Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Artocarpus heterophyllus
(jackfruit)

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Datasheet

Artocarpus heterophyllus (jackfruit)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 December 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Artocarpus heterophyllus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • jackfruit
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Five-year-old tree planted next to a banana plant, Philippines.
TitleA five-year-old tree
CaptionFive-year-old tree planted next to a banana plant, Philippines.
Copyright©Rafael T. Cadiz
Five-year-old tree planted next to a banana plant, Philippines.
A five-year-old treeFive-year-old tree planted next to a banana plant, Philippines.©Rafael T. Cadiz
Jackfruits on tree, Madagascar.
TitleFruits
CaptionJackfruits on tree, Madagascar.
Copyright©Ruth Ibbotson
Jackfruits on tree, Madagascar.
FruitsJackfruits on tree, Madagascar.©Ruth Ibbotson
TitleTree with fruit
Caption
Copyright©Rafael T. Cadiz
Tree with fruit©Rafael T. Cadiz
Jakfruit: fruits on tree.
TitleFruit
CaptionJakfruit: fruits on tree.
Copyright©David J. Greathead/CABI
Jakfruit: fruits on tree.
FruitJakfruit: fruits on tree.©David J. Greathead/CABI
TitleFemale flower
Caption
Copyright©ICRAF
Female flower©ICRAF
TitleMature fruit
Caption
Copyright©ICRAF
Mature fruit©ICRAF
Flowering and fruiting branch.
TitleLine artwork
CaptionFlowering and fruiting branch.
Copyright©PROSEA Foundation
Flowering and fruiting branch.
Line artworkFlowering and fruiting branch.©PROSEA Foundation

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.

Preferred Common Name

  • jackfruit

Other Scientific Names

  • Artocarpus brasiliensis Gomez
  • Artocarpus integrifolius auct.
  • Artocarpus maxima Blanco
  • Artocarpus philippensis Lam.

International Common Names

  • English: jack
  • Spanish: jaca; jacueiro
  • French: jacquier

Local Common Names

  • Bangladesh: kathal
  • Brazil: jaqueira
  • Germany: Jackfruchtbaum
  • India: alasa; halasu; kathal; kathar; phanas; pila; pilavu
  • Indonesia: nangka; nongko
  • Laos: miiz; miiz hnang
  • Malaysia: nangka
  • Myanmar: khnaôr; peignai
  • Papua New Guinea: kapiak
  • Philippines: jak; langka; nangka
  • Sri Lanka: jak
  • Thailand: banun; khanum; makmi; nangka
  • Vietnam: mít

EPPO code

  • ABFHE (Artocarpus heterophyllus)

Summary of Invasiveness

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The following summary is from Witt and Luke (2017):

Description

Medium-sized evergreen tree [8–25 (–30) m tall]; stem straight, of diameter 30–80 (–200) cm, branching near the base, rarely buttressed; twigs sometimes covered with

minute hairs; crown dome-shaped, sometimes pyramidal, dense; exudes a white gummy latex when damaged.

Origin

Bangladesh, India, Malaysia.

Reason for Introduction

Food, fodder, medicine, shade and ornament.

Invades

Roadsides, disturbed areas, urban open spaces, forest edges/gaps and secondary forest.

Impacts

Has the ability to form dense stands, to the detriment of native flora and fauna.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Urticales
  •                         Family: Moraceae
  •                             Genus: Artocarpus
  •                                 Species: Artocarpus heterophyllus

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The jackfruit, Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. (Moraceae), and its very close relative the chempedak, Artocarpus integer (Thunb.) Merr. (Moraceae), originated in India and Malaysia. Jackfruit is also known as jacquier (French), nangka (Java and Malay), langka (Filipino), khnaor (Cambodian), makmi, khanum, banum (Thai) and mit (Vietnamese) (Janick and Paull, 2008). 

 

Description

Top of page Medium-sized, evergreen, monoecious tree up to 20(-30) m tall and 80(-200) cm in diameter; all living parts exude viscid, white latex when injured. Bark rough to somewhat scaly, dark grey to greyish-brown. Crown dense, conical in young and shaded trees, becoming rounded or spreading in the older tree. New shoots, twigs and leaves usually glabrous but occasionally short-haired and scabrid. Stipules ovate-acute, 1.5-8 x 0.5-3 cm, deciduous and leaving annular scars on the twigs. Leaves thin leathery, obovate-elliptic to elliptic, 5-25 x 3.5-12 cm, broadest at or above the middle, base cuneate, margin entire or in young plants often with 1-2 pairs of lobes, apex rounded or blunt with short, pointed tip; dark green and shiny above, dull pale green underneath; petiole 1.5-4 cm long, shallowly grooved on the adaxial side, sparsely hairy. Inflorescences solitary, borne axillary on special lateral, short leafy shoots arising from older branches and main trunk; male flower heads barrel-shaped or ellipsoid, 3-8 cm long and 1-3 cm across, composed of sterile and fertile flowers closely embedded on a central core (receptacle), dark green, stalk 1.5-3.5 cm long and 0.5-1 cm thick, bearing annular ring near the distal end; sterile male flowers with solid perianth; fertile male flowers with tubular, bilobed, 1-1.5 mm long perianth, stamen 1-2 mm long; female heads borne singly or in pairs distal to the position of male heads, cylindrical or oblong, dark green, 5-15 cm long, 3-4.5 cm across, with a distinct annulus at the top end of the stout stalk, subtended by a spathaceous, deciduous bract, 5-8 cm long; female flowers with tubular perianths which are fused at both ends and projecting as 3-7-angled, blunt or pointed, minute pyramidal protuberances topped by spathulate or ligulate styles and stigmas. Fruit (syncarp) barrel- or pear-shaped, 30-100 x 25-50 cm, with short pyramidal protuberances or warts; stalk 5-10 cm long, 1-1.5 cm thick; rind ca 1 cm thick, together with the central core (receptacle) inseparable from the waxy, firm or soft, golden yellow, fleshy perianths surrounding the seeds. Seeds numerous, oblong-ellipsoid, 2-4 x 1.5-2.5 cm, enclosed by horny endocarps and subgelatinous exocarps; testa thin and leathery; embryo with ventral radicle, cotyledons fleshy, unequal; endosperm very small or absent.

Distribution

Top of page The jackfruit is most probably indigenous to (and in the past grew wild in) the rain forests of the Western Ghats, India. Since time immemorial it has been cultivated; it was introduced and became naturalized in many parts of the tropics, particularly in the South-East Asian region.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Planted Reference Notes

Africa

KenyaPresentIntroducedWitt and Luke (2017)
TanzaniaPresentIntroducedWitt and Luke (2017)
UgandaPresentIntroducedWitt and Luke (2017)

Asia

BangladeshPresentPlantedCABI (Undated)
IndiaPresentPlantedCABI (Undated)
IndonesiaPresentPlantedCABI (Undated)
MalaysiaPresentPlantedCABI (Undated)
MyanmarPresentPlantedCABI (Undated)
PakistanPresentPlantedCABI (Undated)
PhilippinesPresentPlantedCABI (Undated)
Sri LankaPresentPlantedCABI (Undated)
ThailandPresentPlantedCABI (Undated)
VietnamPresentPlantedCABI (Undated)

Oceania

Federated States of MicronesiaPresentPlantedCABI (Undated)

South America

BrazilPresentIntroducedInvasiveInstituto Horus (2019)
-AmazonasPresentIntroducedInstituto Horus (2019)
-BahiaPresentIntroducedInvasiveInstituto Horus (2019)Introduced for food
-CearaPresentIntroducedInstituto Horus (2019)
-Distrito FederalPresentIntroducedInstituto Horus (2019)
-Espirito SantoPresentIntroducedInstituto Horus (2019)
-ParaibaPresentIntroducedInstituto Horus (2019)
-ParanaPresentIntroducedInstituto Horus (2019)
-PernambucoPresentIntroducedInstituto Horus (2019)
-PiauiPresentIntroducedInstituto Horus (2019)
-Rio de JaneiroPresentIntroducedInvasiveInstituto Horus (2019)Introduced for reforestation in 1860
-Rio Grande do NortePresentIntroducedInstituto Horus (2019)
-Santa CatarinaPresentIntroducedInstituto Horus (2019)
-Sao PauloPresentIntroducedInstituto Horus (2019)

Biology and Ecology

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Growth and Development 

Trees raised from seed start flowering at the age of 2-8 years. Clonally propagated trees produce fruit within 2-4 years from planting under favourable conditions. Clonal material reaches full production in Malaysia when the trees are 8-15 years old. In suitable environments, jackfruit trees bear flowers and fruits throughout the year, but usually there is a major harvest period, in April-August or September-December in Malaysia, January-May in Thailand and in the 'summer' in India. This implies that 3-6 months earlier, conditions were particularly favourable for flowering or fruit set. A load of growing fruit may suppress flowering and so accentuate seasonality of production. Whereas female flower heads are only borne on short shoots emerging from the trunk and main limbs, male heads are not restricted to these shoots; they also occur on shoots in the periphery of the tree canopy, particularly in vigorously growing trees. Male and female heads on a cauliflorous shoot develop almost simultaneously, the male head reaching maturity 3-5 days earlier. For the tree as a whole, male and female flowers open over a long period.

At anthesis, the male heads are dusted with sticky yellow pollen and emit a sweet scent which attracts small insects such as flies and beetles. These may be the pollinating agents, but few insects visit the female heads and in India pollination has been reported to be effected by wind. After anthesis, the male heads turn blackish and drop off. The fertilized female heads develop into mature fruits after 3 months or more, depending on the seedling or clone; at higher altitude or latitude it may take up to 6 months. Unfertilized flowers develop into strap- or string-like structures filling the spaces in between the developing fruitlets. A well-developed fruit may contain up to 500 seeds, each weighing 3-6 g. Germination is hypogeal, but unlike the breadfruit seedling, the cotyledons separate, thus allowing the plumule to emerge without any hindrance. New leaves take 12-15 days to expand. Extension growth in mature trees is slow (up to 3-5 cm per month), but it tends to be continuous.

Ecology 

In its original habitats, jackfruit was apparently found mainly in evergreen forests at altitudes of 400-1200 m. The tree extends into much drier and cooler climates than A. altilis (Parkinson) Fosberg (breadfruit) and A. integer (chempedak); it fruits up to latitudes 30°N and S in frost-free areas and bears good crops 25°N and S of the equator. However, jackfruit thrives in warm and humid climates below 1000 m. In fact, it has poor cold, drought and flooding tolerance, but moderate wind and salinity tolerance. The annual rainfall should be 1500 mm or more and the dry season not too prominent. The tree can be grown on different types of soil but performs best on deep, well-drained, alluvial, sandy or clay loam soils with pH 6.0-7.5.

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
30 -40 0 1600

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) -3 0
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 24 28
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 32 35
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 16 20

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration24number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall9004000mm; lower/upper limits

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • acid

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • infertile
  • shallow

Uses

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The pulp of young fruit is cooked as a vegetable, pickled or canned in brine or curry; pulp of ripe fruit is eaten fresh or made into various local delicacies (e.g. 'dodol' and 'kolak' in Java), chutney, jam, jelly and paste, or preserved as candies by drying or mixing with sugar, honey or syrup. The pulp is also used to flavour ice-cream and beverages, or made into jackfruit honey, or reduced to a concentrate or powder and used for preparing drinks. Addition of synthetic flavours such as esters of 4-hydroxybutyric acid greatly improves the flavour of canned fruit and nectar. The seeds are eaten after boiling or roasting, or dried and salted as table nuts, or ground to make flour which is blended with wheat flour for baking. Young leaves are readily eaten by cattle and other livestock. The bark contains ca 3.3% tannin, and is occasionally used in making cordage or cloth. A yellow dye extracted from wood particles is used to dye silk and the cotton robes of Buddhist priests. The latex serves as birdlime and is employed as a household cement for mending china and for caulking boats.

The timber is classified as medium hardwood; it is resistant to termite attack, fungal and bacterial decay, easy to season and takes polish beautifully. Thus, though not as strong as teak, jackfruit wood is considered superior to teak for furniture, construction, turnery, masts, oars, implements and musical instruments. The wood is widely used in Sri Lanka and India, and is exported to Europe. Roots of older trees are highly prized for carving and picture-framing.

The jackfruit tree is also renowned for its medicinal properties. In China, jackfruit pulp and seeds are considered as a cooling and nutritious tonic, useful in overcoming the effects of alcohol. In South-East Asia, the seed starch is used to relieve biliousness and the roasted seeds are regarded as an aphrodisiac. Heated leaves are placed on wounds, and the ash of the leaves burned with maize and coconut shells is used to heal ulcers. Mixed with vinegar, the latex promotes healing of abscesses, snakebite and glandular swellings. The bark is made into a poultice. The wood has sedative properties and its pith is said to induce abortion. The root is used as a remedy against skin diseases and asthma, and its extract is taken in cases of fever and diarrhoea.

Uses List

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Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Fodder/animal feed

Environmental

  • Agroforestry
  • Revegetation
  • Shade and shelter
  • Soil improvement

Fuels

  • Fuelwood

Human food and beverage

  • Beverage base
  • Flour/starch
  • Fruits
  • Nuts
  • Seeds
  • Vegetable

Materials

  • Carved material
  • Dye/tanning
  • Fibre
  • Gum/resin
  • Miscellaneous materials
  • Rubber/latex
  • Wood/timber

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical

Wood Products

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Furniture

Sawn or hewn building timbers

  • For heavy construction
  • For light construction

Woodware

  • Industrial and domestic woodware
  • Musical instruments
  • Tool handles

Bibliography

Top of page Ibrahim AG et al., 1980. Plant protection in orchards. In: Yaacob O, ed. Fruit production in Malaysia. Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Pertanian Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia,163-190.

Bhutani DK, 1978. Pests and diseases of jackfruit in India and their control. Fruits,33: 352-357.

Burgess PF, 1966. Timbers of Sabah. Forest Department, Sabah, 399-406.

Ch'ng GC, Ahmad IH 1980. Nutritive value and utilization of Malaysian fruits. In: Yaacob O, ed. Fruit Production in Malaysia. Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Pertanian Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia, 242-259.

Corner EJH, 1939. Notes on the systematy and distribution of Malayan Phanerogams, II. The jack and the chempedak. Garden's Bulletin Straits Settlements, Singapore, 10: 56-81.

Coronel RE, 1986. Promising fruits of the Philippines. 2nd edition. College of Agriculture, University of the Philippines at Los Banos, 251-272.

Hashim MY, Hussein MA, 1981. A report on the techno-economic survey of the Malaysian Fruit Industry, 1980. MARDI-UPM, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Molesworth-Allen B, 1967. Malayan fruits: an introduction to the cultivated species. Singapore:Donald Moore Press, 202-205.

Roy SK et al., 1990. In vitro propagation of jackfruit [Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.]. Journal of Horticultural Science, 65(3): 335-358.

Wong TM, 1982. A dictionary of Malaysian timbers. Malayan Forest Record No 30, 95-97.

References

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Bailey LH, 1960. Manual of Cultivated Plants. New York, USA: The Macmillan Company

Brown WH, 1943. Useful Plants of the Philippines. Rep. Philip. Dep. Agric. Nat. Res. Tech. Bull. 10, Vol. 1. Manila, Philippines: Bur. Printing

Chadha KL, Pareek OP, Chadha KL (ed. ), Pareek OP, 1993. Genetic resources of fruit crops - an overview. Advances in horticulture: fruit crops Volume 1, 31-42; 20 ref

Chandler WH, 1958. Evergreen Orchards. Philadelphia, USA: Lea and Febiger

Coronel RE, 1983. Promising fruits of the Philippines. Los Baños, Laguna: College of Agriculture, University of the Philippines

Cruz SR, 1949. Newspaper as protective wrapper for jackfruits (nangka) against the fruitfly Bactrocera umbrosa Fabr.). Philip. J. Agric., 14(3):213-219

de Leon JG, 1917. Forms of some Philippine fruits. Philip. Agric. Forest, 5(8):251-283

de Padua LS, Lugod GC, Pancho JV, 1978. Handbook on Philippine Medicinal Plants. Vol. II. UP Los Baños Tech. Bull. III(3)

Dutta S, 1956. Cultivation of jackfruit in Assam. Indian J. Hort., 13:189-197

Gabriel BP, 1975. Insects and mites injurious to Philippine crop plants. Los Baños, Laguna: Dep. Entom., Coll. Agric., UP

Galang FG, 1955. Fruit and nut growing in the Philippines. Malabon, Rizal: AIA printing Press

Geetha CK, Gopikumar K, Aravindakshan M, 1994. Comparative growth of multipurpose (indigenous vs exotic) tree species in the warm humid tropics of Kerala. Indian Journal of Forestry, 17(2):134-136; 4 ref

Guerrero LM, 1921. Medicinal uses of Philippine plants. Bur. Forest. Bull., 22(3)

Hensleigh TE, Holaway BK, (eds. ), 1988. Agroforestry species for the Philippines. Manila, Philippines: US Peace Corps

Janick, J., Paull, R. E., 2008. The encyclopedia of fruit & nuts, CABI.xviii + 954 pp.

Mendiola NB, 1940. Introduction of tsampedak and suspected case of natural hybridization in Artocarpus. Philip. Agric., 28(10):789-796

Merrill ED, 1912. A Flora of Manila. Manila, Philippines: Bur. Printing

Merrill ED, 1925. An enumeration of Philippine flowering plants. Manila, Philippines: Bureau of Printing

Murthy AR, 1966. Shade trees for coffee. V. Artocarpus integrifolia Linn. Indian Coffee, 29(1):14-20

Ochse JJ, 1931. Fruits and Fruit Culture in the Dutch Indies. Djakarta: G. Kolff and Co

Ochse JJ, Soule MJ, Dijkman MJ Jr. , Wehlburg C, 1961. Tropical and Subtropical Agriculture. New York, USA: Macmillan Co

Paull, R. E., Duarte, O., 2012. Tropical fruits, Volume 2, (Ed.2) : CABI.ix + 371 pp. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20123357661 doi:10.1079/9781845937898.0000

Popenoe W, 1920. Manual of Tropical and Subtropical Fruits. New York, USA: Macmillan Co

Pratt DS, del Rosario JJ, 1913. Philippine fruits; their composition and characteristics, Philippine Journal of Science, A8:59-80

Richards AV, 1950. A note on the cultivation of Singapore jak. Trop. Agric., Ceylon, 106(1):12-13

Sanjeev Kumar, Singh IS, Kumar S, 1996. Improvement of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) through selection. Recent Horticulture, 3(1):55-59; 5 ref

Seidemann J, 1996. Knowledge of little-known exotic fruits. 11. Nangka or jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.). [Zur Kenntnis von wenig bekannten exotischen Fruchten. 11. Mitt. Nangka oder Jackfrucht (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.).] Deutsche Lebensmittel Rundschau, 92(3):83-90; 6 pl., 3 fig.; 31 ref

Singh SP, 1992. Budding in some fruit crops - a review. Advances in Horticulture and Forestry, 2: 84-97; 36 ref

Sonwalkar MS, 1951. A study of jackfruit seeds. Indian J. Hort., 8(2):27-30

Srinivasan K, 1963. Juvenility as a factor affecting airlayering in jack. Agric. Res. J. Kerala, 1:1-3

Srinivasan K, 1970. "Multon Varikkha" - a promising jackfruit variety. Agric. Res. J. Kerala, 8(1):51-52

Tanchico SS, Magpantay CR, 1958. Analysis and composition of nanka (Artocarpus integra Merr.) latex. Philippine Journal of Science, 87(2):149-157

Verheij EWM, Coronel RE(Editors), 1991. Plant resources of South-East Asia. No. 2. Edible fruits and nuts. Wageningen, Netherlands; Pudoc, 446 pp

Wester PJ, 1916. Food plants of the Philippines. II. Fruits and spices. Philip. Agric. Rev., 9:199-256

Wester PJ, 1921. The food plants of the Philippines. Philip. Agric. Rev., 14(3):211-384

Witt, A., Luke, Q., 2017. Guide to the naturalized and invasive plants of Eastern Africa, [ed. by Witt, A., Luke, Q.]. Wallingford, UK: CABI.vi + 601 pp. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158959 doi:10.1079/9781786392145.0000

Yap AR, 1972. Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam., Moraceae). In: Cultural Directions for Philippine Agricultural Crops. Vol. 1 (Fruits). Manila, Philippines: Publ. Aff. Off. Press, Bur. Plant Indus., 137-141

Distribution References

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Instituto Horus, 2019. Database of invasive alien species from Brazil. (Base de dados de espécies exóticas invasoras do Brasil)., Florianópolis - SC, Brazil: Instituto Horus. http://bd.institutohorus.org.br/www/

Witt A, Luke Q, 2017. Guide to the naturalized and invasive plants of Eastern Africa. [ed. by Witt A, Luke Q]. Wallingford, UK: CABI. vi + 601 pp. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158959 DOI:10.1079/9781786392145.0000

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