Artocarpus heterophyllus (jackfruit)
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.
Preferred Common Name
Other Scientific Names
- Artocarpus brasiliensis Gomez
- Artocarpus integrifolius auct.
- Artocarpus maxima Blanco
- Artocarpus philippensis Lam.
International Common Names
- English: jack
- Spanish: jaca; jacueiro
- French: jacquier
Local Common Names
- Bangladesh: kathal
- Brazil: jaqueira
- Germany: Jackfruchtbaum
- India: alasa; halasu; kathal; kathar; phanas; pila; pilavu
- Indonesia: nangka; nongko
- Laos: miiz; miiz hnang
- Malaysia: nangka
- Myanmar: khnaôr; peignai
- Papua New Guinea: kapiak
- Philippines: jak; langka; nangka
- Sri Lanka: jak
- Thailand: banun; khanum; makmi; nangka
- Vietnam: mít
- ABFHE (Artocarpus heterophyllus)
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page
The following summary is from Witt and Luke (2017):
Medium-sized evergreen tree [8–25 (–30) m tall]; stem straight, of diameter 30–80 (–200) cm, branching near the base, rarely buttressed; twigs sometimes covered with
minute hairs; crown dome-shaped, sometimes pyramidal, dense; exudes a white gummy latex when damaged.
Bangladesh, India, Malaysia.
Reason for Introduction
Food, fodder, medicine, shade and ornament.
Roadsides, disturbed areas, urban open spaces, forest edges/gaps and secondary forest.
Has the ability to form dense stands, to the detriment of native flora and fauna.
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Plantae
- Phylum: Spermatophyta
- Subphylum: Angiospermae
- Class: Dicotyledonae
- Order: Urticales
- Family: Moraceae
- Genus: Artocarpus
- Species: Artocarpus heterophyllus
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page
The jackfruit, Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. (Moraceae), and its very close relative the chempedak, Artocarpus integer (Thunb.) Merr. (Moraceae), originated in India and Malaysia. Jackfruit is also known as jacquier (French), nangka (Java and Malay), langka (Filipino), khnaor (Cambodian), makmi, khanum, banum (Thai) and mit (Vietnamese) (Janick and Paull, 2008).
DescriptionTop of page
DistributionTop of page
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 23 Jun 2021
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Planted||Reference||Notes|
|Federated States of Micronesia||Present||Planted|
|-Bahia||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Introduced for food|
|-Rio de Janeiro||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Introduced for reforestation in 1860|
|-Rio Grande do Norte||Present||Introduced|
Biology and EcologyTop of page
Growth and Development
Trees raised from seed start flowering at the age of 2-8 years. Clonally propagated trees produce fruit within 2-4 years from planting under favourable conditions. Clonal material reaches full production in Malaysia when the trees are 8-15 years old. In suitable environments, jackfruit trees bear flowers and fruits throughout the year, but usually there is a major harvest period, in April-August or September-December in Malaysia, January-May in Thailand and in the 'summer' in India. This implies that 3-6 months earlier, conditions were particularly favourable for flowering or fruit set. A load of growing fruit may suppress flowering and so accentuate seasonality of production. Whereas female flower heads are only borne on short shoots emerging from the trunk and main limbs, male heads are not restricted to these shoots; they also occur on shoots in the periphery of the tree canopy, particularly in vigorously growing trees. Male and female heads on a cauliflorous shoot develop almost simultaneously, the male head reaching maturity 3-5 days earlier. For the tree as a whole, male and female flowers open over a long period.
At anthesis, the male heads are dusted with sticky yellow pollen and emit a sweet scent which attracts small insects such as flies and beetles. These may be the pollinating agents, but few insects visit the female heads and in India pollination has been reported to be effected by wind. After anthesis, the male heads turn blackish and drop off. The fertilized female heads develop into mature fruits after 3 months or more, depending on the seedling or clone; at higher altitude or latitude it may take up to 6 months. Unfertilized flowers develop into strap- or string-like structures filling the spaces in between the developing fruitlets. A well-developed fruit may contain up to 500 seeds, each weighing 3-6 g. Germination is hypogeal, but unlike the breadfruit seedling, the cotyledons separate, thus allowing the plumule to emerge without any hindrance. New leaves take 12-15 days to expand. Extension growth in mature trees is slow (up to 3-5 cm per month), but it tends to be continuous.
In its original habitats, jackfruit was apparently found mainly in evergreen forests at altitudes of 400-1200 m. The tree extends into much drier and cooler climates than A. altilis (Parkinson) Fosberg (breadfruit) and A. integer (chempedak); it fruits up to latitudes 30°N and S in frost-free areas and bears good crops 25°N and S of the equator. However, jackfruit thrives in warm and humid climates below 1000 m. In fact, it has poor cold, drought and flooding tolerance, but moderate wind and salinity tolerance. The annual rainfall should be 1500 mm or more and the dry season not too prominent. The tree can be grown on different types of soil but performs best on deep, well-drained, alluvial, sandy or clay loam soils with pH 6.0-7.5.
Latitude/Altitude RangesTop of page
|Latitude North (°N)||Latitude South (°S)||Altitude Lower (m)||Altitude Upper (m)|
Air TemperatureTop of page
|Parameter||Lower limit||Upper limit|
|Absolute minimum temperature (ºC)||-3||0|
|Mean annual temperature (ºC)||24||28|
|Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC)||32||35|
|Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC)||16||20|
RainfallTop of page
|Parameter||Lower limit||Upper limit||Description|
|Dry season duration||2||4||number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall|
|Mean annual rainfall||900||4000||mm; lower/upper limits|
Soil TolerancesTop of page
Special soil tolerances
UsesTop of page
The pulp of young fruit is cooked as a vegetable, pickled or canned in brine or curry; pulp of ripe fruit is eaten fresh or made into various local delicacies (e.g. 'dodol' and 'kolak' in Java), chutney, jam, jelly and paste, or preserved as candies by drying or mixing with sugar, honey or syrup. The pulp is also used to flavour ice-cream and beverages, or made into jackfruit honey, or reduced to a concentrate or powder and used for preparing drinks. Addition of synthetic flavours such as esters of 4-hydroxybutyric acid greatly improves the flavour of canned fruit and nectar. The seeds are eaten after boiling or roasting, or dried and salted as table nuts, or ground to make flour which is blended with wheat flour for baking. Young leaves are readily eaten by cattle and other livestock. The bark contains ca 3.3% tannin, and is occasionally used in making cordage or cloth. A yellow dye extracted from wood particles is used to dye silk and the cotton robes of Buddhist priests. The latex serves as birdlime and is employed as a household cement for mending china and for caulking boats.
The timber is classified as medium hardwood; it is resistant to termite attack, fungal and bacterial decay, easy to season and takes polish beautifully. Thus, though not as strong as teak, jackfruit wood is considered superior to teak for furniture, construction, turnery, masts, oars, implements and musical instruments. The wood is widely used in Sri Lanka and India, and is exported to Europe. Roots of older trees are highly prized for carving and picture-framing.
The jackfruit tree is also renowned for its medicinal properties. In China, jackfruit pulp and seeds are considered as a cooling and nutritious tonic, useful in overcoming the effects of alcohol. In South-East Asia, the seed starch is used to relieve biliousness and the roasted seeds are regarded as an aphrodisiac. Heated leaves are placed on wounds, and the ash of the leaves burned with maize and coconut shells is used to heal ulcers. Mixed with vinegar, the latex promotes healing of abscesses, snakebite and glandular swellings. The bark is made into a poultice. The wood has sedative properties and its pith is said to induce abortion. The root is used as a remedy against skin diseases and asthma, and its extract is taken in cases of fever and diarrhoea.
Uses ListTop of page
Animal feed, fodder, forage
- Fodder/animal feed
- Shade and shelter
- Soil improvement
Human food and beverage
- Beverage base
- Carved material
- Miscellaneous materials
- Source of medicine/pharmaceutical
Wood ProductsTop of page
Sawn or hewn building timbers
- For heavy construction
- For light construction
- Industrial and domestic woodware
- Musical instruments
- Tool handles
BibliographyTop of page
Bhutani DK, 1978. Pests and diseases of jackfruit in India and their control. Fruits,33: 352-357.
Burgess PF, 1966. Timbers of Sabah. Forest Department, Sabah, 399-406.
Ch'ng GC, Ahmad IH 1980. Nutritive value and utilization of Malaysian fruits. In: Yaacob O, ed. Fruit Production in Malaysia. Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Pertanian Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia, 242-259.
Corner EJH, 1939. Notes on the systematy and distribution of Malayan Phanerogams, II. The jack and the chempedak. Garden's Bulletin Straits Settlements, Singapore, 10: 56-81.
Coronel RE, 1986. Promising fruits of the Philippines. 2nd edition. College of Agriculture, University of the Philippines at Los Banos, 251-272.
Hashim MY, Hussein MA, 1981. A report on the techno-economic survey of the Malaysian Fruit Industry, 1980. MARDI-UPM, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.
Molesworth-Allen B, 1967. Malayan fruits: an introduction to the cultivated species. Singapore:Donald Moore Press, 202-205.
Roy SK et al., 1990. In vitro propagation of jackfruit [Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.]. Journal of Horticultural Science, 65(3): 335-358.
Wong TM, 1982. A dictionary of Malaysian timbers. Malayan Forest Record No 30, 95-97.
ReferencesTop of page
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Zulperi D, Manaf N, Ismail S I, Karam D S, Yusof M T, 2017. First report of Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii causing fruit bronzing of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus), a new emerging disease in Peninsular Malaysia. Plant Disease. 101 (5), 831. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-11-16-1689-PDN
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