Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Psittacula eupatria
(Alexandrine parakeet)

Mori E, 2021. Psittacula eupatria (Alexandrine parakeet). Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CABI. DOI:10.1079/ISC.18174936.20220079339

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Datasheet

Psittacula eupatria (Alexandrine parakeet)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 13 February 2022
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Psittacula eupatria
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Alexandrine parakeet
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Chordata
  •       Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •         Class: Aves
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • The Alexandrine parakeet, P. eupatria, is a common, large-sized (±60 cm) parrot species with red shoulder patches. Its native range includes a large part of Southern Asia, from eastern Afghanistan to the Himalayan ridge and t...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Psittacula eupatria (Alexandrine parakeet); Habit. Ayutthaya, Thailand. February 2017.
TitleHabit
CaptionPsittacula eupatria (Alexandrine parakeet); Habit. Ayutthaya, Thailand. February 2017.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by lonelyshrimp/via Flickr - CC0 1.0
Psittacula eupatria (Alexandrine parakeet); Habit. Ayutthaya, Thailand. February 2017.
HabitPsittacula eupatria (Alexandrine parakeet); Habit. Ayutthaya, Thailand. February 2017.Public Domain - Released by lonelyshrimp/via Flickr - CC0 1.0
Psittacula eupatria (Alexandrine parakeet); Adult male in urban habit. New Delhi, India. September 2014.
TitleUrban habit
CaptionPsittacula eupatria (Alexandrine parakeet); Adult male in urban habit. New Delhi, India. September 2014.
Copyright©Donald Hobern/via Flickr - CC BY 2.0
Psittacula eupatria (Alexandrine parakeet); Adult male in urban habit. New Delhi, India. September 2014.
Urban habitPsittacula eupatria (Alexandrine parakeet); Adult male in urban habit. New Delhi, India. September 2014.©Donald Hobern/via Flickr - CC BY 2.0
Psittacula eupatria (Alexandrine parakeet); Adult male. Istanbul, Turkey. October 2016.
TitleAdult male
CaptionPsittacula eupatria (Alexandrine parakeet); Adult male. Istanbul, Turkey. October 2016.
Copyright©Ragnhild&Neil Crawford/via Flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Psittacula eupatria (Alexandrine parakeet); Adult male. Istanbul, Turkey. October 2016.
Adult malePsittacula eupatria (Alexandrine parakeet); Adult male. Istanbul, Turkey. October 2016.©Ragnhild&Neil Crawford/via Flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Psittacula eupatria (Alexandrine parakeet); Adult female. Goregaon, Mumbai, Maharashtra. April 2020.
TitleAdult female
CaptionPsittacula eupatria (Alexandrine parakeet); Adult female. Goregaon, Mumbai, Maharashtra. April 2020.
Copyright©Dr. Raju Kasambe/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Psittacula eupatria (Alexandrine parakeet); Adult female. Goregaon, Mumbai, Maharashtra. April 2020.
Adult femalePsittacula eupatria (Alexandrine parakeet); Adult female. Goregaon, Mumbai, Maharashtra. April 2020.©Dr. Raju Kasambe/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Psittacula eupatria (Alexandrine parakeet); Adult female. Islamabad, Pakistan. Jan 2018.
TitleAdult female
CaptionPsittacula eupatria (Alexandrine parakeet); Adult female. Islamabad, Pakistan. Jan 2018.
Copyright©Imran Shah/via Flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Psittacula eupatria (Alexandrine parakeet); Adult female. Islamabad, Pakistan. Jan 2018.
Adult femalePsittacula eupatria (Alexandrine parakeet); Adult female. Islamabad, Pakistan. Jan 2018.©Imran Shah/via Flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Psittacula eupatria (Alexandrine parakeet); Adult male. Yavatmal district, Maharashtra, India. October 2017.
TitleAdult male
CaptionPsittacula eupatria (Alexandrine parakeet); Adult male. Yavatmal district, Maharashtra, India. October 2017.
Copyright©Dr. Raju Kasambe/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Psittacula eupatria (Alexandrine parakeet); Adult male. Yavatmal district, Maharashtra, India. October 2017.
Adult malePsittacula eupatria (Alexandrine parakeet); Adult male. Yavatmal district, Maharashtra, India. October 2017.©Dr. Raju Kasambe/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Psittacula eupatria (Alexandrine parakeet); Adult female. Goregaon, Mumbai, Maharashtra. April 2020.
TitleAdult female
CaptionPsittacula eupatria (Alexandrine parakeet); Adult female. Goregaon, Mumbai, Maharashtra. April 2020.
Copyright©Dr. Raju Kasambe/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Psittacula eupatria (Alexandrine parakeet); Adult female. Goregaon, Mumbai, Maharashtra. April 2020.
Adult femalePsittacula eupatria (Alexandrine parakeet); Adult female. Goregaon, Mumbai, Maharashtra. April 2020.©Dr. Raju Kasambe/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Psittacula eupatria (Linnaeus, 1766)

Preferred Common Name

  • Alexandrine parakeet

Other Scientific Names

  • Palaeornis eupatria (Linnaeus, 1766)
  • Psittacula eupatria avensis (Kloss, 1917)
  • Psittacula eupatria eupatria (Linnaeus, 1766)
  • Psittacula eupatria magnirostris (Ball, 1872)
  • Psittacula eupatria nipalensis (Hodgson, 1836)
  • Psittacula eupatria siamensis (Kloss, 1917)
  • Psittacus eupatria Linnaeus, 1766

International Common Names

  • Italian: parrocchetto Alessandrino
  • Spanish: cotorra Alejandrina
  • French: perruche Alexandre
  • Russian: Aleksandriiskii popugai
  • Arabic: Alksandrin albabagha
  • Chinese: Yàlìshāndà yīngwǔ

Summary of Invasiveness

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The Alexandrine parakeet, P. eupatria, is a common, large-sized (±60 cm) parrot species with red shoulder patches. Its native range includes a large part of Southern Asia, from eastern Afghanistan to the Himalayan ridge and through most of lowland forests of South Asia, to Indochina. Since the end of the last century, the Alexandrine parakeet, due to its popularity as a cage species, has established alien populations in Europe, parts of the Middle East and Far East countries such as Japan and Hong Kong. During the ongoing invasion process, the Alexandrine parakeet has considerably increased its ecological niche into colder climates (particularly in Europe), with respect to those attended in the native range. Interspecific facilitation with previously established ring-necked parakeets Psittacula krameri may have helped this niche expansion, as well as the establishment success of the Alexandrine parakeet. Despite this, its spread seems to be lower than that of the ring-necked parakeet in the introduced area. Both in the native and in the introduced range, the Alexandrine parakeet may represent a threat to cultivation, particularly orchards, and it may compete with native cavity-nesting birds. Species Distribution Models predict a high invasion risk across most areas where the species is currently not present, thus suggesting a high potential risk for further invasion and range expansion.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Chordata
  •             Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •                 Class: Aves
  •                     Order: Psittaciformes
  •                         Family: Psittacidae
  •                             Genus: Psittacula
  •                                 Species: Psittacula eupatria

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Four subspecies are identified in the native range (Forshaw, 2010), confirmed by morphological and genetic markers (see Braun et al., 2019), with no genetic information on introduced populations:

Psittacula eupatria eupatria: Southern India and Sri Lanka;

Psittacula eupatria nipalensis: Eastern Afghanistan, Himalayan Pakistan, Northern and Central India, Nepal and Bhutan;

Psittacula eupatria avensis: Eastern India, Myanmar and Western Thailand;

Psittacula eupatria siamensis: Thailand, Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam;

Psittacula eupatria magnirostris: Andamane Islands.

IUCN classified it under the genus Palaeornis (cf. Braun et al., 2019), but this reclassification is not yet globally accepted.

Description

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Psittacula eupatria is a large parrot species, with a body length of about 60 cm and a long tail. This species shows a massive red bill. The whole body is mostly green, with red shoulder patches. The species is sexually dimorphic. Adult males show a wide rose-pink collar encircling the hindneck and black stripes across lower cheeks, mauve-blue occipital areas and cheeks. Females and subadults lack head markings (Forshaw, 2010). F1 hybrids P. eupatria x P. krameri are smaller and show orange-to-yellowish shoulder patches (Krause, 2004; Postigo, 2016). In hybrid individuals, shoulder patches may be absent (Postigo, 2016).

Distribution

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For details of distribution, see tables. Reports of captive parakeets in zoos and aviaries are not included in the tables.

Native Range (Forshaw, 2010 ; BirdLife International, 2017)

Afghanistan

It only occurs in the northeastern part of the country, i.e. around Kabul.

Pakistan

It occurs in the northern and central part of the country.

Nepal

Widespread throughout the country.

Bhutan

Widespread in the southern part of the country.

India

Widespread in the northernmost part of the country (Punjab, Uttar Pradesh), in the western coast, in the central regions and eastwards up to Assam and Manipur.

Sri Lanka

Widespread throughout the country.

Bangladesh

Quite rare, but mostly occurring in the Dhaka and Rajshahi divisions (Sourav et al., 2018).

Myanmar

Mostly present in the eastern and southern parts.

Thailand

Mostly present in the eastern and southern parts.

Cambodia

Only occurring in central and southern areas.

Laos

Only recorded in southernmost part of the country.

Vietnam

Very rare and only occurring only in north and central regions.

Introduced Range (cf. Ancillotto et al., 2016)

Europe

Germany

Psittacula eupatria in Germany occurs in the urban park of Wiesbaden, near Frankfurt, at Cologne, Mainz and Bonn. In Cologne, the population was estimated of near 200 individuals in 2011 (Ancillotto et al., 2016). A single individual has been observed in the surroundings of Berlin in 2021.

United Kingdom

The species is considered as a rare alien in the United Kingdom, occurring only with scattered individuals (1-3) in SE England, apart from a single adult male observed near Birmingham in 2020.

Belgium

Psittacula eupatria in Belgium occurs in Evere and Bruxelles, with an estimated population of several hundreds of birds in 2015 (Ancillotto et al., 2016).

Netherlands

A population of Alexandrine parakeets is well established in an urban park in urban parks of Amsterdam and Groningen (Jonker, 2010 ; Klaassen and Hustings, 2010) and local counts estimated over 200 individuals in 2014 (Kleunen et al., 2014 ; Ancillotto et al., 2016).

Greece

Single individuals recorded in Rethymnon, near Arogi and in Acharnes.

Italy

Psittacula eupatria is present in Italy since 2008. Two reproductive populations are present, the largest one in Reggio Emilia with about 20 individuals (Viviano and Mori, 2021) and the other one in Rome, with 3-4 individuals (Ancillotto et al., 2016). Records of single free–ranging individuals occurred in other localities in northern (Mori et al., 2013) and central Italy, in one case being observed for several consecutive years (Genoa, 1994 -1998), but with no sign of breeding (Borgo et al., 2005).

Spain

In 2015-2016, three hybrid individuals of P. eupatria x P. krameri were recorded in Malaga (Postigo, 2016), suggesting a potential reproduction event. Other single records were detected in Canary Islands (1994) , Barcelona (2003) , Madrid (2005) , in Motril - Granada (a male in 2018 and 2020), in Marbella-Málaga (2019) and in Almeria (2021: JL Postigo, personal communication, 2021).

France

Two Alexandrine parakeets have been observed in Aubagne in the 1990s and in 2015, with no evidence of reproduction (Cottaz, 2016).

Poland

A single individual observed in Kuyavian-Pomeranian in 2016 (Ancillotto et al., 2016).

Switzerland

Two individuals of Alexandrine parakeet observed in 2016-2017, with no evidence of reproduction.

Middle East and North Africa

Turkey

An established population is present in Istanbul with 23 counted nests in 2012 (Șahın and Arslangündoğdu, 2019). Other Alexandrine parakeets observed in Alhanli, Izmir and Ankara, with no reproduction confirmation (Ancillotto et al., 2016).

Israel

Alexandrine parakeets were observed only twice, in the northern part of the country.

Bahrain

Possibly extinct (Jennings, 2004 ; 2010; Lever, 2005 ; Ancillotto et al., 2016).

United Arab Emirates

Two pairs of P. eupatria started breeding in Abu Dhabi in early 1990s (Jennings, 2010). Scattered individuals repeatedly observed in Dubai (since 1984), Fujairah (since 2005), Sharjah (since 2004), Zabeel (since 2004) and Ra’s al-Khaimah (in 2006).

Qatar

A breeding population is known for Ar Rayyan since 2012 (Ancillotto et al., 2016).

Saudi Arabia

The Alexandrine parakeet is recorded as a breeding species in the city of Jeddah, with individuals occurring up to Makkah (Jennings, 2004 ; Lever, 2005).

Oman

Psittacula eupatria is rare in Oman (Jennings, 2010). Records of single individuals occur from the cities of Al Batinah (2008) , Ash Sharqiyah (2009) and Masqat (2012) .

Yemen

Possibly currently extinct (BirdLife International, 2017).

Kuwait

Possibly currently extinct (Jennings, 2010).

Iran

Alexandrine parakeet is well established in the area of Tehran, being reported in numerous parks and green areas, with a local population of some hundreds of individuals (Khaleghizadeh, 2004 ; Ancillotto et al., 2016).

Iraq

The Alexandrine parakeet has been observed for the first time in the wild in Iraq in 2019, in the Babylon archaeological site (Abed et al., 2020).

Algeria

Few individuals were observed since early 2000s and 3-4 breeding pairs present in the metropolitan area of Algiers (Ancillotto et al., 2016).

Egypt

In 2021, a single male adult individual has been recorded in the northernmost part of Il Cairo.

Far East

Japan

First documented breeding of P. eupatria dates back to 2000, in Central Honshu (Lever, 2005 ; Kawakami and Kanouchi, 2012), where it is still present (Shiels and Kalodimos, 2019).

Hong Kong

Psittacula eupatria is present and breeding in Kowloon Park, Hong Kong, since at least 2008 (Shiels and Kalodimos, 2019).

China

An individual of P. eupatria was recorded in 2006 at Nongmo Hu (Ruili Lake).

Oceania

Australia

Occasional records the Australian subcontinent, mostly from the State of Victoria, possibly referring to single escaped individuals.

America

USA

Single records in 1959 (California), 1947 (Michigan), 1990 (Hawaii) (Runde et al., 2007). Recent records of single individuals occurred in 2002-2016, with no evidence of reproduction (Uehling et al., 2019).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 17 Dec 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresent, Few occurrences, Confirmed present by surveyIntroduced2000
EgyptPresent, Few occurrences, Confirmed present by surveyIntroduced2021Unpublished data from iNaturalist

Asia

AfghanistanPresent, Widespread, Confirmed present by surveyNative
BahrainPresent, Few occurrences, Confirmed present by survey2000Introduced2000Possibly extinct
BangladeshPresent, Widespread, Confirmed present by surveyNative
BhutanPresent, Widespread, Confirmed present by surveyNative
CambodiaPresent, Widespread, Confirmed present by surveyNative
ChinaPresent, Few occurrences, Confirmed present by survey2006Introduced2006
Hong KongPresent, Localized, Confirmed present by surveyIntroduced2008
IndiaPresent, Widespread, Confirmed present by surveyNative
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresent, Widespread, Confirmed present by surveyNative
-Andhra PradeshPresent, Widespread, Confirmed present by surveyNative
-Arunachal PradeshPresent, Widespread, Confirmed present by surveyNative
-AssamPresent, Widespread, Confirmed present by surveyNative
-BiharPresent, Widespread, Confirmed present by surveyNative
-ChandigarhPresent, Widespread, Confirmed present by surveyNative
-ChhattisgarhPresent, Widespread, Confirmed present by surveyNative
-Dadra and Nagar HaveliPresent, Widespread, Confirmed present by surveyNative
-Daman and DiuPresent, Widespread, Confirmed present by surveyNative
-DelhiPresent, Widespread, Confirmed present by surveyNative
-GoaPresent, Widespread, Confirmed present by surveyNative
-GujaratPresent, Widespread, Confirmed present by surveyNative
-HaryanaPresent, Widespread, Confirmed present by surveyNative
-Himachal PradeshPresent, Widespread, Confirmed present by surveyNative
-Jammu and KashmirPresent, Widespread, Confirmed present by surveyNative
-JharkhandPresent, Widespread, Confirmed present by surveyNative
-KarnatakaPresent, Widespread, Confirmed present by surveyNative
-KeralaPresent, Widespread, Confirmed present by surveyNative
-LakshadweepPresent, Widespread, Confirmed present by surveyNative
-Madhya PradeshPresent, Widespread, Confirmed present by surveyNative
-MaharashtraPresent, Widespread, Confirmed present by surveyNative
-ManipurPresent, Widespread, Confirmed present by surveyNative
-MeghalayaPresent, Widespread, Confirmed present by surveyNative
-MizoramPresent, Widespread, Confirmed present by surveyNative
-NagalandPresent, Widespread, Confirmed present by surveyNative
-OdishaPresent, Widespread, Confirmed present by surveyNative
-PuducherryPresent, Widespread, Confirmed present by surveyNative
-PunjabPresent, Widespread, Confirmed present by surveyNative
-RajasthanPresent, Widespread, Confirmed present by surveyNative
-SikkimPresent, Widespread, Confirmed present by surveyNative
-Tamil NaduPresent, Widespread, Confirmed present by surveyNative
-TelanganaPresent, Widespread, Confirmed present by surveyNative
-TripuraPresent, Widespread, Confirmed present by surveyNative
-Uttar PradeshPresent, Widespread, Confirmed present by surveyNative
-UttarakhandPresent, Widespread, Confirmed present by surveyNative
-West BengalPresent, Widespread, Confirmed present by surveyNative
IranPresent, Localized, Confirmed present by surveyIntroduced2003
IraqPresent, Few occurrences, Confirmed present by surveyIntroduced2019
IsraelPresent, Few occurrences, Confirmed present by survey2011Introduced2005
JapanPresent, Localized, Confirmed present by surveyIntroduced2000
-HonshuPresent, Localized, Confirmed present by surveyIntroduced2000
JordanPresentIntroduced2008
KuwaitPresent, Few occurrences, Confirmed present by surveyIntroducedPossibly currently extinct
LaosPresent, Widespread, Confirmed present by surveyNative
MyanmarPresent, Widespread, Confirmed present by surveyNative
NepalPresent, Widespread, Confirmed present by surveyNative
OmanPresent, Few occurrences, Confirmed present by survey2012Introduced2008
PakistanPresent, Widespread, Confirmed present by surveyNative
PalestinePresentIntroduced2008
QatarPresent, Localized, Confirmed present by surveyIntroduced2012
Saudi ArabiaPresent, Localized, Confirmed present by surveyIntroduced2002
Sri LankaPresent, Widespread, Confirmed present by surveyNative
ThailandPresent, Widespread, Confirmed present by surveyNative
TurkeyPresent, Localized, Confirmed present by surveyIntroduced2005
United Arab EmiratesPresent, Few occurrences, Confirmed present by survey2006Introduced1990
VietnamPresent, Widespread, Confirmed present by surveyNative
YemenPresent, Few occurrences, Confirmed present by surveyIntroduced

Europe

BelgiumPresent, Localized, Confirmed present by surveyIntroduced1998
FrancePresent, Few occurrences, Confirmed present by survey2015Introduced1990No evidence of reproduction
GermanyPresent, Localized, Confirmed present by surveyIntroduced2000
GreecePresent, Few occurrences, Confirmed present by surveyIntroduced2015
ItalyPresent, Localized, Confirmed present by surveyIntroduced2008
NetherlandsPresent, Localized, Confirmed present by surveyIntroduced2000
NorwayPresentIntroduced2004
PolandPresent, Few occurrences, Confirmed present by survey2016Introduced2016Single individual observed
SpainPresent, Few occurrences, Confirmed present by surveyIntroduced1994First reported in the Canary islands in 1994. First reported in mainland Spain in 2003.
-Canary IslandsPresent, Few occurrences, Confirmed present by surveyIntroduced1994
SwitzerlandPresent, Few occurrences, Confirmed present by survey2017Introduced2016No evidence of reproduction
United KingdomPresentIntroduced1996
-EnglandPresent, Few occurrences, Confirmed present by survey2020Introduced2000

North America

United StatesPresent, Few occurrences, Confirmed present by survey2016Introduced1947
-CaliforniaPresent, Few occurrences, Confirmed present by survey1959Introduced1959
-HawaiiPresent, Few occurrences, Confirmed present by survey1990Introduced1990
-MichiganPresent, Few occurrences, Confirmed present by survey1947Introduced1947

Oceania

AustraliaPresent, Few occurrences, Confirmed present by surveyIntroduced

History of Introduction and Spread

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Europe

Germany

The presence of P. eupatria in Germany was first reported in 1987, with one pair detected in the urban park of Wiesbaden, near Frankfurt. Three adult pairs and nine fledglings occurred in the same park in 1990. Breeding was certified at Cologne in 1993 (with eight breeding pairs in Schlosspark Stammheim) and at Mainz and Bonn since 2007 (Bauer and Woog, 2008). In Düsseldorf, one adult female and hybrids with the congeneric ring-necked parakeet Psittacula krameri were observed in 1999 (Krause, 2004). In Cologne, individuals of P. eupatria represent escapees from the local zoo; in 2011, the population was estimated to be 150-200 individuals. A single individual has been observed in the surroundings of Berlin in 2021.

United Kingdom

First scattered observations of Alexandrine parakeets in the UK date back to 1993, with very few individuals associated to flocks of P. krameri (Morgan, 1993). The first successful breeding events was recorded in 1998 in Merseyside (Butler, 2005 ; Parrot et al., 2008). The small flock (n=12) of Alexandrine parakeets in Fazackerley (Merseyside) was eradicated by direct shooting (Butler, 2002) and no recent record is available for recent years. Other reproductive events were recorded at Foots Cray Meadows in Sidcup in 2001 (Parrot et al., 2008) and in Bromley in 2008 (Arnold et al., 2017). Hybrids were observed breeding in Kent in 2001 and 2002 (Arnold et al., 2017). The species is considered as a rare alien in the United Kingdom, occurring only in SE England, apart from a single adult male observed near Birmingham in 2020. Only isolated breeding pairs or small flocks (one to three individuals) have been recorded so far, but it is possible that the species could be much more widespread, due to its similarity with P. krameri (Ancillotto et al., 2016).

Belgium

The first detection of P. eupatria for Belgium is the sighting of three adult individuals within a flock of rose-ringed parakeets in Evere, in 1998 (Weiserbs et al., 2000). In 1999, six breeding pairs were recorded at two urban parks in Brussels (Scaillet, 1999) and nine pairs were recorded at the same sites in 2000. In 2004, 35-40 breeding pairs were counted (Weiserbs and Jacob, 2007). In 2015, the population was estimated to count several hundreds of birds (Ancillotto et al., 2016).

Netherlands

The first individual of Alexandrine parakeets in the Netherlands was an adult individual observed several times in an urban park in Groningen (Noorderplantsoen) (Klaassen and Hustings, 2010) in 1996 and 1997. A population of Alexandrine parakeets is well established in an urban park in the city centre of Amsterdam since 2010 (Vondelpark) (Jonker, 2010 ; Klaassen and Hustings, 2010) and counts by local birdwatchers estimated around 60-100 individuals in 2010 (Ancillotto et al., 2016). In 2013, a breeding pair was recorded also in another urban park in Amsterdam (Oosterpark), 3 km away from the first site. Kleunen et al. (2014) reported near 210 Alexandrine parakeets in Amsterdam in 2014. Hybrids with P. krameri were observed in Vondelpark. In Haarlem, Klaassen (2014) observed three Alexandrine parakeets with no breeding confirmation. Several individuals have also been recorded in Groningen since 2015, but no population estimate is available.

Greece

An adult individual of P. eupatria and a hybrid with P. krameri were observed in 2002 in Rethymnon (Crete) (Ancillotto et al., 2016). Other single individuals have been recorded near Arogi in 2020 and in Acharnes in 2021.

Italy

First documented records of P. eupatria in Rome report a single adult male repeatedly observed in La Caffarella urban park in 2010 and 2011 (Ancillotto et al., 2016). Afterwards, two adults were recorded at the wildlife rescue centre of Rome in 2011-2012, both from La Caffarella urban park. In 2014, hybrids (P. eupatria x P. krameri) were reported, together with one adult male P. eupatria resident in the area, together with a flock of P. krameri . Reproduction of P. eupatria in Rome is recorded since 2015 (Angelici and Fiorillo, 2015 ; Ancillotto et al., 2016). Since 2008, the species is also present and breeding in Reggio Emilia, with 16 individuals and several hybrids P. eupatria x P. krameri occurring in 2020 (Viviano and Mori, 2021). Records of free–ranging individuals were also recorded in four other localities in northern (Bologna, Genoa and Turin: Mori et al., 2013) and central (Boccheggiano, Montieri) Italy, in one case being observed for several consecutive years (Genoa, 1994 -1998), with no sign of breeding though (Borgo et al., 2005).

Spain

Alexandrine parakeets were also observed in Spain, with three individuals, one in Canary Islands (1994) , one in Barcelona (2003) and one in Madrid (2005) . In 2015-2016, three hybrid individuals of P. eupatria x P. krameri have been observed in Malaga (Postigo, 2016), suggesting that a reproduction event has occurred in this city.

France

Two individuals have been recorded in Aubagne, 17 km east of Marseille, with no evidence of reproduction, in late 1990s and in 2015 (Cottaz, 2016).

Poland

An Alexandrine parakeet has been observed in Kuyavian-Pomeranian in 2016 (Ancillotto et al., 2016).

Switzerland

Two individuals of Alexandrine parakeet have been observed near Cugnasco in 2016-2017, with no evidence of reproduction.

Middle East and North Africa

Turkey

An established population is present in Istanbul with 23 counted nests in 2012 (Șahın and Arslangündoğdu, 2019) with first reported records dating back to 1998, although the population probably established much earlier than this date (Per, 2017). Other individuals have been observed in Alhanli, Izmir and Ankara, where hybrids with P. krameri were also observed (Ancillotto et al., 2016).

Israel

Alexandrine parakeets were observed only twice, in the northern part of the country. Two individuals were detected at a roost with P. krameri in Rehovot and Pardes Hanna in 2005; a pair was also observed in Rosh Pina, with no evidence of breeding (Ancillotto et al., 2016).

Bahrain

First records of free-living Alexandrine parakeets in Bahrain date back to 1989. Many small flocks have been reported since early 1990s in Busaytin, Al Muharraq and Manama (Jennings, 2004 ; 2010; Lever, 2005 ; Ancillotto et al., 2016 ; BirdLife International, 2017).

United Arab Emirates

One or two pairs of P. eupatria started breeding in Abu Dhabi in early 1990s, where they have been observed since 1988 (Jennings, 2010). Other scattered individuals were also repeatedly observed in Dubai (since 1984), Fujairah (since 2005), Sharjah (since 2004) and Zabeel (since 2004). Two further records are also reported from Ra’s al-Khaimah, in 2006. The population of Alexandrine parakeets is increasing and expanding its range in this country, forming other small reproductive nuclei (Richardson, 1992 ; Jennings, 2004 ; 2010; Lever, 2005), accounting for less than 100 breeding pairs in 1996 (Jennings, 2010).

Qatar

First records dated back to 1982 (Jennings, 2010). A breeding population is known for the municipality of Ar Rayyan since 2012, but no data are available on population size or status (Ancillotto et al., 2016).

Saudi Arabia

First records occurred in the Eastern Province in 1983 (Jennings, 2010). The Alexandrine parakeet was actually recorded as a breeding species in the city of Jeddah, with individuals occurring up to Makkah, since 1997 but no data about the size of this population is available (Jennings, 2004 ; Lever, 2005).

Oman

The first record of P. eupatria in Southern Oman dates back to 1994 and to 1997 in Northern Oman (Jennings, 2010). Currently, the species is considered ‘rare’ in this area (Jennings, 2010). Records of single individuals from the cities of Al Batinah (2008) , Ash Sharqiyah (2009) and Masqat (2012) suggest multiple releases, with no confirmation of established populations.

Yemen

The population of Alexandrine parakeet introduced in Yemen since 1983 (in Sana’a) (Jennings, 2010), but it may be currently extinct (BirdLife International, 2017).

Kuwait

No data confirm breeding events by Alexandrine parakeets recorded in Kuwait since 1995 (Jennings, 2010).

Iran

The first record of P. eupatria in Iran is of two individuals on Kharg Island in early 1970s (Scott et al., 1975). Other records are from around the city of Tehran since 1997 (Khaleghizadeh and Sehhati, 2004). In the early 2000s, about 25 individuals were counted in the Evin district of Tehran, with a single additional record from Karaj (Khaleghizadeh, 2004). The Alexandrine parakeet is well established in the area of Tehran, being reported in numerous parks and green areas, with a local population of 300-500 individuals in 2004 (Jalali, 2004 ; Khaleghizadeh, 2004 ; Khaleghizadeh and Sehhati, 2004).

Iraq

The Alexandrine parakeet was observed for the first time in the wild in Iraq in 2019, in the Babylon archaeological site (Abed et al., 2020).

Algeria

Fellous et al. (2005) recorded the presence of a single Alexandrine parakeet in Algiers. Few individuals have been observed since 2007 and 3-4 breeding pairs are currently present in this metropolitan area (Ancillotto et al., 2016), living in mixed colonies with ring-necked parakeets P. krameri ; hybrids were also present.

Egypt

In 2021, a single male adult individual has been recorded in the northernmost part of Cairo.

Far East

Japan

Single individuals have been observed in 1961 and 1982, but the first documented breeding of P. eupatria dates back to 2000, in Central Honshu (Tokyo) (Lever, 2005 ; Kawakami and Kanouchi, 2012). Eguchi and Amano (2004) confirmed the presence of this breeding species in Tokyo, but without population estimate (cf. also Shiels and Kalodimos, 2019).

Hong Kong

Psittacula eupatria is present and breeding in Kowloon Park, Hong Kong, at least since 2008; this population of unknown size shares the park with P. krameri and mixed-species pairs were observed (Shiels and Kalodimos, 2019).

China

An individual of P. eupatria has been observed at Nongmo Hu (Ruili Lake) in 2006 (Ancillotto et al., 2016).

Oceania

Australia

The few records for Australia are mostly from Southern areas, e.g. from the State of Victoria and may refer to individuals escaped from cages since the 1970s (Ancillotto et al., 2016).

America

USA

Three relatively old records are available for North America, probably being occasional escapees, in 1959 (California), 1947 (Michigan), 1990 (Hawaii) (Runde et al., 2007). Three more recent records of single individuals occurred in 2002-2016, with no evidence of reproduction (Uehling et al., 2019).

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Germany 2000 Pet trade (pathway cause)Unknown Yes Ancillotto et al. (2016)
UK 2000 Pet trade (pathway cause)Unknown No Ancillotto et al. (2016)
Belgium 1998 Pet trade (pathway cause)Unknown Yes Weiserbs (2000), Ancillotto et al. (2016)
Netherlands 2000 Pet trade (pathway cause)Unknown Yes Jonker (2010), Klaassen and Hustings (2010), Kleunen (2014), Ancillotto et al. (2016)
France 1990 Pet trade (pathway cause)Unknown No Ancillotto et al. (2016), Cottaz (2016)
Italy 2008 Pet trade (pathway cause)Unknown Yes Ancillotto et al. (2016), Viviano and Mori (2021)
Spain 1994 Pet trade (pathway cause)Unknown Yes Ancillotto et al. (2016), Postigo (2016)
Poland 2016 Pet trade (pathway cause)Unknown No Ancillotto et al. (2016)
Switzerland 2016 Pet trade (pathway cause)Unknown No Ancillotto et al. (2016)
Turkey 2005 Pet trade (pathway cause)Unknown Yes Ancillotto et al. (2016), Șahın and Arslangündoğdu (2019)
Israel 2005 Pet trade (pathway cause)Unknown No Ancillotto et al. (2016)
Bahrain Pet trade (pathway cause)Unknown No Jennings (2004; 2010), Ancillotto et al. (2016)
United Arab Emirates 1990 Pet trade (pathway cause)Unknown Yes Jennings (2010), Ancillotto et al. (2016)
Qatar 2012 Pet trade (pathway cause)Unknown Yes Ancillotto et al. (2016)
Saudi Arabia 2002 Pet trade (pathway cause)Unknown Yes Jennings (2004), Ancillotto et al. (2016)
Oman 2008 Pet trade (pathway cause)Unknown No Jennings (2010), Ancillotto et al. (2016)
Yemen Pet trade (pathway cause)Unknown No Ancillotto et al. (2016), BirdLife International (2017)
Iran 2003 Pet trade (pathway cause)Unknown Yes Khaleghizadeh (2004), Ancillotto et al. (2016)
Iraq 2019 Pet trade (pathway cause)Unknown No Abed et al. (2020)
Algeria 2000 Pet trade (pathway cause)Unknown No Ancillotto et al. (2016)
Egypt 2021 Pet trade (pathway cause)Unknown No GBIF (2021) Unpublished data from iNaturalist.org
Japan 2000 Pet trade (pathway cause)Unknown Yes Ancillotto et al. (2016), Shiels and Kalodimos (2019)
Hong Kong 2008 Pet trade (pathway cause)Unknown Yes Shiels and Kalodimos (2019)
China 2006 Pet trade (pathway cause)Unknown No Ancillotto et al. (2016)
Australia Pet trade (pathway cause)Unknown No Ancillotto et al. (2016)
USA 1947 Pet trade (pathway cause)Unknown No Ancillotto et al. (2016), Uehling et al. (2019)

Risk of Introduction

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The pet trade is the main pathway of introduction of P. eupatria. It can intentionally or unintentionally escape during transport, as well as from aviaries or cages. All these escapes may lead to the establishment of free-ranging populations, as happened in the city of Groningen, although most information of escapes from cages and aviaries derives from similar species, e.g. Psittacula krameri (Cardador et al., 2016; 2017). With regard to the possibility of spread from currently established populations: in the introduced range, there are still few established P. eupatria populations. However, Species Distribution Models by Ancillotto et al. (2016) predicted a high invasion risk across most areas outside the native range where the species is currently not present, therefore suggesting a potential high risk for further invasion and range expansion. The increasing popularity of free flying pet parrots, indicated by growing numbers of videos (e.g. on YouTube) showing this, may make their accidental release and spread more likely.

Habitat

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Psittacula eupatria is a typical species of forests and woodlands (including degraded ones), but it also occurs in cultivated areas and mangroves, as well as in urban and peri-urban parks, mostly below 900 m but locally up to 1600 m above sea level (Juniper and Parr, 1998; BirdLife International, 2017; Sourav et al., 2018).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalDisturbed areas Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Terrestrial ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Principal habitat Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalScrub / shrublands Present, no further details Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The genus Psittacula seems to represent a paraphyletic assemblage and P. eupatria may belong to the different genus Palaeornis (Braun et al., 2019), together with the extinct Seychelles parakeet Psittacula wardi , and it represents the sister group of Psittacula krameri . The Andamane Alexandrine parakeet P. eupatria magnirostris seems to be the first subspecies to diverge within this species, whereas the Siamese and the nominal subspecies represent well-supported sister groups (Braun et al., 2019). Hybridization between P. eupatria and P. krameri may occur, at least in the introduced range and at least F1 hybrids are fertile and show intermediate phenotypic features (Krause, 2004 ; Ancillotto et al., 2016 ; Postigo, 2016).

Reproductive Biology

Psittacula eupatria is known to nest in tree cavities and, very rarely, also in wall crevices and holes (Ali and Ripley, 1983 ; Angelici and Fiorillo, 2015). In Turkey, the most used plant species for breeding are Platanus acerifolia , Pinus pinea and Celtis australis (Șahın and Arslangündoğdu, 2019). Alexandrine parakeets use cavities higher than those used by the ring-necked parakeets, where coexisting (Șahın and Arslangündoğdu, 2019).

Physiology and Phenology

Psittacula eupatria attains sexual maturity at about 3 years of age and generally breeds from November to April, depending on geographic location, although in the introduced range the reproduction may occur also in late spring-early summer (Ali and Ripley, 1983 ; Ancillotto et al., 2016 ; Șahın and Arslangündoğdu, 2019). Inspections of tree cavities in the native range occurs in August-September and fledging in April (Sourav et al., 2018).

Longevity

The life expectancy of P. eupatria is about 20-30 years (in captivity). No data are available for longevity in nature.

Activity Patterns

Outside the breeding period, Alexandrine parakeets roost in common roosting areas in trees at night, gathering together at dusk and leaving at dawn. Breeding individuals feed chicks regularly between 10:00 to 17:30 once every 10-35 min by both the male and the female (Sourav et al., 2018). At night, only the female feeds the chicks, whereas males join other individuals at shared night-time roosts (Sourav et al., 2018). Non-breeding individuals spend the morning and the early evening close to nests. Nocturnal roosts may be peacefully shared with ring-necked parakeets both in the native and in the introduced ranges (Sourav et al., 2018 ; Viviano and Mori, 2021). The same roosting area may be used for tens of years (Sourav et al., 2018).

Population Size and Density

Very little is known on population size and density, as the Alexandrine parakeets use the same roost site as ring-necked parakeets, it is difficult to make reliable estimates. The species is classified as ‘declining’ in its native range. The district of Dhaka hosts about 70 individuals of P. eupatria (BirdLife International, 2017). Over 950 individuals currently occur in Europe and over 750 in the Middle East.

Nutrition

Alexandrine parakeets may feed on a wide range of wild and cultivated seeds, flowers, buds, nectar, grain, fruit and vegetables (Ali and Ripley, 1983 ; Juniper and Parr, 1998). In Pakistan, it is considered a serious crop pest with about 70% of its local diet in farmed areas (Juniper and Parr, 1998). In Bangladesh, Sourav et al. (2018) identified 16 tree species where parakeets foraged, preferring the Bengal almond (Terminalia catappa) and the ber (Ziziphus mauritiana). Seven species were consumed daily (Ziziphus mauritiana , Polyalthia longifolia , Spathodea campanulata , Acacia moniliformis [ Acacia auriculiformis ], Albizia saman [ Samanea saman ], T. catappa and Gmelina arborea), six were used often (two to four times in a week) (Neolamarckia cadamba , Putranjiva roxburghii , Melia azedarach , Tectona grandis , Albizia richardiana [ Albizia niopoides ] and Senna siamea) and three were rarely consumed (Lagerstroemia indica , Leucaena leucocephala and Psidium guajava). In this area, Alexandrine parakeets mostly feed on seeds taken from fruits, followed by flower buds. In Iran, the diet of introduced P. eupatria was mostly composed by seeds of Pinus pinea, Platanus orientalis , Cupressus sempervirens , Cydonia oblonga, Diospyros kaki and Pyrus communis (Khaleghizadeh, 2004). Persimmons (D. kaki) are also widely consumed in Italy (Viviano and Mori, 2021). Both in the native and in the introduced range, P. eupatria feeds together with P. krameri apparently without competition (Sourav et al., 2018 ; Viviano and Mori, 2021).

Natural Food Sources

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Food SourceFood Source DatasheetLife StageContribution to Total Food Intake (%)Details
Acacia moniliformis [Acacia auriculiformis] All Stages Native range
Albizia richardiana [Albizia niopoides] All Stages Native range
Albizia saman [Samanea saman] All Stages Native range
Gmelina arborea All Stages Native range
Lagerstroemia indica All Stages Native range
Leucaena leucocephala All Stages Native range
Melia azedarach All Stages Native range
Neolamarckia cadamba All Stages Native range
Polyalthia longifolia All Stages Native range
Psidium guajava All Stages Native range
Putranjiva roxburghii All Stages Native range
Senna siamea All Stages Native range
Spathodea campanulata All Stages Native range
Tectona grandis All Stages Native range
Terminalia catappa All Stages Native and introduced range
Ziziphus mauritiana All Stages Native range
Ziziphus spina-christi All Stages Introduced range
Diospyros kaki All Stages Introduced range
Prosopis juliflora All Stages Introduced range
Phoenix dactylifera All Stages Introduced range
Cydonia oblonga All Stages Introduced range
Cupressus sempervirens All Stages Introduced range
Pyrus communis All Stages Introduced range
Ulmus carpinifolia [Ulmus minor] All Stages Introduced range
Platanus orientalis All Stages Introduced range
Pinus eldarica [Pinus brutia] All Stages Introduced range

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Tolerated > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Tolerated Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
Aw - Tropical  savannah climate with dry winter Preferred
BSh - Steppe climate Tolerated > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation, low altitude, average temp. > 18°C
BSk - Steppe climate Tolerated > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation, mid altitude, average temp. < 18°C
BWh - Desert climate Tolerated < 430mm annual precipitation, low altitude, average temp. > 18°C
Cfb - Maritime temperate climate Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year, warmest month average temp. < 22°C
Csa - Mediterranean climate Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers, warmest month average temp. > 22°C
Cwa - Humid subtropical climate Preferred Humid subtropical climate (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters, warmest month average temp. > 22°C)
Cwb - Maritime temperate climate Tolerated Maritime temperate climate (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters, warmest month average temp. < 22°C)
Dfb - Warm summer continental or hemiboreal climate Tolerated Warm summer continental or hemiboreal climate (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, wet all year, warmest month average temp. < 22°C)
Dwb - Warm summer continental or hemiboreal climate Tolerated Warm summer continental or hemiboreal climate (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry winters, warmest month average temp. < 22°C)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
52.2394 0.1973 0 1600

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) 0 10
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 10 20

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Very little is known about natural enemies. In the native range, the house crow Corvus splendens represents an effective predator of chicks of P. eupatria (Sourav et al., 2018), whereas in the introduced areas, P. eupatria may be preyed on by peregrine falcons Falco peregrinus (E. Mori, unpublished).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Accidental Introduction The pet trade is the main pathway of introduction of P. eupatria. It can accidentally escape during transports, as well as from aviaries or cages.

Intentional Introduction It can be locally intentionally released by humans e.g. by Animal Right Groups.

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Pet tradeNear 58,000 individuals traded between 1981 and 2014 Yes Ancillotto et al. (2016)

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Biodiversity (generally) Negative
Crop production Negative
Native fauna Negative

Economic Impact

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In the native range, P. eupatria is locally considered a serious crop pest, with about 70% of its diet composed of cultivated species (Juniper and Parr, 1998). In the introduced range, first data are available on consumption of persimmons (Diospyros kaki) and other fruits in urban areas (Khalegizadeh, 2004; Viviano and Mori, 2021), but densities are still too low to threaten a consistent economic impact. Potential range expansion may increase the risk for cultivated species.

Environmental Impact

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Impact on Biodiversity

The species seems to be expanding its range in Germany, some authors even suggesting a displacement of Psittacula krameri through competition in the areas where the two species occur in syntopy (Krause, 2004; Bauer and Woog, 2008).

Social Impact

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No data are available for this species. Human tolerance towards a similar species, Psittacula krameri, declined sharply with increasing number of loud calls: any density increase of P. eupatria in the introduced range would result in a similar impact (cf. Mori et al., 2020).

Risk and Impact Factors

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Invasiveness
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Capable of securing and ingesting a wide range of food
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Gregarious
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
Impact outcomes
  • Conflict
  • Increases vulnerability to invasions
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Negatively impacts human health
  • Damages animal/plant products
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition (unspecified)
  • Pest and disease transmission
  • Interaction with other invasive species
  • Pathogenic
  • Interaction with mutualisms
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally illegally
  • Difficult/costly to control

Uses

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Economic Value

Psittacula eupatria is commonly sold as a pet species for about 80-300 euros, depending on age and breeding typology.

Social Benefit

People usually are pleased to see parakeets in urban areas (Berthier et al., 2017; Mori et al., 2020; Ribeiro et al., 2021).

Uses List

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General

  • Botanical garden/zoo
  • Pet/aquarium trade

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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Psittacula eupatria: A less-experienced observer may confuse P. eupatria with P. krameri, but the former is larger in size and it is the only green-headed Psittacula with black stripes across the lower cheek patch and pink collar markings showing red shoulder patches.

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Prevention

Psittacula eupatria is listed within the CITES Annex 2. Further trade limitation (e.g. increases of costs, permission requirements) up to trade ban would reduce the potential of local escapes. Education campaigns should be organized to promote responsible pet ownership.

Eradication

A rapid response to the invasion of the Alexandrine parakeet would improve the success of any management practice (Postigo, 2016). When the first individuals are observed, immediate removal is recommended to prevent the establishment of any expanding population. For any eradication program, the general public should be well-informed on the negative effects of alien species and on the importance of these drastic management operations.

Control

Limitation of food provisioning by humans in urban parks may also limit the establishment success of this species. However, given the high appreciation of parakeets in European cities (Berthier et al., 2017 ; Mori et al., 2020 ; Ribeiro et al., 2021), this management strategy proposal would show poor success.

Monitoring and Surveillance (incl. remote sensing)

This lack of ecological information on Alexandrine parakeet in the introduced range may limit effective biosecurity surveillance and decision-making efforts. Passive and active surveillance methods should be used together in a combined approach with Species Distribution Models. Passive methods (included remote sensing) are useful to assess geographic variables to be used to predict parakeet invasion. Surveillance of high establishment areas also identified by Species Distribution Models (Ancillotto et al., 2016), e.g. those in the vicinity of human settlements (Viviano and Mori, 2021), where free ranging Alexandrine parakeets may affect agricultural production. At the same time, active surveillance by local researchers should be targeted to the areas of highest predicted potential risk.

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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Evidence of competition between introduced P. eupatria and native species, e.g. cavity nesting birds, are still lacking and would require further field investigations, particularly at the start of the breeding season or at the start of the local invasion process.

Similarly, most data on impacts on agriculture and human well-being in the introduced range derives from available information on the similar Psittacula krameri. Thus, further studies particularly for the largest introduced populations of the Alexandrine parakeet should be required.

References

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Abed, S.A., Salim, M.A., Alsaffah, S.M., 2020. First record of Alexandrine parakeet Psittacula eupatria (Psittaculidae, Psittaciformes) (Linnaeus 1766) in Iraq. Indian Journal of Ecology, 47(3): 887-888.

Ali, S., Ripley, S.D., 1983. Compact handbook of birds of India and Pakistan. Bombay, India: Oxford University Press.

Ancillotto, L., Strubbe, D., Menchetti, M., Mori, E., 2016. An overlooked invaded? Ecological niche, invasion success and range dynamics of the Alexandrine parakeet in the invaded range. Biological Invasions, 18(2): 583-595. DOI: 10.1007/s10530-015-1032-y

Angelici, F.M., Fiorillo, A., 2015. Repeated sightings of Alexandrine parakeet Psittacula eupatria in Rome (Central Italy) and its likely acclimatization. Rivista Italiana di Ornitologia, 85:33-35.

Arnold, R., Woodward, I., Smith, S., 2017. Parrots in the London area. In: A London bird atlas supplement. London, UK: London Natural History Society Editions.

Bauer, H.G., Woog, F., 2008. Non-native and naturalized bird species (neozoa) in Germany, part I: occurrence, population size and status. (Nichtheimische Vogelarten (Neozoen) in Deutschland, Teil I: Auftreten, Bestände und Status). Vogelwarte, 46:157-194.

Berthier, A., Clergeau, P., Raymond, R., 2017. De la belle exotique à la belle invasive: perceptions et appréciations de la Perruche à collier (Psittacula krameri) dans la métropole parisienne. Annales de Géographie, 4:408-434.

BirdLife International, 2017. Psittacula eupatria (amended version of 2016 assessment). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T22685434A110985466. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-1.RLTS.T22685434A110985466.en

Borgo, E., Galli, L., Galuppo, C., Maranini, N., Spanò, S., 2005. Atlante Ornitologico della città di Genova. Bollettino dei Musei e degli Istituti Biologici dell'Università di Genova. Genova, Italy: Centro Stampa Offset.

Braun, M.P., Datzmann, T., Arndt, T., Reinschmidt, M., Schnitker, H., Bahr, N., Sauer-Gürth, H., Wink, M., 2019. A molecular phylogeny of the genus Psittacula sensu lato (Aves: Psittaciformes: Psittacidae: Psittacula, Psittinus, Tanygnathus, Mascarinus) with taxonomic implications. Zootaxa, 4563(3):547-562. https://www.mapress.com/j/zt/article/view/zootaxa.4563.3.8

Butler, C.J., 2002. Breeding parrots in Britain. British Birds, 95:345-348.

Butler, C.J., 2005. Feral parrots in the Continental United States and United Kingdom: past, present and future. Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery, 19(2):142-149. DOI: 10.1647/183

Cardador, L., Carrete, M., Gallardo, B., Tella, J.L., 2016. Combining trade data and niche modelling improves predictions of the origin and distribution of non‐native European populations of a globally invasive species. Journal of Biogeography, 43(5):967-978. DOI: 10.1111/jbi.12694

Cardador, L., Lattuada, M., Strubbe, D., Tella, J.L., Reino, L., Figueira, R., Carrete, M., 2017. Regional bans on wild‐bird trade modify invasion risks at a global scale. Conservation Letters, 10(6):717-725. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1755-263X

Cottaz, C., 2016. Fiches de synthèse des EEE èvaluèes pour la règion Provence-Alpes-Cote D’Azur. Technical Report, Règion Provence-Alpes-Cote D’Azur, France.

Eguchi, K., Amano, H.E., 2004. Invasive birds in Japan. Global Environmental Research, 8(1):29-39.

Fellous, A., Moulai, R., Jacob, J.P., 2005. Introduction et nidification de la perruche à collier (Psittacula krameri) en Algèrie. Aves, 42/3:272-277.

Forshaw, J.M., 2010. Parrots of the world. Helm Field Guides. London, UK. 328 pp.

GBIF, 2021. Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Copenhagen, Denmark: GBIF Secretariat. http://www.gbif.org/species

Jalali, A., 2004. A view to parakeets in Tehran. B.Sc. Thesis. Iran: Shahid Beheshti University.

Jennings, M., 2004. Exotics breeding in Arabian cities. Phoenix, 20:2-5.

Jennings, M., 2010. Alexandrine parakeet. In: Atlas of the breeding birds of Arabia. Fauna of Arabia, 25 [ed. by AA.VV.]. Saudi Wildlife Commission, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology. 397-398.

Jonker, R., 2010. Eén, twee, ... veel parkieten! De Gierzwaluw, 47:35-36.

Juniper, T., Parr, M., 1998. Parrots: a guide to parrots of the world. New Haven, Connecticut, USA: Yale University Press.

Kawakami, K., Kanouchi, T., 2012. The handbook of introduced birds in Japan. Tokyo, Japan: Bunichi Sogo Shuppan.

Khaleghizadeh, A., 2004. On the diet and population of the Alexandrine parakeet, Psittacula eupatria, in the urban environment of Tehran, Iran. Zoology of the Middle East, 32:27-32.

Khaleghizadeh, A., Sehhati, M.E., 2004. Range extension and new information for some Iranian birds. Sandgrouse, 25:60-62.

Klaassen, O., 2014. Halsbandparkieten in Nederland in de winter van 2013/2014. Verslag van slaapplaatstellingen. Sovon-rapport 2014/2016. Nederland: Sovon Vogelonderzoek.

Klaassen, O., Hustings, O., 2010. Slaapplaatstelling Halsbandparkieten in Nederland, januari 2010. SOVON-Informatierapport 2010/05. Dit rapport is samengesteld in opdracht van de Gegevensautoriteit Natuur en Team Invasieve Exoten van het Ministerie van Landbouw, Natuur en Voedselkwaliteit.

Kleunen, A. van, Bremer, L. van den, Lensink, R., Wiersma, P., 2014. De Halsbandparkiet, Monniksparkiet en Grote Alexanderparkiet in Nederland: risicoanalyse en beheer. SOVON-onderzoeksrapport 2010/10. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Team Invasieve Exoten van het Ministerie van Landbouw, Natuur en Voedselkwaliteit.

Krause, T., 2004. F1- and F2- hybrids between the Alexander parakeet Psittacula eupatria and ring-necked parakeet P. krameri in the Volksgarten of Düsseldorf. (F1- und F2- Hybriden zwischen Alexandersittich Psittacula eupatria und Halsbandsittich P. krameri im Volksgarten in Düsseldorf). Charadrius, 10(1):7-12.

Lever, C., 2005. Naturalised birds of the world. London, UK: T & AD Poyser.

Morgan, D.H., 1993. Feral rose-ringed parakeets in Britain. British Birds, 86:561-564.

Mori, E., Febbraro, M. di, Foresta, M., Melis, P., Romanazzi, E., Notari, A., Boggiano, F., 2013. Assessment of the current distribution of free-living parrots and parakeets (Aves: Psittaciformes) in Italy: a synthesis of published data and new records. Italian Journal of Zoology, 80(2):158-167. DOI: 10.1080/11250003.2012.738713

Mori, E., Onorati, G., Giuntini, S., 2020. Loud callings limit human tolerance towards invasive parakeets in urban areas. Urban Ecosystems, 23(4):755-760. DOI: 10.1007/s11252-020-00954-y

Parrot, D., Roy, S., Fletcher, M., 2008. The status of scarce and non-native birds and mammals in England. Final Report December 2008. London, UK: Central Science Laboratory.

Per, E., 2017. The first report and preliminary observations on escaped parrot species (Psittaciformes) in Turkey through citizen science. Bird Census News, 30:47-52.

Postigo, J.L., 2016. New records of invasive parakeet hybrids in Spain. A great opportunity to apply the rapid response mechanism. European Journal of Ecology, 2(2):19-22. https://www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j/eje.2016.2.issue-2/eje-2016-0013/eje-2016-0013.pdf

Ribeiro, J., Carneiro, I., Nuno, A., Porto, M., Edelaar, P., Luna, Á., Reino, L., 2021. Investigating people’s perceptions of alien parakeets in urban environments. European Journal of Wildlife Research, 67(3):1-9. DOI: 10.1007/s10344-021-01487-1

Richardson, C., 1992. Escapes and introductions in the United Arab Emirates. Phoenix, 9:13-15.

Runde, D.E., Pitt, W.C., Foster, J.T., 2007. Population ecology and some potential impacts of emerging populations of exotic parrots. Managing Vertebrate Invasive Species, Paper 42. http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/nwrcinvasive/42)

Șahın, D., Arslangündoğdu, Z., 2019. Breeding status and nest characteristics of rose-ringed (Psittacula krameri) and Alexandrine parakeets (Psittacula eupatria) in Istanbul’s city parks. Applied Ecology and Environmental Research, 17(2):2461-2471. DOI: 10.15666/aeer/1702_24612471

Scaillet, C., 1999. Etude de l’adaptation et de l’impact de la Perruchè à collier Psittacula krameri en milieu urbain bruxellois. Gembloux, France: Facultè des Sciences Agronomiques.

Scott, D.A., Hamedani, H.M., Mirhosseyni, A.A., 1975. Birds of Iran [in Farsi]. Tehran: Department of the Environment. 410 pp.

Shiels, A.B., Kalodimos, N.P., 2019. Biology and impacts of Pacific Island invasive species. 15. Psittacula krameri, the rose-ringed parakeet (Psittaciformes-Psittacidae). Pacific Science, 73(4):421-449. DOI: 10.2984/73.4.1

Sourav, M.S.H., Thompson, P.M., Biswas, K.F., 2018. Population and behavioural ecology of Alexandrine parakeet Psittacula eupatria in Dhaka city, Bangladesh. Forktail, 34:22-28.

Uehling, J., Tallant, J., Pruett-Jones, S., 2019. Status of naturalized parrots in the United States. Journal of Ornithology, 160:907-921.

Viviano, A., Mori, E., 2021. Population counts and potential impact of two successful invaders in a town of Northern Italy: the case of ring-necked parakeet and Alexandrine parakeet in Reggio Emilia. Natural History Sciences, 8(1):35-40. DOI: 10.4081/nhs.2021.518

Weiserbs, A., 2010. Espèces invasives: le cas des Psittacidès en Belgique. Incidences, èvaluation des risques et ènventail de mesures. Aves, 47:21-35.

Weiserbs, A., Jacob, J.P., 1999. Etude de la population de perriche jeune-veuve Myiopsitta monachus à Bruxelles. Aves, 36:207-223.

Weiserbs, A., Jacob, J.P., 2007. Oiseaux nicheurs de Bruxelles, 2000-2004: répartition, effectifs, évolution. Aves, 288.

Weiserbs, A., Janssens, M., Jacob, J.P., 2000. Une troisieme perruche nicheuse en Region bruxelloise: la Perruche alexandre Psittacula eupatria. Aves, 37:115-120.

Distribution References

Abed S A, Salim M A, Alsaffah S M, 2020. First record of Alexandrine Parakeet Psittacula eupatria (Psittaculidae, Psittaciformes) (Linnaeus 1766) in Iraq. Indian Journal of Ecology. 47 (3), 887-888.

Șahın D, Arslangündoğdu Z, 2019. Breeding status and nest characteristics of Rose-ringed (Psittacula krameri) and Alexandrine parakeets (Psittacula eupatria) in Istanbul's city parks. Applied Ecology and Environmental Research. 17 (2), 2461-2471. DOI:10.15666/aeer/1702_24612471

Ancillotto L, Strubbe D, Menchetti M, Mori E, 2016. An overlooked invader? Ecological niche, invasion success and range dynamics of the Alexandrine parakeet in the invaded range. Biological Invasions. 18 (2), 583-595. DOI:10.1007/s10530-015-1032-y

BirdLife International, 2017. Psittacula eupatria (amended version of 2016 assessment).The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017. IUCN. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-1.RLTS.T22685434A110985466.en

Forshaw JM, 2010. Parrots of the world. London, UK: Helm Field Guides. 328 pp.

GBIF, 2021. Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Copenhagen, Denmark: GBIF Secretariat. http://www.gbif.org/species

Khaleghizadeh A, 2004. On the diet and population of the Alexandrine parakeet, Psittacula eupatria, in the urban environment of Tehran, Iran. Zoology of the Middle East. 27-32.

Postigo J L, 2016. New records of invasive Parakeet hybrids in Spain. A great opportunity to apply the rapid response mechanism. European Journal of Ecology. 2 (2), 19-22. https://www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j/eje.2016.2.issue-2/eje-2016-0013/eje-2016-0013.pdf

Seebens H, Blackburn T M, Dyer E E, Genovesi P, Hulme P E, Jeschke J M, Pagad S, Pyšek P, Winter M, Arianoutsou M, Bacher S, Blasius B, Brundu G, Capinha C, Celesti-Grapow L, Dawson W, Dullinger S, Fuentes N, Jäger H, Kartesz J, Kenis M, Kreft H, Kühn I, Lenzner B, Liebhold A, Mosena A (et al), 2017. No saturation in the accumulation of alien species worldwide. Nature Communications. 8 (2), 14435. http://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms14435

Shiels A B, Kalodimos N P, 2019. Biology and impacts of Pacific Island invasive species. 15. Psittacula krameri, the rose-ringed parakeet (Psittaciformes: Psittacidae). Pacific Science. 73 (4), 421-449. DOI:10.2984/73.4.1

Uehling J, Tallant J, Pruett-Jones S, 2019. Status of naturalized parrots in the United States. Journal of Ornithology. 907-921.

Viviano A, Mori E, 2021. Population counts and potential impact of two successful invaders in a town of northern Italy: the case of ring-necked parakeet and Alexandrine parakeet in Reggio Emilia. Natural History Sciences. 8 (1), 35-40. DOI:10.4081/nhs.2021.518

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