Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Dendrocalamus strictus
(male bamboo)

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Datasheet

Dendrocalamus strictus (male bamboo)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 27 September 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Dendrocalamus strictus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • male bamboo
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Monocotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • D. strictus is a giant bamboo species that has been extensively cultivated across tropical and temperate regions of the world (

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Clump of small form in Terai, Nepal.
TitleClump
CaptionClump of small form in Terai, Nepal.
CopyrightChris Stapleton
Clump of small form in Terai, Nepal.
ClumpClump of small form in Terai, Nepal.Chris Stapleton
Nilambur, Kerala, India.
TitlePlantation
CaptionNilambur, Kerala, India.
CopyrightK.C. Chacko/KFRI
Nilambur, Kerala, India.
PlantationNilambur, Kerala, India.K.C. Chacko/KFRI
TitleCulms
Caption
CopyrightK.C. Chacko/KFRI
CulmsK.C. Chacko/KFRI
Culm bases and heavy branching.
TitleCulms
CaptionCulm bases and heavy branching.
CopyrightChris Stapleton
Culm bases and heavy branching.
CulmsCulm bases and heavy branching. Chris Stapleton
TitleCulm
Caption
CopyrightK.C. Chacko/KFRI
CulmK.C. Chacko/KFRI
TitleSheath
Caption
CopyrightK.C. Chacko/KFRI
SheathK.C. Chacko/KFRI
TitleYoung branch
Caption
CopyrightK.C. Chacko/KFRI
Young branchK.C. Chacko/KFRI
TitleLeaves
Caption
CopyrightK.C. Chacko/KFRI
LeavesK.C. Chacko/KFRI
TitleLeaves
Caption
CopyrightK.C. Chacko/KFRI
LeavesK.C. Chacko/KFRI
1. culm leaf (abaxial side)
2. leafy branch
3. lower part of leaf
4. flowering branch
TitleLine artwork
Caption1. culm leaf (abaxial side) 2. leafy branch 3. lower part of leaf 4. flowering branch
CopyrightPROSEA Foundation
1. culm leaf (abaxial side)
2. leafy branch
3. lower part of leaf
4. flowering branch
Line artwork1. culm leaf (abaxial side) 2. leafy branch 3. lower part of leaf 4. flowering branchPROSEA Foundation

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Dendrocalamus strictus (Roxb.) Nees

Preferred Common Name

  • male bamboo

Other Scientific Names

  • Bambos stricta Roxb.
  • Bambusa pubescens Lodd. ex Lindl.
  • Bambusa stricta var. argentea Rivière
  • Dendrocalamus strictus var. prainianus Gamble
  • Nastus strictus (Roxb.) Sm.

International Common Names

  • English: Calcutta bamboo; solid bamboo
  • Spanish: bambú gigante; bambua
  • Chinese: mu zhu

Local Common Names

  • Brazil: bambu-grande
  • Cuba: bambú
  • India: bans; bansa; karail; khokwa; lathi bans; vansha
  • Indonesia: bambu batu
  • Laos: s'a:ng
  • Malaysia: buloh batu
  • Myanmar: myinwa
  • Nepal: lathi bans
  • Thailand: phai-sang
  • Vietnam: t[aaf]m v[oo]ng

EPPO code

  • DDCST (Dendrocalamus strictus)

Summary of Invasiveness

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D. strictus is a giant bamboo species that has been extensively cultivated across tropical and temperate regions of the world (PROTA, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015). It is a multipurpose bamboo used as raw material in paper mills, for light construction, furniture, musical instruments, agricultural implements, rafts, baskets, and household utensils. Young shoots are edible and consumed by humans. Leaves are used as forage and in traditional Asian medicine (Guadua-Bamboo, 2015). It has escaped from cultivation and once established it grows forming dense clumps that are almost impenetrable because of the interlacing thorny branches. Dense clumps can also displace native vegetation and inhibit the movement of native animals. Despite this species being introduced worldwide, at present it has only been listed as invasive in Cuba (Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012).  

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  •                     Order: Cyperales
  •                         Family: Poaceae
  •                             Genus: Dendrocalamus
  •                                 Species: Dendrocalamus strictus

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The subfamily Bambusoideae of the family Poaceae includes about 116 genera and 1441 species widely distributed across tropical and temperate habitats (Stevens, 2012). The genus Dendrocalamus includes 40 species of large-sized arborescent bamboos, mostly occurring in subtropical and tropical Asia (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015). Described by Roxburgh (1798) as Bambusa stricta and separated into a new genus as Dendrocalamus strictus by Nees (1753), D. strictus has no nomenclatural complications. There is very considerable variation within the species in stature, culm wall thickness, and degree of branching. Although variety names have been used they do not relate to these features, instead describing floral pubescence and culm striping, and they are not widely used. Characteristics of the type of the species are not known.

Description

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Deciduous, densely tufted bamboo; culms 7–17 m, (3–)6–10 cm in diameter; internodes 30–45 cm, white powdery; wall thick, culm often solid. Branches several, main mid-culm ones 3. Culm sheaths deciduous, orange-brown, approximately 3/4 as long as internodes, thickly papery, margins ciliate, apex rounded; auricles absent; ligule 1–3 mm, serrulate; blade erect, narrowly triangular. Leaf sheaths initially sparsely hairy, becoming glabrous; ligule short, serrulate; blade usually narrowly lanceolate, 5–30 × 1–3 cm. Pseudospikelet clusters 2.5–5 cm in diameter. Spikelets 8–15 mm, usually densely pubescent; fertile florets 2–4. Glumes 2 or more, 6–8 mm, long mucronate; lemma 9–10 mm, apex long mucronate; palea 8–9 mm. Anthers yellow, approximately 5 mm, connective apically produced. Caryopsis brown, shining, ovoid to sub-globose, about 8 mm long, hairy above, beaked with the persistent base of the style; pericarp coriaceous (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015; Flora of Pakistan, 2015). 

Plant Type

Top of page Grass / sedge
Perennial
Seed propagated
Vegetatively propagated
Woody

Distribution

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D. strictus is native to Asia including the Indian Subcontinent and Indo-China (Clayton et al., 2015). It is common throughout the plains and lower hills of drier parts of India. It is also common in Myanmar and Thailand. It is now found in much of tropical Asia, in the Caribbean, and in the Atlantic rain forest of Brazil. 

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasivePlantedReferenceNotes

Asia

BangladeshPresentNativeClayton et al., 2015
ChinaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-GuangdongPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2015Cultivated
IndiaPresentNativeOviedo Prieto et al., 2012; Clayton et al., 2015
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresentNativeClayton et al., 2015
-Andhra PradeshPresentNativeIndia Biodiversity Portal, 2016
-AssamPresentNativeClayton et al., 2015
-BiharPresentNativeIndia Biodiversity Portal, 2016
-ChhattisgarhPresentNativeIndia Biodiversity Portal, 2016
-GujaratPresent Natural
-HaryanaPresent Natural
-Indian PunjabPresent Natural
-JharkhandPresentNativeIndia Biodiversity Portal, 2016
-KarnatakaPresentNativeIndia Biodiversity Portal, 2016
-KeralaPresentNativeIndia Biodiversity Portal, 2016
-Madhya PradeshPresentNativeIndia Biodiversity Portal, 2016
-MaharashtraPresentNativeIndia Biodiversity Portal, 2016
-ManipurPresent Natural
-OdishaPresentNativeIndia Biodiversity Portal, 2016
-Tamil NaduPresentNativeIndia Biodiversity Portal, 2016
-TripuraPresentNativeIndia Biodiversity Portal, 2016
-Uttar PradeshPresentNativeIndia Biodiversity Portal, 2016
-West BengalPresentNativeIndia Biodiversity Portal, 2016
IndonesiaPresent Planted
LaosPresentNativeClayton et al., 2015
MalaysiaPresentIntroducedClayton et al., 2015
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentIntroducedClayton et al., 2015
MyanmarPresentNativeClayton et al., 2015
NepalPresentNativeClayton et al., 2015
PakistanPresentNativeClayton et al., 2015
PhilippinesPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2015
Sri LankaPresentIntroducedClayton et al., 2015
TaiwanPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2015Cultivated
ThailandPresentNativeClayton et al., 2015
VietnamPresentNativeClayton et al., 2015

Africa

MadagascarPresentIntroducedClayton et al., 2015
SeychellesPresentIntroducedClayton et al., 2015
TogoPresentIntroducedClayton et al., 2015

Central America and Caribbean

BahamasPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
BarbadosPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
BelizePresentIntroducedClayton et al., 2015
CubaPresentIntroduced Invasive Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012
HondurasPresentIntroducedClayton et al., 2015
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
Trinidad and TobagoPresentIntroducedClayton et al., 2015

South America

BrazilPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Sao PauloPresentIntroducedFilgueiras, 2015

Oceania

New CaledoniaPresentIntroducedClayton et al., 2015

History of Introduction and Spread

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Many bamboo species including Dendrocalamus spp. have been actively introduced throughout tropical, subtropical, and temperate regions of the world since the nineteenth century principally to create plantations in order to commercialize the culms (PROTA, 2015).  

Risk of Introduction

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The risk of introduction of D. strictus is moderate to high. This giant bamboo species has been extensively introduced in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world. It shows a remarkable ability to spread vegetatively by rhizomes and culm fragments. Dense clumps can be easily formed from single culms. Therefore, its potential to expand and colonize new areas remains high.

Habitat

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In Asia, D. strictus grows in semi-arid and dry deciduous forests, and as an understorey species in mixed forests (Flora of Pakistan, 2015; Guadua-Bamboo, 2015). 

Habitat List

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CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial-managed
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Natural
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial-natural/semi-natural
Riverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Riverbanks Present, no further details Natural
Riverbanks Present, no further details Productive/non-natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number reported for D. strictus is 2n = 76 (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015).

Physiology and Phenology

D. strictus is a dichogamous and protogynous bamboo species. The gynoecium matures 3-4 days before the androecium, effectively preventing self-pollination. It is anemophilous and apomixis does not occur in this species (Nadgauda et al., 1993). In D. strictus, the reproductive activity is gregarious and flowering cycle varies from 25 to 45 years. In India, the flowers appear from November to February and fruits are seen from February to April (Guadua-Bamboo, 2015). Flowering continues until resources are exhausted and the heavy seed production has led to the complete death of the clump.

Environmental Requirements

In India (within its native distribution range), D. strictus grows in semi dry and dry deciduous forests, as an understorey species in mixed forests. It grows on hill slopes, ravines and alluvial plains from sea level up to 1200 m (Guadua-Bamboo, 2015). This species prefers to grow in areas with mean annual temperatures between 20°C - 30°C and mean annual rainfall between 1000 - 3000 mm. However, it can tolerate extreme temperatures (as low as -5°C and as high as 45°C). It is a drought resistant species and can thrive in areas with 750 mm rainfall per year. It does not grow well on waterlogged areas or heavy soils such as pure clay or a mixture of clay and lime. It does best on well-drained sandy loam soils with pH raging between 5.5 - 7.5 (Guadua-Bamboo, 2015).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
32 10 0 1300

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) -5 0
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 20 40
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 25 50
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 10 30

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration09number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall10003000mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

Top of page Summer
Uniform

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Udonga montana Herbivore Seeds not specific

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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D. strictus spreads by seeds and vegetatively by rhizome and cuttings. It has a remarkably easy vegetative propagation which is its main dispersal type (Guadua-Bamboo, 2015; PROTA, 2015).  

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Botanical gardens and zoosOrnamental Yes Yes Guadua-Bamboo, 2015
Habitat restoration and improvementRevegetation Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2015
People foragingYoung shoots are edible and used as food Yes Guadua-Bamboo, 2015

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
WindSeeds are wind-dispersed Yes Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive and negative
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Positive and negative

Environmental Impact

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D. strictus has escaped from cultivation and has naturalized in both natural and disturbed areas where it grows forming dense clumps that are almost impenetrable because of the interlacing thorny branches. Dense clumps can also displace native vegetation and inhibit the movement of native animals. Although this species has been introduced in many locations, at present it has been listed as invasive only in Cuba (Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012).  

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Monoculture formation
  • Reduced native biodiversity
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - shading
  • Competition - smothering
  • Rapid growth
  • Rooting
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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D. strictus is extensively cultivated to be used as raw material in paper mills, and as a construction material in light construction and for furniture, musical instruments, mats, agricultural implements, rafts, baskets, and household utensils. The young shoots of this species are edible and consumed by humans. It leaves are used as forage and in traditional Asian medicine (Guadua-Bamboo, 2015; PROTA, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015).  

Uses List

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Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Forage

General

  • Ornamental

Materials

  • Baskets
  • Fibre
  • Wood/timber

Ornamental

  • Propagation material

Wood Products

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Containers

  • Baskets

Pulp

  • Long-fibre pulp
  • Short-fibre pulp

Roundwood

  • Building poles
  • Stakes

Sawn or hewn building timbers

  • Carpentry/joinery (exterior/interior)
  • Engineering structures
  • Fences
  • Flooring
  • For light construction
  • Hydraulic works

Textiles

Wood extractives (including oil)

Woodware

  • Industrial and domestic woodware
  • Musical instruments
  • Tool handles

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P; Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Adarsh Kumar; Gupta BB; Negi DS; Kumar A, 1991. Vegetative propagation of Dendrocalamus strictus through macro-proliferation - II. Indian Forester, 117(8):621-624; 12 ref.

Anmol Kumar; Kadam RS, 1993. Control of bamboo in teak plantations and some observations on bamboo flowering. BIC-India Bulletin, 3(1):24-26; 3 ref.

Aparna Maitra; Gautam SP, 1994. Ecological studies of vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (VAMF) associated with Dendrocalamus strictus in the central Madhya Pradesh. Journal of Phytological Research, 7(1): 29-31; 12 ref.

Balasubrahmanyam VR; Tewari SK, 1994. Male bamboo Dendrocalamus strictus (Roxb.) Nees: the poor man's timber. Applied Botany Abstracts, 14(4):240-257; 6 pp. of ref.

Banik RL, 1993. Periodicity of culm emergence in different bamboo species of Bangladesh. Annals of Forestry, 1(1):13-17; 9 ref.

Chaturvedi HC; Sharma M; Sharma AK, 1993. In vitro regeneration of Dendrocalamus strictus Nees through nodal segments taken from field-grown culms. Plant Science (Limerick), 91(1):97-101; 20 ref.

Clayton WD; Govaerts R; Harman KT; Williamson H; Vorontsova M, 2015. World Checklist of Poaceae. Richmond, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/

Das P; Rout GR, 1991. Mass multiplication and flowering of bamboo in vitro. Orissa Journal of Horticulture, 19(1-2):118-121; 4 ref.

Dransfield S; Widjaja EA, 1995. Plant resources of South-East Asia, 7. Bamboos. Leiden, Netherlands: Backhuys Publishers, 189 pp.; 7 pp. of ref.

Filgueiras TS, 2015. Dendrocalamus in Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil (Dendrocalamus in the list of species of the flora of Brazil). Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro.

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Flora of Pakistan, 2015. Flora of Pakistan/Pakistan Plant Database (PPD). Tropicos website. USA: St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Pakistan

Gnanaharan R, 1993. Shrinkage behaviour of bamboos grown in Kerala, India. BIC India Bulletin, 3(2):1-6; 13 ref.

Gnanaharan R, 1994. Physical and strength properties of Dendrocalamus strictus grown in Kerala, India. In: Thammincha S, Anantachote A, Rao YS, Muraille B, eds, Bamboo in Asia and the Pacific. Proceedings of the fourth international bamboo workshop held in Chiang Mai, Thailand, 27-30 November 1991. Food and Agriculture Organisation, Forestry Research Support Programme for Asia and the Pacific, Thailand and International Development Research Centre, Canada: 188-192.

Guadua-Bamboo, 2015. Dendrocalamus strictus. Online resources. http://www.guaduabamboo.com/species/dendrocalamus-strictus#ixzz3txSGReB7

Huang LC; Huang BL, 1993. Bamboo tissue culture. Institute of Botany, Academia Sinica Monograph Series, No. 13:203-212

India Biodiversity Portal, 2016. Online Portal of India Biodiversity. http://indiabiodiversity.org/species/list

Jansen PCM; Duriyaprapan S, 1995. Dendrocalamus strictus (Roxb.) Nees. In Dransfield S, Widjaja EA, eds, Plant Resources of South-East Asia. No. 7: Bamboos. Leiden, Netherlands; Backhayes Publishers: 93-97.

Kalpana Mishra; Mishra K, 1995. Enhancement of seedling growth by the application of potassium on Tectona grandis Linn. and Dendrocalamus strictus Nees. Indian Journal of Forestry, publ. 1996, 18(4):325-327; 7 ref.

Kigomo BN, 1991. Introduction and early performance of some Asian bamboo species in Kenya. In: Bamboo in Asia and the Pacific. FAO, Bangkok, FORSPA Publication No. 6: 79-84.

Lakshmana AC, 1994. Thinning: a tool for higher productivity in Dendrocalamus strictus. In: Thammincha S, Anantachote A, Rao YS, Muraille B, eds, Bamboo in Asia and the Pacific. Proceedings of the fourth international bamboo workshop held in Chiang Mai, Thailand, 27-30 November 1991. Food and Agriculture Organisation, Forestry Research Support Programme for Asia and the Pacific, Thailand and International Development Research Centre, Canada: 104-105.

McClure FA, 1966. The Bamboos: a fresh perspective. 1966. pp. xv + 347. Cambridge, Mass. USA: Harvard University Press.

Mohanan C, 1994. Little leaf disease of bamboo in Kerala, India. BIC-India Bulletin, 4(1/2):30-37; 13 ref.

Mohd Tahir; Soni KK; Jamaluddin, 1992. Root and rhizome rot of Dendrocalamus strictus caused by Amylosporus campbellii (Berk). Myforest, 28(1):88-90; [1 pl. (unpaginated)]; 8 ref.

Mohit Gera; Ginwal HS; Srivastava RL, 1996. Performance of seventeen different multipurpose tree species under semi arid region of central India. Indian Forester, 122(3):250-257; 18 ref.

Mukunthakumar S; Mathur J, 1992. Artifical seed production in the male bamboo Dendrocalamus strictus L. Plant Science (Limerick), 87(1):109-113; 15 ref.

Nadgauda RS; John CK; Mascarenhas AF, 1993. Floral biology and breeding behavior in the bamboo Dendrocalamus strictus Nees. Tree Physiology, 13(4):401-408; 15 ref.

Nees von Esenbeck CGD, 1753. Bambuseae Brasiliensis. Linnaea, 9(1):461-494.

Nonhare BP; Chaubey OP, 1996. Effect of double ditch method of planting on growth characteristics of some forest tree species. Indian Forester, 122(5):366-370; 2 ref.

Oviedo Prieto R; Herrera Oliver P; Caluff MG, et al. , 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 6(Special Issue 1):22-96.

Pahup Singh; Sneh Sharma, 1995. Triterpenoid constituents from the seeds of Dendrocalamus strictus and Holoptelea integrifolia. Current Research on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 17(2):171-172; 13 ref.

PROTA, 2015. PROTA4U web database. Grubben GJH, Denton OA, eds. Wageningen, Netherlands: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. http://www.prota4u.info

Rai P; Roy RD; Rao GR, 1995. Comparative performance of multipurpose tree species introduced in rangelands under rainfed condition at Jhansi. Holistic approach to sustainable development., 147-156; 4 ref.

Richa; Sharma ML, 1994. Enhancing the germination of stored bamboo seeds using plant growth regulators. Seed Science and Technology, 22(2):313-317; 10 ref.

Rout GR; Das P, 1994. Somatic embryogenesis and in vitro flowering of 3 species of bamboo. Plant Cell Reports, 13(12):683-686; 14 ref.

Roxburgh W, 1798. Plants of the Coast of Coromandel 1: 58.

Sandhu AS; Manu Jatana, 1992. Gregarious flowering of Dendrocalamus strictus Nees. Indian Forester, 118(3):241.

Shirgurkar MV; Thengane SR; Poonawala IS; Jana MM; Nadgauda RS; Mascarenhas AF, 1996. A simple in vitro method of propagation and rhizome formation in Dendrocalamus strictus Nees. Current Science, 70(10): 940-943; 17 ref.

Shukla KS; Mishra SC, 1991. A note on the termite resistance of destructured reconstituted wood from bamboo for structural purposes. Van Vigyan, 29(4):239-242; 4 ref.

Singh SP, 1996. Utilization of bamboo for structural wood and other panel products. Journal of the Indian Academy of Wood Science, 26-27(1-2): 61-64; 12 ref.

Stapleton CMA, 1985. Noctuid shoot borers in Dendrocalamus and Bambusa species. Nepal Forestry Technical Information Bulletin (NEFTIB), Forest Research and Information Centre, Forest Survey and Research Office, Department of Forests, Nepal, No. 11:26-31; 6 ref.

Stevens PF, 2012. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

Subrata Maity; Anjan Ghosh, 1997. Efficient plant regeneration from seeds and nodal segments of Dendrocalamus strictus using in vitro technique. Indian Forester, 123(4): 313-318; 8 ref.

Suleman KM, 1994. Bamboo as a source of long fiber pulp in Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Forestry, 44(3):130-135; 12 ref.

Sutiyono, 1992. A nursery experiment in the propagation of Gigantochloa manggong (bambu manggong), Gigantochloa sp. (bambu peting) and Dendrocalamus strictus (bambu batu) by rhizome cuttings. [Percobaan pembibitan bambu manggong (Gigantochloa manggong), bambu peting (Gigantochloa sp.) dan bambu batu (Dendrocalamus strictus) dengan stek-rhizom.] Buletin Penelitian Hutan, No. 546, 47-53; With English tables; 4 ref.

Tewari SK; Kumar N; Chaurasia RS; Katiyar RS; Balasubrahmanyam VR; Misra PN, 1994. Locational studies on bamboo: comparative performance of Dendrocalamus strictus (Roxb.) Nees at two different sites. BIC India Bulletin, publ. 1996?, 4(1-2):14-19; 8 ref.

Thapa R; Ganguly S, 1993. Phytoparasitic nematodes associated with some forest plants around Dehradun, Uttar Pradesh, India. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences, 1(2):129-131; 4 ref.

Thomas TA; Arora RK; Singh R, 1990. Genetic wealth of bamboos in India and their conservation strategies. In: Ramanuja Rao IV, Gnanaharan R, Sastry CB, eds, Bamboos current research. Proceedings of the international workshop, 14-18 November 1988, Cochin, India. The Kerala Forest Research Institute, India and International Development Research Centre, Canada: 29-31.

Totey NG; Bhowmik AK; Khatri AK; Banerjee SK, 1993. Litter fall and nutrient dynamics in soil under bamboo (Dendrocalamus strictus). Indian Agriculturist, 37(2):89-97; 10 ref.

Tripathi SK; Singh KP, 1994. Productivity and nutrient cycling in recently harvested and mature bamboo savannas in the dry tropics. Journal of Applied Ecology, 31(1):109-124; 46 ref.

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USDA-NRCS, 2015. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov/

Varmah JC; Bahadur KN, 1980. Country report and status of research on bamboos in India. India Forest Records, Botany, 6(1):vii + 28 pp.; See also FA 44, 2235; FPA 6, 1087; 115 ref.

Wagh RG; Rajput JC, 1994. Comparative performance of bamboo and horticultural crops in Konkan. In: Bamboo in Asia and the Pacific. FAO, Bangkok, FORSPA Publication No. 6, FAO, Bangkok: 85-86.

Wood CD; Tiwari BN; Plumb VE; Powell CJ; Roberts BT; Gill M, 1992. Interspecies differences in tannin activity of leaves from thirteen species of Nepalese browse trees. Banko Janakari, 3(2):42-44; 3 ref.

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19/05/16 Updated by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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