Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Artocarpus heterophyllus



Artocarpus heterophyllus (jackfruit)


  • Last modified
  • 20 December 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Artocarpus heterophyllus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • jackfruit
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • The following summary is from Witt and Luke (2017):


    Medium-sized evergreen tree [8–25 (–30) m tall]; stem...

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Artocarpus heterophyllus (Jackfruit); Fruits on tree, Madagascar.
CaptionArtocarpus heterophyllus (Jackfruit); Fruits on tree, Madagascar.
Copyright©Ruth Ibbotson
Artocarpus heterophyllus (Jackfruit); Fruits on tree, Madagascar.
FruitsArtocarpus heterophyllus (Jackfruit); Fruits on tree, Madagascar.©Ruth Ibbotson
Artocarpus heterophyllus (Jackfruit); Hand pollination of female flower with paintbrush.
TitleFemale flower
CaptionArtocarpus heterophyllus (Jackfruit); Hand pollination of female flower with paintbrush.
Artocarpus heterophyllus (Jackfruit); Hand pollination of female flower with paintbrush.
Female flowerArtocarpus heterophyllus (Jackfruit); Hand pollination of female flower with paintbrush.©ICRAF
Artocarpus heterophyllus (Jackfruit); Five-year-old tree planted next to a banana plant, Philippines.
TitleA five-year-old tree
CaptionArtocarpus heterophyllus (Jackfruit); Five-year-old tree planted next to a banana plant, Philippines.
Copyright©Rafael T. Cadiz
Artocarpus heterophyllus (Jackfruit); Five-year-old tree planted next to a banana plant, Philippines.
A five-year-old treeArtocarpus heterophyllus (Jackfruit); Five-year-old tree planted next to a banana plant, Philippines.©Rafael T. Cadiz
Artocarpus heterophyllus (Jackfruit); Fruits on tree.
CaptionArtocarpus heterophyllus (Jackfruit); Fruits on tree.
Copyright©David J. Greathead/CABI
Artocarpus heterophyllus (Jackfruit); Fruits on tree.
FruitArtocarpus heterophyllus (Jackfruit); Fruits on tree.©David J. Greathead/CABI
Artocarpus heterophyllus (Jackfruit); Tree with fruit
TitleTree with fruit
CaptionArtocarpus heterophyllus (Jackfruit); Tree with fruit
Copyright©Rafael T. Cadiz
Artocarpus heterophyllus (Jackfruit); Tree with fruit
Tree with fruitArtocarpus heterophyllus (Jackfruit); Tree with fruit ©Rafael T. Cadiz
Artocarpus heterophyllus (Jackfruit); Mature fruit.
TitleMature fruit
CaptionArtocarpus heterophyllus (Jackfruit); Mature fruit.
Artocarpus heterophyllus (Jackfruit); Mature fruit.
Mature fruitArtocarpus heterophyllus (Jackfruit); Mature fruit.©ICRAF
Artocarpus heterophyllus (Jackfruit); Flowering and fruiting branch.
TitleLine artwork
CaptionArtocarpus heterophyllus (Jackfruit); Flowering and fruiting branch.
Copyright©PROSEA Foundation
Artocarpus heterophyllus (Jackfruit); Flowering and fruiting branch.
Line artworkArtocarpus heterophyllus (Jackfruit); Flowering and fruiting branch.©PROSEA Foundation


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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.

Preferred Common Name

  • jackfruit

Other Scientific Names

  • Artocarpus brasiliensis Gomez
  • Artocarpus integrifolius auct.
  • Artocarpus maxima Blanco
  • Artocarpus philippensis Lam.

International Common Names

  • English: jack
  • Spanish: jaca; jacueiro
  • French: jacquier

Local Common Names

  • Bangladesh: kathal
  • Brazil: jaqueira
  • Germany: Jackfruchtbaum
  • India: alasa; halasu; kathal; kathar; phanas; pila; pilavu
  • Indonesia: nangka; nongko
  • Laos: miiz; miiz hnang
  • Malaysia: nangka
  • Myanmar: khnaôr; peignai
  • Papua New Guinea: kapiak
  • Philippines: jak; langka; nangka
  • Sri Lanka: jak
  • Thailand: banun; khanum; makmi; nangka
  • Vietnam: mít

EPPO code

  • ABFHE (Artocarpus heterophyllus)

Summary of Invasiveness

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The following summary is from Witt and Luke (2017):


Medium-sized evergreen tree [8–25 (–30) m tall]; stem straight, of diameter 30–80 (–200) cm, branching near the base, rarely buttressed; twigs sometimes covered with

minute hairs; crown dome-shaped, sometimes pyramidal, dense; exudes a white gummy latex when damaged.


Bangladesh, India, Malaysia.

Reason for Introduction

Food, fodder, medicine, shade and ornament.


Roadsides, disturbed areas, urban open spaces, forest edges/gaps and secondary forest.


Has the ability to form dense stands, to the detriment of native flora and fauna.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Urticales
  •                         Family: Moraceae
  •                             Genus: Artocarpus
  •                                 Species: Artocarpus heterophyllus

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The jackfruit, Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. (Moraceae), and its very close relative the chempedak, Artocarpus integer (Thunb.) Merr. (Moraceae), originated in India and Malaysia. Jackfruit is also known as jacquier (French), nangka (Java and Malay), langka (Filipino), khnaor (Cambodian), makmi, khanum, banum (Thai) and mit (Vietnamese) (Janick and Paull, 2008). 



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Medium-sized, evergreen, monoecious tree up to 20(-30) m tall and 80(-200) cm in diameter; all living parts exude viscid, white latex when injured. Bark rough to somewhat scaly, dark grey to greyish-brown. Crown dense, conical in young and shaded trees, becoming rounded or spreading in the older tree. New shoots, twigs and leaves usually glabrous but occasionally short-haired and scabrid. Stipules ovate-acute, 1.5-8 x 0.5-3 cm, deciduous and leaving annular scars on the twigs. Leaves thin leathery, obovate-elliptic to elliptic, 5-25 x 3.5-12 cm, broadest at or above the middle, base cuneate, margin entire or in young plants often with 1-2 pairs of lobes, apex rounded or blunt with short, pointed tip; dark green and shiny above, dull pale green underneath; petiole 1.5-4 cm long, shallowly grooved on the adaxial side, sparsely hairy. Inflorescences solitary, borne axillary on special lateral, short leafy shoots arising from older branches and main trunk; male flower heads barrel-shaped or ellipsoid, 3-8 cm long and 1-3 cm across, composed of sterile and fertile flowers closely embedded on a central core (receptacle), dark green, stalk 1.5-3.5 cm long and 0.5-1 cm thick, bearing annular ring near the distal end; sterile male flowers with solid perianth; fertile male flowers with tubular, bilobed, 1-1.5 mm long perianth, stamen 1-2 mm long; female heads borne singly or in pairs distal to the position of male heads, cylindrical or oblong, dark green, 5-15 cm long, 3-4.5 cm across, with a distinct annulus at the top end of the stout stalk, subtended by a spathaceous, deciduous bract, 5-8 cm long; female flowers with tubular perianths which are fused at both ends and projecting as 3-7-angled, blunt or pointed, minute pyramidal protuberances topped by spathulate or ligulate styles and stigmas. Fruit (syncarp) barrel- or pear-shaped, 30-100 x 25-50 cm, with short pyramidal protuberances or warts; stalk 5-10 cm long, 1-1.5 cm thick; rind ca 1 cm thick, together with the central core (receptacle) inseparable from the waxy, firm or soft, golden yellow, fleshy perianths surrounding the seeds. Seeds numerous, oblong-ellipsoid, 2-4 x 1.5-2.5 cm, enclosed by horny endocarps and subgelatinous exocarps; testa thin and leathery; embryo with ventral radicle, cotyledons fleshy, unequal; endosperm very small or absent.


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The jackfruit is most probably indigenous to (and in the past grew wild in) the rain forests of the Western Ghats, India. Since time immemorial it has been cultivated; it was introduced and became naturalized in many parts of the tropics, particularly in the South-East Asian region.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 21 Jul 2022
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Planted Reference Notes




-Andhra PradeshPresent
-Tamil NaduPresent
-Uttar PradeshPresent
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresent
Sri LankaPresentPlanted

North America

United StatesPresent


Federated States of MicronesiaPresentPlanted

South America

-BahiaPresentIntroducedInvasiveIntroduced for food
-Distrito FederalPresentIntroduced
-Espirito SantoPresentIntroduced
-Rio de JaneiroPresentIntroducedInvasiveIntroduced for reforestation in 1860
-Rio Grande do NortePresentIntroduced
-Santa CatarinaPresentIntroduced
-Sao PauloPresentIntroduced

Biology and Ecology

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Growth and Development 

Trees raised from seed start flowering at the age of 2-8 years. Clonally propagated trees produce fruit within 2-4 years from planting under favourable conditions. Clonal material reaches full production in Malaysia when the trees are 8-15 years old. In suitable environments, jackfruit trees bear flowers and fruits throughout the year, but usually there is a major harvest period, in April-August or September-December in Malaysia, January-May in Thailand and in the 'summer' in India. This implies that 3-6 months earlier, conditions were particularly favourable for flowering or fruit set. A load of growing fruit may suppress flowering and so accentuate seasonality of production. Whereas female flower heads are only borne on short shoots emerging from the trunk and main limbs, male heads are not restricted to these shoots; they also occur on shoots in the periphery of the tree canopy, particularly in vigorously growing trees. Male and female heads on a cauliflorous shoot develop almost simultaneously, the male head reaching maturity 3-5 days earlier. For the tree as a whole, male and female flowers open over a long period.

At anthesis, the male heads are dusted with sticky yellow pollen and emit a sweet scent which attracts small insects such as flies and beetles. These may be the pollinating agents, but few insects visit the female heads and in India pollination has been reported to be effected by wind. After anthesis, the male heads turn blackish and drop off. The fertilized female heads develop into mature fruits after 3 months or more, depending on the seedling or clone; at higher altitude or latitude it may take up to 6 months. Unfertilized flowers develop into strap- or string-like structures filling the spaces in between the developing fruitlets. A well-developed fruit may contain up to 500 seeds, each weighing 3-6 g. Germination is hypogeal, but unlike the breadfruit seedling, the cotyledons separate, thus allowing the plumule to emerge without any hindrance. New leaves take 12-15 days to expand. Extension growth in mature trees is slow (up to 3-5 cm per month), but it tends to be continuous.


In its original habitats, jackfruit was apparently found mainly in evergreen forests at altitudes of 400-1200 m. The tree extends into much drier and cooler climates than A. altilis (Parkinson) Fosberg (breadfruit) and A. integer (chempedak); it fruits up to latitudes 30°N and S in frost-free areas and bears good crops 25°N and S of the equator. However, jackfruit thrives in warm and humid climates below 1000 m. In fact, it has poor cold, drought and flooding tolerance, but moderate wind and salinity tolerance. The annual rainfall should be 1500 mm or more and the dry season not too prominent. The tree can be grown on different types of soil but performs best on deep, well-drained, alluvial, sandy or clay loam soils with pH 6.0-7.5.

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
30 -40 0 1600

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) -3 0
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 24 28
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 32 35
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 16 20


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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration24number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall9004000mm; lower/upper limits

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • acid

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • infertile
  • shallow


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The pulp of young fruit is cooked as a vegetable, pickled or canned in brine or curry; pulp of ripe fruit is eaten fresh or made into various local delicacies (e.g. 'dodol' and 'kolak' in Java), chutney, jam, jelly and paste, or preserved as candies by drying or mixing with sugar, honey or syrup. The pulp is also used to flavour ice-cream and beverages, or made into jackfruit honey, or reduced to a concentrate or powder and used for preparing drinks. Addition of synthetic flavours such as esters of 4-hydroxybutyric acid greatly improves the flavour of canned fruit and nectar. The seeds are eaten after boiling or roasting, or dried and salted as table nuts, or ground to make flour which is blended with wheat flour for baking. Young leaves are readily eaten by cattle and other livestock. The bark contains ca 3.3% tannin, and is occasionally used in making cordage or cloth. A yellow dye extracted from wood particles is used to dye silk and the cotton robes of Buddhist priests. The latex serves as birdlime and is employed as a household cement for mending china and for caulking boats.

The timber is classified as medium hardwood; it is resistant to termite attack, fungal and bacterial decay, easy to season and takes polish beautifully. Thus, though not as strong as teak, jackfruit wood is considered superior to teak for furniture, construction, turnery, masts, oars, implements and musical instruments. The wood is widely used in Sri Lanka and India, and is exported to Europe. Roots of older trees are highly prized for carving and picture-framing.

The jackfruit tree is also renowned for its medicinal properties. In China, jackfruit pulp and seeds are considered as a cooling and nutritious tonic, useful in overcoming the effects of alcohol. In South-East Asia, the seed starch is used to relieve biliousness and the roasted seeds are regarded as an aphrodisiac. Heated leaves are placed on wounds, and the ash of the leaves burned with maize and coconut shells is used to heal ulcers. Mixed with vinegar, the latex promotes healing of abscesses, snakebite and glandular swellings. The bark is made into a poultice. The wood has sedative properties and its pith is said to induce abortion. The root is used as a remedy against skin diseases and asthma, and its extract is taken in cases of fever and diarrhoea.

Uses List

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Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Fodder/animal feed


  • Agroforestry
  • Revegetation
  • Shade and shelter
  • Soil improvement


  • Fuelwood

Human food and beverage

  • Beverage base
  • Flour/starch
  • Fruits
  • Nuts
  • Seeds
  • Vegetable


  • Carved material
  • Dye/tanning
  • Fibre
  • Gum/resin
  • Miscellaneous materials
  • Rubber/latex
  • Wood/timber

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical

Wood Products

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Sawn or hewn building timbers

  • For heavy construction
  • For light construction


  • Industrial and domestic woodware
  • Musical instruments
  • Tool handles


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Ibrahim AG et al., 1980. Plant protection in orchards. In: Yaacob O, ed. Fruit production in Malaysia. Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Pertanian Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia,163-190.

Bhutani DK, 1978. Pests and diseases of jackfruit in India and their control. Fruits,33: 352-357.

Burgess PF, 1966. Timbers of Sabah. Forest Department, Sabah, 399-406.

Ch'ng GC, Ahmad IH 1980. Nutritive value and utilization of Malaysian fruits. In: Yaacob O, ed. Fruit Production in Malaysia. Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Pertanian Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia, 242-259.

Corner EJH, 1939. Notes on the systematy and distribution of Malayan Phanerogams, II. The jack and the chempedak. Garden's Bulletin Straits Settlements, Singapore, 10: 56-81.

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Roy SK et al., 1990. In vitro propagation of jackfruit [Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.]. Journal of Horticultural Science, 65(3): 335-358.

Wong TM, 1982. A dictionary of Malaysian timbers. Malayan Forest Record No 30, 95-97.


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Distribution References

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Hernandez-Morales A, Perez-Casillas J M, Soria-Guerra R E, Velazquez-Fernandez J B, Arvizu-Gomez J L, 2017. First report of Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii causing jackfruit bronzing disease in Mexico. Journal of Plant Pathology. 99 (3), 807.

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Mai Van Tri, Nguyen Van Hoa, Chau N M, Pane A, Faedda R, Patrizio A de, Schena L, Olsson C H B, Wright S A I, Ramstedt M, Cacciola S O, 2015. Decline of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) incited by Phytophthora palmivora in Vietnam. Phytopathologia Mediterranea. 54 (2), 275-280.

Mastoi M I, Azura A N, Muhamad R, Idris A B, Ibrahim Y, 2014. Survey of papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) and its natural enemies in Penninsular Malaysia. Pakistan Journal of Agriculture, Agricultural Engineering, Veterinary Sciences. 30 (2), 172-186.

Mware B, Olubayo F, Narla R, Songa J, Amata R, Kyamanywa S, Ateka E M, 2010. First record of spiraling whitefly in coastal Kenya: emergence, host range, distribution and association with cassava brown streak virus disease. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology. 12 (3), 411-415.

Ni H F, Chen R S, Chang S F, Yang H R, 2008. First report of lasiodiplodia fruit rot of jackfruit in Taiwan. Plant Disease. 92 (7), 1137. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-92-7-1137A

Patel R K, Painkra K L, Painkra G P, 2016. A new record of Jack fruit borer, Diaphania caesalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) from Chhattisgarh, India. Current Biotica. 10 (2), 162-164.

Prarthna Rajkumari, Debanand Das, Baruah K, Dutta S K, 2013. New record of Glypodes caesalis Walker (Lepidoptera; Pyralidae) as a pest of jackfruit from Jorhat (Assam). Insect Environment. 19 (4), 247.

Pratama R, Muslim A, Suwandi S, Damiri N, Soleha S, 2021. Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus), a new host plant of Ceratocystis wilt in South Sumatra, Indonesia. Australasian Plant Disease Notes. 16 (24), (11 September 2021). DOI:10.1007/s13314-021-00435-x

Rahman M M E, Dey T K, Hossain D M, Nonaka M, Harada N, 2015. First report of white mould caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on jackfruit. Australasian Plant Disease Notes. 10 (1), 10. DOI:10.1007/s13314-014-0155-9

Rashtra Vardhana, 2017. Plant's diseases of district Ghaziabad and adjacent areas. Plant Archives. 17 (1), 727-732.

Sakthivel P, Karuppuchamy P, Kalyanasundaram M, Srinivasan T, 2012. Host plants of invasive papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus (Williams and Granara de Willink) in Tamil Nadu. Madras Agricultural Journal. 99 (7/9), 615-619.

Seebens H, Blackburn T M, Dyer E E, Genovesi P, Hulme P E, Jeschke J M, Pagad S, Pyšek P, Winter M, Arianoutsou M, Bacher S, Blasius B, Brundu G, Capinha C, Celesti-Grapow L, Dawson W, Dullinger S, Fuentes N, Jäger H, Kartesz J, Kenis M, Kreft H, Kühn I, Lenzner B, Liebhold A, Mosena A (et al), 2017. No saturation in the accumulation of alien species worldwide. Nature Communications. 8 (2), 14435.

Sudhi-Aromna S, Jumroenma K, Chaowattanawong P, Plodkornburee W, Sangchote Y, 2008. Studies on the biology and infestation of stem borer, Batocera rufomaculata, in durian. Acta Horticulturae. 331-337.

Sureshan P M, Farsana V K R, 2014. Two new distributional and host records for Spalangia Latreille parasitizing Drosophila sp. on putrefied tender jack fruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) from Kerala, India. Journal of Biological Control. 28 (2), 57-61.

Tanga C M, Ekesi S, Govender P, Mohamed S A, 2016. Host-plant relationships and natural enemies of the invasive mealybug, Rastrococcus iceryoides Green in Kenya and Tanzania. Journal of Applied Entomology. 140 (9), 655-668. DOI:10.1111/jen.12292

Witt A, Luke Q, 2017. Guide to the naturalized and invasive plants of Eastern Africa. [ed. by Witt A, Luke Q]. Wallingford, UK: CABI. vi + 601 pp. DOI:10.1079/9781786392145.0000

Zulperi D, Manaf N, Ismail S I, Karam D S, Yusof M T, 2017. First report of Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii causing fruit bronzing of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus), a new emerging disease in Peninsular Malaysia. Plant Disease. 101 (5), 831. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-11-16-1689-PDN

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