DIAACI (Diaphorina citri)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hemiptera
  •                         Suborder: Sternorrhyncha
  •                             Unknown: Psylloidea
  •                                 Family: Psyllidae
  •                                     Genus: Diaphorina
  •                                         Species: Diaphorina citri

Description

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Eggs

The egg of D. citri is anchored on a slender, stock-like process arising from the plant tissue. It is elongate with a broad basal end and tapering towards its distal and curved end. The average size of the egg measures 0.31 mm long and 0.14 mm wide. Freshly deposited eggs are light yellow, and turn bright orange with two distinct red eye spots at maturity.

Nymph

The average size of first-instar nymphs is 0.30 mm long and 0.17 mm wide. The nymphs have a light pink body and a pair of red compound eyes. Second-instar nymphs are on average 0.45 mm long and 0.25 mm wide. The rudimentary wing pads are visible on the dorsum of the thorax. The average size of third-instar nymphs is 0.74 mm long and 0.43 mm wide. The wing pads are well developed and the segmentation of antenna is evident. The fourth-instar nymphs average 1.01 mm long and 0.70 mm wide. The wing pads are well developed; the mesothoracic wing pads extend towards the one-third of compound eyes and the metathoracic wing pads extend to the third abdominal segment. The fifth-instar nymphs average 1.60 mm long and 1.02 mm wide. The mesothoracic wing pads extend towards the front of the compound eyes; the metathoracic wing pads extend to the fourth abdominal segment. In some mature nymphs, the abdomen turns bluish-green instead of pale orange (Tsai and Liu, 2000).

Adult

The adult is 2.5 mm long, body yellowish-brown, legs greyish-brown. Wings are transparent with white spots or light-brown with a broad, beige, longitudinal band in the centre. Mathur (1975) gives a key to the Indian species of Diaphorina, and a detailed description of the adult. The average size of adult females is 3.3 mm long and 1 mm wide; the mean size of of adult males is 2.7 mm long and 0.8 mm wide (Tsai and Liu, 2000).

Distribution

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The distribution of D. citri is wider than that of the citrus huanglongbing (greening) bacterium Liberibacter asiaticus, the major pathogen which it transmits (EPPO/CABI, 1996a): D. citri occurs in Afghanistan, Macau and Singapore where the bacterium has not been recorded.

See also CABI/EPPO (1998, No. 64).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AfghanistanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
BangladeshPresentCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
BhutanPresentLama & Amtya, 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
CambodiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
ChinaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-FujianPresentCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-GuangdongPresentCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-GuangxiRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-GuizhouPresentKe et al., 1988; Tsai et al., 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-HainanPresentKe et al., 1988; Tsai et al., 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-HenanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-Hong KongWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-HunanPresentKe et al., 1988; Tsai et al., 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-JiangxiPresentKe et al., 1988; Tsai et al., 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-MacauPresentCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-SichuanPresentKe et al., 1988; Tsai et al., 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-YunnanPresentKe et al., 1988; Tsai et al., 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-ZhejiangPresentCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
East TimorPresentCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
IndiaWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-Andhra PradeshPresentCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-Arunachal PradeshPresentCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-AssamPresentCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-BiharPresentCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-DelhiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-GujaratPresentCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-HaryanaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-Himachal PradeshPresentCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-Indian PunjabPresentCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-Jammu and KashmirPresentCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-KarnatakaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-KeralaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-LakshadweepPresentCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-Madhya PradeshPresentCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-MaharashtraPresentCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-ManipurPresentCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-MeghalayaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-RajasthanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-SikkimPresentCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-Tamil NaduPresentCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-TripuraPresentCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-Uttar PradeshPresentCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-West BengalPresentCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
IndonesiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-JavaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-KalimantanAbsent, unreliable recordEPPO, 2014
-MoluccasPresentCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-Nusa TenggaraPresentCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-SulawesiAbsent, unreliable recordEPPO, 2014
-SumatraPresentCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
IranPresentCABI/EPPO, 2011; Salehi et al., 2012; EPPO, 2014
IsraelAbsent, reported but not confirmedCABI/EPPO, 2011
JapanRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-KyushuPresent, few occurrencesCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-Ryukyu ArchipelagoPresentCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
LaosPresentCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
MalaysiaPresent, few occurrencesCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-SabahPresentCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
MaldivesPresentCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
MyanmarPresentWaterhouse, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
NepalPresentLama & Amtya, 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
OmanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
PakistanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
PhilippinesPresentWaterhouse, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
Saudi ArabiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
SingaporeRestricted distributionWaterhouse, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
Sri LankaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
TaiwanRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
ThailandPresentWaterhouse, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
United Arab EmiratesPresentCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
VietnamRestricted distributionWaterhouse, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
YemenPresentCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014

Africa

KenyaPresentRwomushana et al., 2017
MauritiusPresentCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
RéunionPresentCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
TanzaniaPresentShimwela et al., 2016

North America

MexicoPresent, few occurrencesCABI/EPPO, 2011; Rodríguez-Palomera et al., 2012; EPPO, 2014
USARestricted distribution1998CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-AlabamaPresentNAPPO, 2008; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-ArizonaPresentNAPPO, 2009; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-CaliforniaPresent, few occurrencesCampbell, 2008; NAPPO, 2008; CABI/EPPO, 2011; NAPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-FloridaRestricted distribution1998Hoy, 1998; Tsai and Liu, 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-GeorgiaPresentNAPPO, 2008; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-HawaiiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-LouisianaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-MississippiPresentNAPPO, 2008; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-South CarolinaPresentNAPPO, 2008; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-TexasPresentCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014

Central America and Caribbean

Antigua and BarbudaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
BahamasPresentCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
BarbadosPresentCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2012; EPPO, 2014
BelizePresentCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
Cayman IslandsPresentCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
Costa RicaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
CubaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
DominicaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
Dominican RepublicPresentCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
GuadeloupeRestricted distributionEtienne et al., 1998; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
HaitiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
HondurasAbsent, unreliable recordCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
JamaicaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
Puerto RicoPresentCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
United States Virgin IslandsPresentEPPO, 2014

South America

ArgentinaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
BrazilWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-AmazonasPresentCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-BahiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-CearaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-ParaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-PernambucoPresentCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-Rio de JaneiroPresentCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-Santa CatarinaPresentChiaradia et al., 2006; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-Sao PauloPresentCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
ColombiaWidespread
ParaguayRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
UruguayPresent, few occurrencesCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
VenezuelaRestricted distributionGermeli et al., 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014

Europe

FranceAbsent, intercepted onlyCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
NetherlandsAbsent, confirmed by surveyNPPO of the Netherlands, 2013; EPPO, 2014

Oceania

American SamoaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
AustraliaAbsent, formerly presentEPPO, 2014
-Australian Northern TerritoryAbsent, formerly presentEPPO, 2014
GuamPresentCampbell, 2008; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
Papua New GuineaPresentCampbell, 2008; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014

Risk of Introduction

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Like the other vector of citrus greening (Trioza erytreae; EPPO/CABI, 1996b), D. citri is listed as an A1 quarantine pest by EPPO (OEPP/EPPO, 1988) and is also a quarantine pest for CPPC and OIRSA. Besides its role in citrus huanglongbing (greening), this psyllid has significant damage potential in itself. Though biological control may be possible, there is no guarantee that it could keep populations to a sufficiently low level to prevent transmission of huanglongbing.

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial

Hosts/Species Affected

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D. citri is confined to the Rutaceae, occurring on wild hosts as well as on Citrus, especially lemons (C. limon), rough lemon (C. jambhuri), sour orange (C. aurantium), grapefruit (C. paradisi) and limes (C. aurantiifolia). Murraya paniculata, a rutaceous plant often used for hedges, is a preferred host; M. koenigii is a host in India and Sri Lanka.

Sétamou et al. (2016) observed that some native North American rutaceous plants can serve as host plants for D. citri, thus affecting the population dynamics of the pest and the epidemiology of Huanglongbing,

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContext
CitrusRutaceaeMain
Citrus aurantiifolia (lime)RutaceaeMain
Citrus latifolia (tahiti lime)RutaceaeOther
Citrus limon (lemon)RutaceaeMain
Murraya koenigii (curry leaf tree)RutaceaeMain

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage

Symptoms

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D. citri stunts and twists young shoots, so that the growing tips present a rosetted appearance. Leaves are badly curled, and may be covered with honeydew and sooty mould; leaves drop prematurely.

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / abnormal shape
Growing point / dieback
Growing point / distortion
Leaves / abnormal forms
Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
Leaves / honeydew or sooty mould
Leaves / honeydew or sooty mould

Biology and Ecology

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D. citri has a short life cycle and high fecundity (Catling, 1970). It is more prevalent in hot coastal areas. Pairing starts soon after emergence, the insects being most active during March-April in India (Pande, 1971) and May-June in the Philippines (Catling, 1970) and June-July in Brazil (Yamamoto et al., 2001). The host plants (C. jambhiri, C. aurantium, C. paradisi and M. paniculata) on which they were reared had no significant effect on the immature survival and developmental periods or on adult longevity. However, the mean number of eggs laid per female on grapefruit (858 eggs) was significantly more than on other hosts (Tsai and Liu, 2000). Gravid females of D. citri oviposit within 2-cm lengths of the terminal tissue in leaf folds, on petioles, axillary buds, upper and lower surfaces of young leaves and tender stems. The average incubation period of eggs on these four host plants at 25°C is essentially the same, ranging from 4.1 to 4.3 days. All nymphs reared on the four host plants undergo four moults. First- and second-instar nymphs mostly aggregate and feed inside the folded leaves, on the terminal stem and between the axillary bud and the stem of tender shoots. Young nymphs are quite docile and move only when disturbed or over-crowded. The nymphs continuously secrete copious amounts of honeydew from the anus and a thread-like waxy substance from the circumanal glands resulting in the growth of black sooty mould on the lower leaves. The average combined developmental periods for the five nymphal stages are 12.8, 12.6, 13.5 and 13.1 days on orange jessamine, grapefruit, rough lemon and sour orange, respectively.

Adults of D. citri are often found resting on the terminal portion of plant, especially on the lower side of the leaves with their heads either pointing upward or downward to the leaf surface at an angle of 30°. When disturbed they readily take flight for a short distance. The females only oviposit on the tender shoots. In the absence of suitable host tissue, oviposition ceases temporarily. The longest female longevity of D. citri reared on grapefruit, orange jessamine, sour orange and rough lemon at 25°C is 54, 54, 60 and 66 days, respectively (Tsai and Liu, 2000).

In an insectary, at 10, 15, 20, 25, 28 and 33°C, the psyllid populations reared at 10 and 33°C failed to develop. Between 15 and 30°C, the mean developmental period from egg to adult varied from 49.3 days at 15°C to 14.1 days at 28°C. The low-temperature developmental thresholds for the first to fifth instars were estimated at 11.7, 10.7, 10.1, 10.5 and 10.9°C, respectively. The survival of the third to fifth nymphal instars at 15-28°C was essentially the same. The mean longevity of females increased with decreasing temperature within the range 15-30°C. The maximal longevity of individual females was recorded as 117, 60, 56, 52 and 51 days at 15, 20, 25, 28 and 30°C, respectively. The average number of eggs produced per female significantly increased with increasing temperature and reached a maximum of 748.3 eggs at 28°C. The optimum range of temperatures for population growth of D. citri is 25-28°C (Liu and Tsai, 2000). During dry periods, adults are numerous, but nymphs are usually absent. The complete life cycle thus takes 14-48 days, with up to 10 overlapping generations per year. The adults overwinter and can live for up to 6 months. Population fluctuations are closely correlated with the flushing rhythm of citrus trees, as eggs are laid exclusively on young flush points. In southern Florida, USA, D. citri populations occur throughout the seasons on orange jassamine but there are population peaks in October-November, December, May and August, which are positively related to the weekly minimum temperature and rainfall (Tsai et al., 2002).

Yang (1989) carried out an investigation on the effects of light, temperature and humidity on development, production and survival of D. citri. Xu et al. (1994) reported on the longevity of nymphs and adults in Fujian province, China, and recorded that nymphs were killed by temperatures of -1°C and adults by -10°C.

D. citri transmits the Asian form of citrus huanglongbing (greening) disease, Liberibacter asiaticus, under natural conditions in Asia (including Saudi Arabia) (Capoor et al., 1967). It has been shown experimentally that D. citri is also able to transmit the African form, Liberibacter africanus (Lallemand et al., 1986). In Mauritius and Réunion, where both forms occur, D. citri probably transmits both. However, L. asiaticus is not transmitted transovarially by D. citri (Chen, 1998).

D. citri is normally spread only locally by natural dispersal. Citrus material (budwood, grafted trees, rootstock seedlings) from infected areas can carry eggs and/or nymphs over longer distances. Such fifth- or sixth-instar nymphs, as well as the adults born from these nymphs, are capable of transmitting the huanglongbing agent to citrus. This is probably the way in which Liberibacter asiaticum was introduced into Saudi Arabia. The rutaceous plant Murraya paniculata, frequently used as an ornamental bush or hedge, is one of the best hosts of D. citri. Although this plant is not a host for L. asiaticus (Hung et al., 2000), it can carry eggs or nymphs of the vector and its introduction to disease- and vector-free regions could therefore be dangerous. Entry on citrus fruits is extremely unlikely.

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Aphidencyrtus diaphorinae Parasite
Beauveria bassiana Pathogen Rodríguez-Palomera et al., 2012
Chilocorus cacti Predator Rodríguez-Palomera et al., 2012
Chilocorus nigrita Predator Adults/Nymphs
Cycloneda sanguinea Predator Rodríguez-Palomera et al., 2012
Diaphorencyrtus aligarhensis Parasite Nymphs Reunion Citrus
Diaphorencyrtus diaphorinae Parasite
Encarsia sophia Parasite
Entomophthora Pathogen Guizar-Guzman and Sanchez-Peña, 2013
Hirsutella citriformis Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Lecanicillium lecanii Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Marpissa tigrina Predator Adults/Nymphs
Olla v-nigrum Predator Rodríguez-Palomera et al., 2012
Paecilomyces fumosoroseus Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Paecilomyces variotii Pathogen Adults/Nymphs China; Zhejiang Citrus
Tamarixia radiata Parasite Nymphs Reunion; Taiwan Citrus

Notes on Natural Enemies

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In its native range in southern Asia, D. citri is suppressed by a complex of parasitoids including Tamarixia radiata and Diaphorencyrtus species. T. radiata was introduced into Réunion Island in 1978 and later into Mauritius. On both islands it gave satisfactory control of the pest and suppressed transmission of huanglongbing (greening) disease. Predatory Coccinellidae and Anthocoridae are also recorded from Asia, but most of them have little impact, although Chilocorus nigritus is beneficial in supplementing the action of parasitoids. Aubert (1987) reviewed the natural enemies and concluded that T. radiata is able to control D. citri and prevent transmission of huanglongbing disease when it is free of hyperparasites as in Réunion, but when hyperparasitism is high, as in Taiwan, insecticide applications are necessary to achieve control.

Impact

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The main economic importance of D. citri is as the vector of the very serious citrus huanglongbing (greening) disease caused by the bacterium Liberibacter asiaticus (EPPO/CABI, 1996a). In addition, D. citri typically causes defoliation and dieback. Serious damage to growing points can occur, which can lead to dwarfing as well as lack of juice and taste in fruit. Heavy D. citri populations can cause blossom and fruitlet drop. The honeydew excreted by D. citri promotes the growth of sooty mould which not only affects the photosynthetic activity of the tree but also attracts ants which fend off natural enemies of D. citri, resulting in additional pest damage.

Prevention and Control

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Chemical Control

Dimethoate, pyridaben, chlorpyrifos, imidacloprid and profenofos are used against D. citri in orchards with low infection rates. Dahiya et al. (1994) report on trials on 12 insecticides (organophosphorus compounds and pyrethroids) against D. citri. Chemical control is used for control of the psyllid in citrus orchards in Réunion and mainland China (Aubert and Quilici, 1984; Qian, 1989; Ke, 1991; Xu et al., 1991). Neem oil and petroleum spray oil are also used against D. citri in India and China (Chakravarthi et al., 1998a; Rae et al., 1997).

Biological Control

Tamarixia radiata was imported into Réunion Island from India in 1978 for control of D. citri. It became established and achieved substantial control in the absence of hyperparasitoids. A second imported parasitoid, Diaphorencyrtus aligarhensis, failed to become established (Aubert et al., 1980). T. radiata was imported into Taiwan from Réunion in 1983, released and established. However, it was not so successful - although it is able considerably to reduce psyllid numbers, it did not interrupt transmission of greening disease. It was found that hyperparasitoids, disturbance and inability to attack psyllids settling in buds reduced its impact in citrus orchards. It was concluded that T. radiata did have a beneficial value in preventing migration of psyllids from hedges of jasmine orange (Murraya paniculata) into citrus orchards, but that in these orchards, where insecticides are applied to control other pests, chemical control is the only effective remedy (Chien and Chu, 1997). Other members of Syrphidae and Coccinellidae have been reported to feed on D. citri. In Saudi Arabia, T. radiata is present but does not keep D. citri populations down to a low level.

Phytosanitary Control

EPPO recommends (OEPP/EPPO, 1990) that importation of plants for planting and cut branches of citrus from countries where Liberibacter asiaticus or L. africanus (the agents of citrus huanglongbing (greening) disease), or either of its vectors occur, should be prohibited. It is possible to fumigate citrus budwood material against D. citri (FAO, l983).

Resistant Cultivars

There is limited information available on host-plant resistance to D. citri; 13 citrus cultivars are reported to be highly resistant (Chakravarthi et al., 1998b).

References

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Global register of Introduced and Invasive species (GRIIS)http://griis.org/Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

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