Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Dichrostachys cinerea
(sickle bush)

Toolbox

Datasheet

Dichrostachys cinerea (sickle bush)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 27 September 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Dichrostachys cinerea
  • Preferred Common Name
  • sickle bush
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • D. cinerea is a fast growing tree that has become an undesirable weed and is particularly a problem in areas where there has been overgrazing. In the areas were it invades the species form very dense thickets making areas impenetrable. The species ca...

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
South-western Zimbabwe.
TitleTree habit
CaptionSouth-western Zimbabwe.
CopyrightChris Fagg, Depto. Ecologia, Univ. Brasilia
South-western Zimbabwe.
Tree habitSouth-western Zimbabwe.Chris Fagg, Depto. Ecologia, Univ. Brasilia
A cluster of immature indehiscent pods, spiny shoots and leaves of D. cinerea near Bulawayo, Zimbabwe.
TitleBranch
CaptionA cluster of immature indehiscent pods, spiny shoots and leaves of D. cinerea near Bulawayo, Zimbabwe.
CopyrightChris Fagg, Depto. Ecologia, Univ. Brasilia
A cluster of immature indehiscent pods, spiny shoots and leaves of D. cinerea near Bulawayo, Zimbabwe.
BranchA cluster of immature indehiscent pods, spiny shoots and leaves of D. cinerea near Bulawayo, Zimbabwe.Chris Fagg, Depto. Ecologia, Univ. Brasilia
A cluster of dark mature pods which are sought by game and livestock in south-western Zimbabwe.
TitleMature pods
CaptionA cluster of dark mature pods which are sought by game and livestock in south-western Zimbabwe.
CopyrightChris Fagg, Depto. Ecologia, Univ. Brasilia
A cluster of dark mature pods which are sought by game and livestock in south-western Zimbabwe.
Mature podsA cluster of dark mature pods which are sought by game and livestock in south-western Zimbabwe.Chris Fagg, Depto. Ecologia, Univ. Brasilia
TitleInflorescence
Caption
CopyrightChris Fagg, Depto. Ecologia, Univ. Brasilia
InflorescenceChris Fagg, Depto. Ecologia, Univ. Brasilia

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Dichrostachys cinerea (L.) Wight & Arn.

Preferred Common Name

  • sickle bush

Other Scientific Names

  • Cailliea cinerea (L.) Macbr.
  • Cailliea dichrostachys (Pers.) Guill. et al.
  • Cailliea glomerata (Forssk.) Macbr.
  • Cailliea nutans (Pers.) Skeels
  • Cailliea platycarpa (Welw. ex Bull) Macbr.
  • Dichrostachys arborea N. E. Br.
  • Dichrostachys glomerata (Forssk.) Chiov.
  • Dichrostachys nutans (Pers.) Benth.
  • Dichrostachys platycarpa Welw. ex Bull
  • Mimosa cinerea L.
  • Mimosa glomerata Forssk.
  • Mimosa nutans Pers.

International Common Names

  • English: Chinese latern tree; marabu thorn; mazabu
  • Spanish: mazabu
  • French: acacia saint domingue; mimosa clochette

Local Common Names

  • Burkina Faso: agarof; kurkur
  • Cape Verde: espinho cachupa; spinho cachupa
  • Cuba: marabu; marabú
  • Germany: Kalahari-Weihnachtsbaum
  • India: bilatri; marult; odatare; segum-kati; vadatalla; veltu; veltura; vidattalai; vurtuli; wadu
  • Mali: giliki; ntirigi
  • Niger: d'und'u
  • Nigeria: d'und'u
  • Senegal: bourri; m'buuri; ntirigi; patroulahi; seb; sinke
  • South Africa: Kalahari Christmas tree; sekelbos; tassels for the chief's hat
  • Sudan: kakada

EPPO code

  • DIRCA (Dichrostachys cinerea subsp. africana)
  • DIRCI (Dichrostachys cinerea)
  • DIRCN (Dichrostachys cinerea subsp. nyassana)
  • DIRNU (Dichrostachys nutans)

Subspecies

  • Dichrostachys cinerea subsp. africana
  • Dichrostachys cinerea subsp. argillicola
  • Dichrostachys cinerea subsp. burmana
  • Dichrostachys cinerea subsp. cinerea
  • Dichrostachys cinerea subsp. forbesii
  • Dichrostachys cinerea subsp. keniensis
  • Dichrostachys cinerea subsp. malesiana
  • Dichrostachys cinerea subsp. nyassana
  • Dichrostachys cinerea subsp. platycarpa

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page D. cinerea is a fast growing tree that has become an undesirable weed and is particularly a problem in areas where there has been overgrazing. In the areas were it invades the species form very dense thickets making areas impenetrable. The species can regenerate from the smallest amount of root or through its root suckers. The seeds can survive for long periods of time in the soil as well as being able to withstand moderate frost. In Cuba, the use of mechanical control methods has been successful in reducing the area covered by D. cinerea, however, it is still a major problem in the country. As of yet there are no biocontrol agents being used although potential agents have been identified. Mechanical and chemical control are currently the most efficient control measures.

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Fabales
  •                         Family: Fabaceae
  •                             Subfamily: Mimosoideae
  •                                 Genus: Dichrostachys
  •                                     Species: Dichrostachys cinerea

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page The generic name Dichrostachys means 'two-coloured spike' and refers to the flowers, and the specific name 'cinerea' is from the Greek 'konis' and Latin 'cineres', referring to the grey hairs on the subspecies confined to India. The species is most commonly known as the 'sickle bush' derived from the curved shape of the pods. It has several common names, for example in South Africa it is called the 'Kalahari Christmas tree' and sometimes called the 'tassels for the chief's hat' (World Agroforestry Centre, 2004).

Description

Top of page D. cinerea is a highly variable thorny shrub or small tree to 8 m tall though often smaller. The bark on young branches is green and densely to sparsely puberulous, and on the older branches is dark-grey brown and longitudinally fissured. The branches have strong alternate lateral shoots to 8 cm long appearing as thorns that may have leaves at the base. Leaves are bipinnate, 4-8 cm long with 2-11 (5-15) pairs of pinnae, each one with 12-22 pairs of leaflets, linear, obtuse to acute, straight to incurved, 2.5-4 (-6) mm long, 0.8-1.5 mm wide, ciliolate, otherwise glabrous. Leaf axes puberulous to minutely pilose, sometimes with red hairlets, especially near base of pinnae; glands peg-like at base of pinnae pairs. When in flower, D. cinerea is characterized by the bicoloured inflorescence that is pink in the upper part and yellow in the lower part. The upper flowers are sterile with protruding staminodes and the lower flowers are hermaphroditic with 1 pistil and 10 yellow stamens each. Inflorescence spicate, solitary on a bracteate, short shoot, 6-9 cm long including the glabrous to puberulous peduncle. The pods are dark-brown and twisted in form in clusters, narrowly oblong, variously curved and/or coiled, 5-7 cm long, 8-15 mm wide, blackish, glabrous. Seeds biconvex, elliptic to subcircular, 4 mm long, 2-4 mm wide, pale tan, glossy; pleurogram elliptic (Cowan, 1998). Fruits ripen between March to May in Indonesia and May to September in South Africa (World Agroforestry Centre, 2005).

Plant Type

Top of page Broadleaved
Perennial
Seed propagated
Shrub
Tree
Woody

Distribution

Top of page D. cinerea has a wide natural distribution ranging from southern and tropical Africa to India (PIER, 1999), although the true native range of D. cinerea is not easy to determine as the literature sources contradict one another as to whether the species is an exotic which has naturalized or a native species in particular countries. For example, the species is thought to be native to the Northern Territory, Australia, however Cowan (1998) suggests that it naturalized there. In India D. cinerea occurs in dry deciduous forests. It is widespread in the Sudan zone and southern Sahel of Africa where it forms dense hammocks, in the Kalahari and Transvaal of southern Africa and in East Africa to Somalia and Yemen (von Maydell, 1986).

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasivePlantedReferenceNotes

Asia

AfghanistanPresentNative Natural
Brunei DarussalamPresentIntroduced Planted World Agroforestry Centre, 2005
CambodiaPresentIntroduced Planted World Agroforestry Centre, 2005
ChinaPresentNative Natural PIER, 1999
IndiaPresentIntroducedPlanted, NaturalWorld Agroforestry Centre, 2005
-Andhra PradeshPresentIntroduced Natural
-GujaratPresentIntroduced Natural
-HaryanaPresentIntroduced Natural
-KarnatakaPresentIntroduced Natural
-Madhya PradeshPresentIntroduced Natural
-MaharashtraPresentIntroduced Natural
-OdishaPresentIntroduced Natural
-RajasthanPresentIntroduced Natural
-Tamil NaduPresentIntroduced Natural
-Uttar PradeshPresentIntroduced Natural
IndonesiaPresentIntroducedPIER, 1999; World Agroforestry Centre, 2005
-JavaPresentIntroduced Natural
IranPresentIntroduced Natural World Agroforestry Centre, 2004
IraqPresentNative Natural
IsraelPresentNativePlanted, Natural
JordanPresent Planted
KuwaitPresentNative Natural
LaosPresentIntroducedWorld Agroforestry Centre, 2005
MalaysiaPresentIntroduced Planted World Agroforestry Centre, 2005
MyanmarPresentIntroduced Natural World Agroforestry Centre, 2005
OmanPresentNative Natural
PakistanPresentNativePlanted, Natural
PhilippinesPresentIntroduced Planted World Agroforestry Centre, 2005
QatarPresentNative Natural
Saudi ArabiaPresentNative Natural
Sri LankaPresentNative Natural Evans, 1999
ThailandPresentIntroduced Natural World Agroforestry Centre, 2005
United Arab EmiratesPresentNative Natural
VietnamPresentIntroducedWorld Agroforestry Centre, 2005
YemenPresentIntroduced Natural

Africa

AlgeriaPresentNative Natural
AngolaPresentIntroduced Natural World Agroforestry Centre, 2005
BeninPresentIntroduced Natural World Agroforestry Centre, 2005
BotswanaPresentIntroduced Natural World Agroforestry Centre, 2005
Burkina FasoPresentIntroduced Natural World Agroforestry Centre, 2005
BurundiPresentIntroduced Natural World Agroforestry Centre, 2005
CameroonPresentNative Natural World Agroforestry Centre, 2005
Cape VerdePresentIntroduced Natural World Agroforestry Centre, 2005
Central African RepublicPresentIntroduced Natural World Agroforestry Centre, 2005
ChadPresentIntroduced Natural World Agroforestry Centre, 2005
ComorosPresentIntroduced Natural World Agroforestry Centre, 2005
CongoPresentIntroduced Natural World Agroforestry Centre, 2005
Congo Democratic RepublicPresentIntroduced Natural World Agroforestry Centre, 2005
Côte d'IvoirePresentIntroduced Natural World Agroforestry Centre, 2005
DjiboutiPresentNative Natural World Agroforestry Centre, 2005
EgyptPresentIntroduced Planted World Agroforestry Centre, 2005
EritreaPresentNative Natural World Agroforestry Centre, 2005
EthiopiaPresentNative Natural World Agroforestry Centre, 2005
GabonPresentIntroduced Natural World Agroforestry Centre, 2005
GambiaPresentIntroduced Natural World Agroforestry Centre, 2005
GhanaPresentNative Natural World Agroforestry Centre, 2005
GuineaPresentIntroduced Natural World Agroforestry Centre, 2005
Guinea-BissauPresentIntroduced Natural World Agroforestry Centre, 2005
KenyaPresentNative Natural World Agroforestry Centre, 2005
LesothoPresentIntroduced Planted World Agroforestry Centre, 2005
LiberiaPresentIntroduced Natural World Agroforestry Centre, 2005
LibyaPresentNative Natural
MadagascarPresentNative Natural World Agroforestry Centre, 2005
MalawiPresentNative Natural World Agroforestry Centre, 2005
MaliPresentIntroduced Natural World Agroforestry Centre, 2005
MauritaniaPresentIntroduced Planted World Agroforestry Centre, 2005
MauritiusPresent Planted
MozambiquePresentIntroduced Natural World Agroforestry Centre, 2005
NamibiaPresentIntroduced Natural World Agroforestry Centre, 2005
NigerPresentIntroduced Natural World Agroforestry Centre, 2005
NigeriaPresentNative Natural World Agroforestry Centre, 2005
RéunionPresentNative Natural
RwandaPresentIntroduced Natural World Agroforestry Centre, 2005
Sao Tome and PrincipePresentIntroducedWorld Agroforestry Centre, 2005
SenegalPresentIntroduced Natural World Agroforestry Centre, 2005
SeychellesPresentIntroducedWorld Agroforestry Centre, 2005
Sierra LeonePresentIntroduced Natural World Agroforestry Centre, 2005
SomaliaPresentNative Natural World Agroforestry Centre, 2005
South AfricaPresentNativeCooke , 1998; Meyer et al., 2004; World Agroforestry Centre, 2005
SudanPresentNative Natural World Agroforestry Centre, 2005
SwazilandPresentNative Natural World Agroforestry Centre, 2005
TanzaniaPresentNative Natural World Agroforestry Centre, 2005
-ZanzibarPresentNative Natural
TogoPresentNative Natural World Agroforestry Centre, 2005
TunisiaPresentNative Natural
UgandaPresentNative Natural World Agroforestry Centre, 2005
Western SaharaPresentNative Natural
ZambiaPresentNative Natural World Agroforestry Centre, 2005
ZimbabwePresentIntroduced Natural World Agroforestry Centre, 2005

North America

USAPresentIntroducedPIER, 1999; Zimmermann and Klein , 2004
-FloridaPresentIntroduced1998 Planted Moyroud, 2000
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedPIER, 1999

Central America and Caribbean

CubaPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 1999; Moyroud, 2000; Hernández, 2002; Fournet, 2004; Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012
DominicaPresent Planted
Dominican RepublicPresent Planted
GuadeloupePresentIntroduced Planted Fournet, 2004
JamaicaPresentIntroduced Planted
MartiniquePresentIntroduced Planted Fournet, 2004

South America

BrazilPresentNative Natural

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroduced Natural World Agroforestry Centre, 2005
-Australian Northern TerritoryPresentIntroduced Natural PIER, 1999
-QueenslandPresentIntroduced Natural
Papua New GuineaPresentNative Natural

History of Introduction and Spread

Top of page D. cinerea has been widely introduced around the world, mainly as an ornamental or for erosion control. It was introduced in the West Indies during the 1800s, to Cuba, Hispaniola, Guadeloupe, Marie-Galante and Martinique (Fournet, 2004). D. cinerea was first introduced to Cuba as an ornamental from Madagascar (Moyroud, 2000). Seeds were thought to have been carried to Florida, USA by a hurricane as it was first recorded along the coast around Lower Keys in 1998 after Hurricane Georges (Moyroud, 2000). Zimmermann and Klein (2004) report that D. cinerea has become naturalized in the USA but is not yet regarded as a weed. It is probably more widespread than indicated in the distribution list.

Risk of Introduction

Top of page Reporting of invasiveness in this species has been focused on the situation in Cuba where it is a serious weed. Nevertheless it has a wide range as an introduced species and it is possible that following a time lag, further reports of invasive behavior may arise. Future introductions should take the Cuban situation into account when performing risk assessments.

Habitat

Top of page D. cinerea is found in a variety of habitats, and is widely distributed in the seasonally dry tropics of Africa, Asia and Australia. In India, D. cinerea occurs in dry deciduous forests, in Sengal and Sudan it occurs on lateritic soils, in Malaysia in areas with strong seasonal climates (World Agroforestry Centre, 2005) and in Australia it is known to grow on poor soils (PIER, 1999).

Habitat List

Top of page
CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Riverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)

Biology and Ecology

Top of page Genetics

Several subspecies are recorded, and noting its very wide native range, large morphological variations are to be expected. However, no breeding has been undertaken, even for ornamental, less invasive varieties.

Physiology and Phenology

D. cinerea is a long-lived, fast growing tree. Seeds can be produced by young trees (Fournet, 2004). D. cinerea has prolific root suckers and can regenerate from very small root cuttings. It can produce 130 new stems from root suckers within a 15 m radius from the main trunk over 10 years (World Agroforestry Centre, 2005). It is fire resistant.
D. cinerea flowers between September to June in Indonesia and from October to February in south Africa and fruits ripen between March to May in Indonesia and May to September in South Africa (World Agroforestry Centre, 2005).

D. cinerea is propagated easily by seeds or cuttings. Seeds are orthodox, approximately 39,000 seeds/kg, and require pretreatment before sowing as for other legumes, i.e. soaking in hot water or manual scarification. Vegetative propagation may be achieved via root or shoot cuttings, or by severing and transplanting root suckers.

Reproductive Biology

Large numbers of seeds are produced almost all year long (Fournet, 2004). Polyembryony has been observed in the seeds (World Agroforestry Centre, 2005). In the inflorescences, the terminal lower flowers are hermaphroditic and the upper flowers of a hanging spike are sterile

Environmental Requirements

D. cinerea is widely distributed in the seasonally dry tropics on a range of soil types including saline and infertile soils. Mean annual temperatures where D. cinerea grows are 15-27°C, but also tolerating mean monthly temperatures as high as 38°C and an absolute minimum temperature of 0°C. Mean annual rainfall ranges are 200-1400 mm, with dry season durations of 4-10 months. It is known to occur from sea level in coastal areas up to 2000 m altitude in Ethiopia (von Maydell, 1986).

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

Top of page
Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
32 -30 0 2000

Air Temperature

Top of page
Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) -2 0
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 15 27
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 16 38
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 6 15

Rainfall

Top of page
ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration410number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall2001400mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

Top of page Bimodal
Summer
Uniform

Soil Tolerances

Top of page

Soil drainage

  • free
  • seasonally waterlogged

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • infertile
  • saline

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page Evans (1999) reported that the rust fungus, Uredo deformis, has been observed on D. cinerea in Sri Lanka. Other known natural enemies are the insects Ctenoplusia albostriata and Kerria lacca.

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page Seeds may be dispersed by wind and water. The pods of D. cinerea are eaten by a number of animals including cattle, camels and game (World Agroforestry Centre, 2005). In South Africa, animals that feed on the pods include giraffe, buffalo, kudu, impala and Nyala (Cooke, 1998), and seeds may also be carried in the hooves of cattle (PIER, 1999).

Impact Summary

Top of page
CategoryImpact
Animal/plant collections None
Animal/plant products None
Biodiversity (generally) None
Crop production None
Environment (generally) None
Fisheries / aquaculture None
Forestry production Negative
Human health Positive
Livestock production Negative
Native fauna None
Native flora Negative
Rare/protected species None
Tourism None
Trade/international relations None
Transport/travel None

Impact

Top of page In its younger stage D. cinerea can grow in very dense and impenetrable thickets. Due to its thorns it can make areas inaccessible for both humans and livestock (Hernández, 2002). It is costly to control as it involves frequent management. It can cause losses in agricultural production (Fournet, 2004). In Cuba in 1996 the amount of unusable land was enough pasture for two million head of cattle. D. cinerea can also become a problem in forest plantations for example in Cuba where it needs to be controlled in order to carry out any necessary maintenance. Control is expensive at US$100 -150 per hectare (Hernández, 2002).

Environmental Impact

Top of page In its younger stage D. cinerea can grow in very dense and impenetrable thickets. In Cuba, D. cinerea has displaced native plant communities (Moyroud, 2000).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Invasive in its native range
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Has high reproductive potential
Impact outcomes
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Negatively impacts tourism
  • Reduced amenity values
  • Reduced native biodiversity
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Produces spines, thorns or burrs
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

Top of page D. cinerea has a number of land and environmental uses for example in agroforestry, soil improvement, revegetation, land reclamation, soil conservation, erosion control, hedging and live fencing. It has been used for the stabilization of sand dunes and in soil conservation. It is also used to improve soils, for example along the riverbanks in the Sahel (World Agroforestry Centre, 2005). A main use, however, and a reason for introduction has been its perceived value as an ornamental hedging plant with its attractive pink and yellow flowers. Such uses are limited, however, because of its root competition, profuse suckering and aggressive weedy character.

The wood is very heavy and dark; the heartwood is dark brown and sapwood is light brown or yellow with dark streaks (von Maydell, 1986). It is considered to be termite resitant and has been used for a wide range of purposes including round wood, posts, exterior fittings, fences, though its utilization is limited by the scarcity of suitable dimensions and is more commonly used for walking sticks, tool handles, spears, etc. (von Maydell, 1986). The wood is most commonly used as a fuel or for making charcoal. It has a high calorific value, burns slowly and is sought after as a preferred source of fuel.

Non-wood uses include gums, lac, fodder, dyestuffs, bark products, fibres, honey and medicinal products. Debarked roots are used for strong weaving work such as baskets and racks, and bark fibres for various apllications (Maydell, 1986). Leaves and seeds are edible but are commonly sought after by livestock and are considered very nutritious. The bark, roots and leaves are all used for a number of medicinal purposes for example to treat headaches, toothaches, stings, sore eyes, leprosy, epilepsy and as a diuretic (World Agroforestry Centre, 2005), and to treat snakebites, elephantitis and other internal parasitic worms, syphilis and gonorrhoea (von Maydell, 1986).

Uses List

Top of page

Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Fodder/animal feed
  • Invertebrate food for lac/wax insects

Environmental

  • Agroforestry
  • Boundary, barrier or support
  • Erosion control or dune stabilization
  • Revegetation
  • Soil improvement

Fuels

  • Charcoal
  • Fuelwood

Human food and beverage

  • Honey/honey flora

Materials

  • Dye/tanning
  • Gum/resin
  • Miscellaneous materials
  • Wood/timber

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical

Wood Products

Top of page

Charcoal

Roundwood

  • Posts

Sawn or hewn building timbers

  • Exterior fittings
  • Fences

Prevention and Control

Top of page The control of D. cinerea as a weed with methods such as cutting and burning is not recommended as the seeds can survive in the soil (Fournet, 2004), though mechanical control methods have been suggested as a control measure by World Agroforestry Centre (2005). A rust fungus, Uredo deformis has been identified in Sri Lanka as a potential biocontrol agent (Evans, 1999).

References

Top of page

Alvarez M; Betancourt M, 1982. Combining mechanical and chemical methods to control Dichrostachys cinerea in Cuba. Boletin Tecnico Forestal, No. 1/82:1-9

Brenan JPM, 1959. Flora of tropical East Africa: Leguminosae-Mimosoideae. London, UK: Crown Agents for Overseas Governments.

Brenan JPM; Brummitt RK, 1965. The variation of Dichrostachys cinerea (L.) Wight & Arn. Boletim da Sociedade Broteriana, (Ser. 2) 34:61-115.

Coates-Palgrave K, 1977. Trees of Southern Africa. Cape Town, South Africa: C. Struik Publishers.

Cooke G, 1998. The Tree Species of Djuma Game Reserve. South Africa, Kruger National Park. http://www.djuma.com/t_d_cinerea.htm.

Cowan RS, 1998. Dichrostachys. Flora of Australia, 12:19.

Evans HC, 1999. Biological control of weed and insect pests using fungal pathogens, with particular reference to Sri Lanka. Biocontrol News and Information, 20(2):63N-68N.

Fournet J, 2004. Dichrostachys cinerea. Global Invasive Species Database. New Zealand: University of Auckland. http://issg.appfa.auckland.ac.nz/database/species/ecology.asp?si=161&fr=1&sts=sss.

Hernández G, 2002. Invasive bush in Cuba: the case of marabú. Invasives in Mesoamerica and the Carribean, Costa Rica: IUCN. http://www.iucn.org/places/orma/publica_gnl/especies.pdf.

Hocking D, ed. , 1993. Trees for drylands. New Delhi, India: Oxford and IBH.

Hogberg P, 1986. Nitrogen-fixation and nutrient relations in savanna woodland trees (Tanzania). Journal of Applied Ecology, 23(2):675-688.

Lock JM, 1989. Legumes of Africa. A check-list. London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens Kew.

Lock JM; Heald J, 1994. Legumes of Indo-China: a check-list. London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens.

Lock JM; Simpson K, 1991. Legumes of West Asia. A Check List. London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens Kew.

Mertia RS; Upadhya AK, 1993. Performance of tree species suitable for shelterbelt plantation in Thar desert. Current Agriculture, 17(1-2):109-111; 5 ref.

Meyer T; Kellner K; Viljoen C, 2004. Land Transformation and Soil Quality. South Africa. http://www.nwpg.org.za/soer/fullreport/land%20transformation.asp#5.

Moyroud R, 2000. Exotic weeds threaten, a brief overview and early alarm call. Wildland Weeds, 3(2):4-8. Florida, USA: Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council. http://biological-diversity.info/Downloads/Exoticweeds_Moyroud.pdf.

Oviedo Prieto R; Herrera Oliver P; Caluff MG, et al. , 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 6(Special Issue 1):22-96.

PIER, 1999. Dichrostachys cinerea. Hawaii, USA: Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER). http://www.hear.org/pier/species/dichrostachys_cinerea.htm.

Rai P; Roy RD; Rao GR, 1995. Evaluation of multipurpose tree species in rangeland under semi arid condition of Uttar Pradesh. Range Management & Agroforestry. 16(2): 103-113.

Roy MM; Pathak PS, 1985. Seedling growth of Dichrostachys cinerea (L.) Wight & Arn on different soil types. Journal of Tropical Forestry, 1(3):227-235; 12 ref.

Sastry TCS; Kavathekar KY; eds, 1990. Plants for reclamation of wastelands. New Delhi, India: Council of Scientific and Industrial Research. xii + 684 pp.; 20 pp. of colour pl. (unpaginated); 36 pp. of ref.

Schulze ED; Gebauer G; Ziegler H; Lange OL, 1991. Estimates of nitrogen fixation by trees on an aridity gradient in Namibia. Oecologia, 88(3):451-455; 19 ref.

Tolsma DJ; Ernst WHO; Verweij RA; Vooijs R, 1987. Seasonal variation of nutrient concentrations in a semi-arid savanna ecosystem in Botswana. Journal of Ecology, UK, 75(3):755-770; 39 ref.

Troup RS; Joshi HB, 1983. The Silviculture of Indian Trees. Vol IV. Leguminosae. Delhi, India; Controller of Publications.

von Maydell HJ, 1986. Trees and shrubs of the Sahel, their characteristics and uses. Schriftenreihe der GTZ, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit, German Federal Republic.

World Agroforestry Centre, 2004. Agroforestree Database. Nairobi, Kenya: World Agroforestry Centre. http://www.worldagroforestry.org/Sites/TreeDBS/AFT/.

World Agroforestry Centre, 2005. Agroforestree Database. Nairobi, Kenya: World Agroforestry Centre. http://www.worldagroforestrycentre.org/Sites/TreeDBS/AFT/

Zimmermann H; Klein H, 2004. The use of biological control agents for the control of plant invaders and the importance of partnerships. South Africa: Plant Protection Research Institute. http://www-dwaf.pwv.gov.za/wfw/Docs/Papers/.

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map