Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Datura stramonium
(jimsonweed)

Toolbox

Datasheet

Datura stramonium (jimsonweed)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 06 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Datura stramonium
  • Preferred Common Name
  • jimsonweed
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Flowering D. stramonium plant with flowers and fruit.
TitleFlowers and fruits
CaptionFlowering D. stramonium plant with flowers and fruit.
Copyright©Chris Parker/Bristol, UK
Flowering D. stramonium plant with flowers and fruit.
Flowers and fruitsFlowering D. stramonium plant with flowers and fruit.©Chris Parker/Bristol, UK

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Datura stramonium L. (1753)

Preferred Common Name

  • jimsonweed

Other Scientific Names

  • Datura inermis Juss. ex Jacq
  • Datura pseudostramonium Sieb. Bernh. Tromms 1933
  • Datura stramonium var. tatula (L.) Torr. 1824
  • Datura stromonium var. chalybea W.D.J. Koch, nom. illeg.
  • Datura tatula L. (1762)
  • Stramonium vulgatum Gart. Fruct. et Sem. 1791

International Common Names

  • English: common thornapple; devils trumpet; jamestown-weed; mad-apple; stinkwort
  • Spanish: belladona del pobre; cajon del diablo; chamico grande; chamisco; datura manzana; estramonio; manzana espinosa; peo de fraille
  • French: belladone; conchombre diable; concombre a chein; datura stramonie; herbe des taupes; pomme epineuse; stramonie commune
  • Arabic: datoora; tatoora
  • Portuguese: estramanonio; figueira do inferno; figueire do inferno; quinquilho

Local Common Names

  • Bhutan: dhaturo; nyangmo-throkchang
  • Brazil: bem casado; estrasmónio; mamoninha brava; mata zombando; sia branca; trombeteira; zabumba
  • Cuba: campana; chamico
  • Germany: Stechapfel
  • Indonesia: kecubung lutik; kecubung wulung
  • Italy: indormia; stramonio comune
  • Japan: shirobanachosenasagao
  • Lebanon: daturah; nafir
  • Netherlands: Doornappel
  • Norway: piggeple
  • Poland: bielun dziedzierzawa
  • South Africa: bloustinkolie; doringapple; gewone; iloqi; lechoe; lethsowe; makolieboom; makstinkblaar; makstinkolie; malpitte; olieblaar; olieblaarneut; olieneut; pietjielaporte; steekappel; stinkblaar; umhlavuthwa; zaba-zaba
  • Sweden: spikklubba
  • Thailand: lampong
  • Zimbabwe: chowa

EPPO code

  • DATSL (Datura stramonium var. tatula)
  • DATST (Datura stramonium)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Solanales
  •                         Family: Solanaceae
  •                             Genus: Datura
  •                                 Species: Datura stramonium

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page The genus name Datura is derived from dhatura, the Bengali name for the plant, while the epithet stramonium combines the Greek word strychnos for nightshade, and makinos meaning mad, referring to the narcotic properties of the species. Until relatively recently it had been customary to distinguish between the white-flowered D. stramonium and the purple-flowered D. tatula. However, chemotaxanomic studies have confirmed that these are both forms of D. stramonium (Haegi, 1976; Hadkins et al., 1997). Variants of D. stramonium have been described with 2n = 12, 25, 26, 36 or 48 chromosomes. Morphological variants include: var. tatula which has purple flowers and sub-equal spines on the capsule; var. stramonium, with white flowers and shorter spines on the lower part of the fruit; and var. inermis which has a spineless capsule. Adzet et al. (1979) reported that morphological differences between var. inermis and var. tatula in Spain are not reflected in amino acid and alkaloid variation patterns. However, differences in stomatal number and locations of protective and glandular hairs have been reported between specimens of var. stramonium and a further form, var. godronii in Italy (Circosta et al., 1982).

Description

Top of page D. stramonium is a rank-smelling, erect, bushy annual herb, 0.5 to 2 m tall with glabrous, green to purplish, stout stems. The roots may be shallow and extensively branched, but in some soils a stout, branched peg-like taproot with extensive stringy lateral roots can develop.

In the seedling stage, the first true leaves are ovate with pointed tips and few or no lobes. In later stages the leaves, which have an unpleasant smell when crushed, are alternate, ovate to broadly triangular, glabrous, unevenly toothed, 5-25 cm long, 4-25 cm wide, on a petiole and up to 10 cm long.

Flowers are usually borne erect on short peduncles in the axils of branches. The tubular calyx is 3 to 5 cm long with five unequal teeth, 3-10 mm long. The 5-lobed white or purplish corolla is tubular or trumpet-shaped, 5-10 cm long, fetid, with 5 stamens of equal length attached to the corolla near the base, and a long style with a 2-lobed stigma. The fruit is an ovoid, erect capsule, 3.5-6.5 cm long, 2-5 cm wide, opening by four valves and densely covered with more or less equal spines up to 15 mm long, rarely smooth. The numerous seeds are dark brown to black, flat, kidney-shaped with an irregularly pitted surface, 3-4 mm long, 2-3 mm wide.

Distribution

Top of page From probable origins in the tropical regions of Central and South America, D. stramonium has become a cosmopolitan weed in the warm regions of North, Central and South America, Europe, Asia, Africa and New Zealand. It is now found throughout almost all the USA except for the north-west and northern great plains. It was recorded in Virginia, USA, by 1676, where it's seed was used as a narcotic by British soldiers. Although it had been collected in Quebec and Ontario in the late 1800s, it was not until the 1950s that D. stramonium started to appear as a weed in cultivated fields of Canada (Weaver and Warwick, 1984). It was also noted in Australia by the early years of the 19th century (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992).

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AfghanistanPresentHolm et al., 1979
BangladeshPresentHolm et al., 1979
BhutanPresentParker, 1992
ChinaPresentYao Lin et al., 1976; Wang, 1990
-AnhuiPresentFlora of China, 1994
-FujianPresentFlora of China, 1994
-GansuPresentFlora of China, 1994
-GuangdongPresentFlora of China, 1994
-GuangxiPresentFlora of China, 1994
-GuizhouPresentFlora of China, 1994
-HainanPresentFlora of China, 1994
-HebeiPresentFlora of China, 1994
-HeilongjiangPresentFlora of China, 1994
-HenanPresentFlora of China, 1994
-Hong KongPresentFlora of China, 1994
-HubeiPresentFlora of China, 1994
-HunanPresentFlora of China, 1994
-JiangsuPresentFlora of China, 1994
-JiangxiPresentFlora of China, 1994
-JilinPresentFlora of China, 1994
-LiaoningPresentFlora of China, 1994
-MacauPresentFlora of China, 1994
-NingxiaPresentFlora of China, 1994
-QinghaiPresentFlora of China, 1994
-ShaanxiPresentFlora of China, 1994
-ShandongPresentFlora of China, 1994
-ShanxiPresentFlora of China, 1994
-SichuanPresentFlora of China, 1994
-TibetPresentFlora of China, 1994
-XinjiangPresentFlora of China, 1994
-YunnanPresentFlora of China, 1994
-ZhejiangPresentFlora of China, 1994
IndiaPresentHolm et al., 1997
-Himachal PradeshPresentRataul and Kishore, 1980
-KarnatakaPresentKrishna Sastry et al., 1980
-SikkimPresentHolm et al., 1997
-Uttar PradeshPresentSuteri et al., 1979
IndonesiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-JavaPresentBacker and, 1973
IranPresentHolm et al., 1997
IraqPresentHassawy et al., 1968
IsraelPresentHolm et al., 1979
JapanPresentNumoto and Yoshizawa, 1980
JordanPresentHolm et al., 1979
Korea, DPRPresentKolbek and Sadlo, 1996
Korea, Republic ofPresentHolm et al., 1979
LebanonPresentEdgecombe, 1970
NepalPresentHolm et al., 1979
PakistanPresentHolm et al., 1979
Saudi ArabiaPresentChaudhary and Akram, 1987
Sri LankaPresentHolm et al., 1997
SyriaPresentKoch et al., 1988
TaiwanPresentFlora of China, 1994
ThailandPresentHolm et al., 1979
TurkeyPresentMoore, 1972
YemenPresentChaudhary & Revi, 1983

Africa

AlgeriaPresentSong, 1987
AngolaPresentHolm et al., 1979
BotswanaPresentWells et al., 1986
CameroonPresentHepper, 1963
Congo Democratic RepublicPresentHolm et al., 1979
EgyptPresentBoulos & Nabil El-Hadidi, 1995; Holm et al., 1979
EthiopiaPresentStroud & Parker, 1987; Holm et al., 1979
GhanaPresentHepper, 1963; Holm et al., 1979
KenyaPresentHolm et al., 1979; Blundell, 1992
LesothoPresentWells et al., 1986
MadagascarPresentHolm et al., 1997
MalawiPresentBanda and Morris, 1985
MaliPresentHepper, 1963
MoroccoPresentHolm et al., 1979
MozambiquePresentHolm et al., 1979
NamibiaPresentWells et al., 1986
NigeriaPresentHepper, 1963
SenegalPresentHolm et al., 1979
SeychellesPresentRoberston, 1989
South AfricaPresentHolm et al., 1979; Wells et al., 1986
SudanPresentHolm et al., 1979
SwazilandPresentWells et al., 1986
TanzaniaPresentHolm et al., 1979; Blundell, 1992
TogoPresentHepper, 1963
UgandaPresentHolm et al., 1979; Blundell, 1992
ZambiaPresentBolnick, 1995
ZimbabwePresentHolm et al., 1979; Drummond, 1984

North America

CanadaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AlbertaPresentWeaver and Warwick, 1984
-British ColumbiaPresentWeaver and Warwick, 1984
-ManitobaPresentWeaver and Warwick, 1984
-New BrunswickPresentWeaver and Warwick, 1984
-Northwest TerritoriesPresentWeaver and Warwick, 1984
-Nova ScotiaPresentWeaver and Warwick, 1984
-OntarioPresentWeaver and Warwick, 1984
-Prince Edward IslandPresentWeaver and Warwick, 1984
-QuebecPresentWeaver and Warwick, 1984
-SaskatchewanPresentWeaver and Warwick, 1984
-Yukon TerritoryPresentWeaver and Warwick, 1984
MexicoPresentHolm et al., 1979
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AlabamaPresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-ArizonaPresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-ArkansasPresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-CaliforniaPresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-ColoradoPresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-ConnecticutPresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-DelawarePresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-FloridaPresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-GeorgiaPresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-HawaiiPresentHaselwood & Matter, 1966
-IdahoPresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-IllinoisPresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-IndianaPresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-IowaPresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-KansasPresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-KentuckyPresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-LouisianaPresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-MainePresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-MarylandPresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-MassachusettsPresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-MichiganPresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-MinnesotaPresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-MississippiPresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-MissouriPresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-NebraskaPresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-NevadaPresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-New HampshirePresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-New JerseyPresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-New MexicoPresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-New YorkPresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-North CarolinaPresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-OhioPresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-OklahomaPresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-OregonPresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-PennsylvaniaPresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-Rhode IslandPresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-South CarolinaPresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-South DakotaPresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-TennesseePresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-TexasPresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-UtahPresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-VermontPresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-VirginiaPresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-WashingtonPresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-West VirginiaPresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-WisconsinPresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987

Central America and Caribbean

AnguillaPresentFournet and Hammerton, 1991
Antigua and BarbudaPresentFournet and Hammerton, 1991
BarbadosPresentFournet and Hammerton, 1991
Costa RicaPresentHolm et al., 1979
CubaPresentIntroduced Invasive Holm et al., 1979; Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012
DominicaPresentFournet and Hammerton, 1991
Dominican RepublicPresentHolm et al., 1979
El SalvadorPresentHolm et al., 1979
GrenadaPresentFournet and Hammerton, 1991
GuadeloupePresentFournet and Hammerton, 1991
GuatemalaPresentHolm et al., 1979
HondurasPresentHolm et al., 1979
JamaicaPresentHolm et al., 1979
MartiniquePresentFournet and Hammerton, 1991
MontserratPresentFournet and Hammerton, 1991
Netherlands AntillesPresentFournet and Hammerton, 1991
PanamaPresentTropicos, 1998
Puerto RicoPresentVelez, 1950
Saint Kitts and NevisPresentFournet and Hammerton, 1991
Saint LuciaPresentFournet and Hammerton, 1991
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentFournet and Hammerton, 1991
Trinidad and TobagoPresentFournet and Hammerton, 1991

South America

ArgentinaPresentMarzocca, 1979
BoliviaPresentAnon, 1977
BrazilPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AlagoasPresentLorenzi, 1982
-AmazonasPresentLorenzi, 1982
-BahiaPresentLorenzi, 1982
-CearaPresentLorenzi, 1982
-Espirito SantoPresentLorenzi, 1982
-Fernando de NoronhaPresentLorenzi, 1982
-GoiasPresentLorenzi, 1982
-MaranhaoPresentLorenzi, 1982
-Mato GrossoPresentLorenzi, 1982
-Mato Grosso do SulPresentLorenzi, 1982
-Minas GeraisPresentLorenzi, 1982
-ParaibaPresentLorenzi, 1982
-ParanaPresentLorenzi, 1982
-PernambucoPresentLorenzi, 1982
-PiauiPresentLorenzi, 1982
-Rio de JaneiroPresentLorenzi, 1982
-Rio Grande do NortePresentLorenzi, 1982
-Rio Grande do SulPresentLorenzi, 1982
-Santa CatarinaPresentLorenzi, 1982
-Sao PauloPresentLorenzi, 1982
-SergipePresentLorenzi, 1982
ChilePresentHolm et al., 1979
ColombiaPresentHolm et al., 1979
PeruPresentAlva, 1973; Holm et al., 1979
VenezuelaPresentHolm et al., 1979

Europe

AlbaniaPresentMoore, 1972
AustriaPresentMoore, 1972; Holm et al., 1979
BelgiumPresentMoore, 1972
BulgariaPresentMoore, 1972
Czechoslovakia (former)PresentMoore, 1972; Holm et al., 1979
DenmarkPresentMoore, 1972
FrancePresentMoore, 1972; Mamarot, 1996
-CorsicaPresentMoore, 1972
GermanyPresentMoore, 1972; Moore, 1972; Holm et al., 1979
GreecePresentMoore, 1972; Holm et al., 1979
HungaryPresentMoore, 1972; Holm et al., 1979
IrelandPresentHolm et al., 1997
ItalyPresentCiferri and Pignatti, 1960; Moore, 1972
NetherlandsPresentMoore, 1972
NorwayPresentMoore, 1972
PolandPresentMoore, 1972
PortugalPresentCarvalho and Vasconcellos, 1958; Moore, 1972
-AzoresPresentMoore, 1972
RomaniaPresentMoore, 1972
SpainPresentMoore, 1972
SwedenPresentMoore, 1972
SwitzerlandPresentMoore, 1972
UKPresentMoore, 1972; Stace, 1991
Yugoslavia (former)PresentTodorovic, 1959; Moore, 1972

Oceania

AustraliaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Australian Northern TerritoryPresentParsons and Cuthbertson, 1992
-New South WalesPresentParsons and Cuthbertson, 1992
-QueenslandPresentParsons and Cuthbertson, 1992
-South AustraliaPresentParsons and Cuthbertson, 1992
-TasmaniaPresentParsons and Cuthbertson, 1992
-VictoriaPresentParsons and Cuthbertson, 1992
-Western AustraliaPresentParsons and Cuthbertson, 1992
FijiPresentParham, 1958; Holm et al., 1979
New ZealandPresentParham and Healy, 1985

Risk of Introduction

Top of page Species of Datura have been spread around the world as contaminants of agricultural seed; Parsons and Cuthbertson (1992) quote the example of introduction of D. stramonium into parts of Victoria, Australia, in contaminated safflower seed. Contaminated soyabeans have resulted in new infestations of D. stramonium in Norway on several occasions. It is particularly difficult to separate from sorghum seed, which is of a similar size. Seed inspection and certification agencies should therefore be vigilant when batches of seed for planting are imported from areas where species of Datura species are known to occur. Legislation in Queensland, Australia, prohibits the sale of crop seed which is contaminated by D. ferox or D. stramonium (Genn, 1987).

Habitat

Top of page Thornapples are principally found in warm-temperate and subtropical regions, in open situations on fertile soils. Although they favour regions with plentiful rainfall, they can also survive on sandy pastures. They are therefore aggressive colonizers of agricultural fields and compete strongly in summer crops in many parts of the world. They are also found on the sites of abandoned cattle yards and on river flats. D. stramonium grows at sea level, but has also been recorded at 2750 m in the Himalayas from Kashmir to Sikkim (Holm et al., 1997).

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page D. stramonium is very widely distributed in temperate and tropical areas and is likely to be found in almost any summer crop. Indeed, Holm et al. (1997) state that it has been reported as a weed in more than 40 crops in almost 100 countries.

Biology and Ecology

Top of page D. stramonium is an annual and overwinters or passes through dry seasons only as seed. It is a day-neutral plant and will flower in photoperiods of 6-8 hours (Holm et al., 1997). Although vigorous, isolated plants may produce 30,000 or more seeds, plants growing at high density will yield an average of 1300-1500 seeds (Weaver and Warrick, 1984). Mature seeds are dispersed by dehiscence from dry capsules up to a distance of 1-3 m (Conklin, 1976), a process which is aided when plants are disturbed by harvesting equipment.

Seeds of D. stramonium are long lived, 91% surviving 39 years burial at 34 cm in one experiment (Toole and Brown, 1946), although decay is faster when seeds are in upper layers (2.5 to 10 cm) of the soil (Stoller and Wax, 1974). Although D. stramonium seed from many locations around the world will germinate immediately upon maturing, they appear to develop an impermeable seed coat which imposes dormancy for at least several months if not longer. Removal of the seed coat allows germination (Gill, 1938; Martin, 1943.) Dormant seeds require an after-ripening period before they will germinate. During this period the response to light and temperature alternation increases according to the dormancy level of the particular population (Reisman-Berman et al., 1988). Alternating temperatures within the range of 20-35°C give optimum conditions for germination. In studies using D. ferox, Miguel and Soriano (1974) demonstrated that breakage of dormancy is related to the vapour pressure around the seed during after-ripening. Good aeration is needed for the process to proceed, so germination of otherwise dormant seed could be achieved following exposure to water vapour at 20°C for 3-4 weeks. If seeds absorb liquid water, germination rates are lower, possibly due to poor oxygen diffusion through the seed coat. Burial of seeds in the soil can affect the germination response to light, although published results are not unequivocal. Stoller and Wax (1974) reported that D. stramonium seed buried for 12 months developed an absolute light requirement for germination in only some seasons. In D. ferox, phytochrome-induced cellulase activity leads to endosperm softening and germination in the presence of light (Sanchez et al., 1986; Botto et al., 1998). Exposure of seed to light during cultivation will therefore stimulate germination.

D. stramonium grows better in neutral than in acidic soils (Buchanan et al., 1975) and is responsive to P and K (Hoveland et al., 1976). The weed is commonly found thriving around farm buildings, livestock yards and abandoned cattle pens, suggesting that it would be responsive to N fertilization under field conditions. However, this has not been shown to be the case in field experiments (Holm et al., 1997).

Natural enemies

Top of page
Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Alternaria crassa Pathogen

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page Many of the organisms which damage species of Datura are also important pests or diseases of crops (see section on Economic Importance). Despite a considerable amount of research into the biocontrol potential of a number of fungi, particularly species of Alternaria, none are currently being used in weed control programmes.

Impact

Top of page As a weed in more than 100 countries, D. stramonium is considered by Holm et al. (1997) to be more widespread than even Cyperus rotundus which is ranked as the world's worst weed. Crop losses due to competition from D. stramonium depend on the crop and climatic conditions. Season-long competition resulted in 56% yield loss in cotton in the USA, but only 16% in the case of a more competitive soyabean crop (Oliver et al., 1991). Even sparse populations can be damaging with individual plants reducing the yield of soyabean plants growing within a distance of 1.2 m (Henry and Bauman, 1991). Reductions in the yield of irrigated maize by 56% due to season-long competition from D. stramonium have been reported in Spain by Torner et al. (1995). At a density of 3-11 plants per m², yields of directly-seeded tomatoes may be reduced by 26-71% (Monaco et al., 1981).

D. stramonium serves as an alternate host for several pests and pathogens of Solanaceous crops; an extensive listing can be found in Weaver and Warrick (1984). Some of the more important include Manduca sexta, Phthorimaea operculella (tobacco leaf miner in Australia, North America and South Africa), species of Alternaria and Cercospora (leaf spots and pod blights), Phymatotrichopsis omnivora and Macrophomina phaseolina (charcoal rot of maize and soya). The species is also a susceptible host to more than 60 viruses.

Trophane alkaloids produced by D. stramonium and related species are poisonous to humans, horses, cattle, sheep, pigs and chickens (Watt and Breyer-Brandwijk, 1962) so it is important to prevent contamination of feed grains by seeds of these weeds. Due to the difficulty and expense of separating the seed from sorghum grain, contaminated samples of the crop may be downgraded or rejected by buyers in Australia (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992). Livestock normally avoid eating species of Datura unless other vegetation is unavailable, but may be poisoned by ingesting it as a contaminant of hay, silage or seed screenings (Hightower, 1979).

Uses

Top of page Species of Datura have been used in many parts of the world as narcotics, constituents of folk remedies and as a source of atropine, hyoscamine and hyoscine alkaloids for pharmacological use in both human and veterinary medicine (Watt and Breyer-Brandwijk, 1962). There has also been considerable interest in the use of extracts of Datura species as botanical pesticides. D. metel, for example, appears to suppress a number of nematode species of economic importance (Oduor Owini, 1993).

Uses List

Top of page

Drugs, stimulants, social uses

  • Miscellaneous drugs, stimulants and social uses

Environmental

  • Host of pest

Materials

  • Pesticide
  • Poisonous to mammals

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page In addition to D. stramonium, a number of other species of Datura have been reported as weeds in various parts of the world. In Australia, for example, the native D. leichhardtii and four naturalized species, D. ferox, D. inoxia, D. metel, and D. wrightii are all classed as noxious weeds in at least part of the country (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992).

As in D. stramonium, the capsule of D. ferox is carried erect on a straight stalk, but has up to 60 stout spines compared with the 100 or more in D. stramonium. The flowers of D. ferox, at up to 6 cm long, are somewhat smaller than those of D. stramonium. D. ferox has also been reported to be a weed problem in Argentina, Bolivia, Botswana, Chile, Ecuador, Israel, Lesotho, Uruguay, South Africa and Zimbabwe (Holm et al, 1979; Mienis, 1982; Wells et al., 1986). It is cultivated as an ornamental and is locally naturalized in Mediterranean regions of France, Spain, Italy and Sicily (Moore, 1972).

D. inoxia, of North American origin, is a pubescent perennial; flowers 10-12-lobed and has entire or only slightly toothed leaf margins. It has a capsule borne on a curved stalk, which does not dehisce by regularly-sized valves. It is found in Egypt, Canada, Guinea, Namibia, Nigeria, Pakistan, Peru, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, South Africa, Yemen and throughout the Lesser Antilles (Hepper, 1963; Alva, 1973; Chaudhary and Revri, 1983; Weaver and Warwick, 1984; Wells et al., 1986; Chaudhary and Akram, 1987; Boulos and El-Hadidi, 1995). It has also been reported from Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Jiangsu, Shandong and Xinjang provinces of China (Wu and Raven, 1994). In Europe, the species is naturalized in Mediterranean areas of France, Spain, Italy, Portugal, Sardinia and Sicily (Moore, 1972).

D. fastuosa also has nodding capsules which dehisce irregularly, leaves entire and flowers 5-10-lobed.

D. metel is similar to D. inoxia in habit, but is glabrous and has very short spines or tubercles on the capsule. D. metel has been reported from Afghanistan, Côte d'Ivoire, Fiji, Ghana, India, Indonesia (Java), Israel, Kenya, Malaysia, Mauritius, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Seychelles, Senegal, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Sudan, Thailand, Turkey and USA (Hepper, 1963; Backer, 1973; Holm et al., 1979; Wells et al., 1986; Robertson, 1989; Tropicos, 1998). In China, it is found in Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Yunnan Provinces and Taiwan (Wu and Raven, 1994). Although it is frequently cultivated as an ornamental, most reports of it as a naturalized species in the Mediterranean region of Europe appear to refer to D. inoxia (Moore, 1972).

Prevention and Control

Top of page Cultural Control

Isolated thornapple plants should be hand-pulled before they set seed, whereas larger areas of infestation are readily controlled by tillage when weeds are in the seedling stage. Cultivation becomes less effective as plants mature, because stems become woody and roots may not be completely severed. Seedlings emerge over a long period of time so repeated cultivations may be necessary to reduce the level of infestation (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992). Post-harvest tillage may promote seed survival as seeds decay more rapidly on the soil surface than when buried (Stoller and Wax, 1974) and there is greater loss of seed to predators under no-till than conventional tillage systems (Brust and House, 1988).

Chemical Control

D. stramonium is susceptible to a range of soil- and foliar-applied herbicides which are commonly used for selective broadleaf annual weed control. These include: acifluorfen in soyabean and groundnuts; bentazone in soyabean, groundnuts and several bean species; atrazine, cyanazine, simazine, bromoxanil or dicamba in sorghum and maize; metolachlor in maize and sorghum (in conjunction with a safener); and 2,4-D, which is effective in the seedling and young growth stages.

Summaries of active ingredients which have been used for the control of D. stramonium are provided by Parsons and Cuthbertson (1992) for Australia, Weaver and Warrick (1984) for Canada and Mamarot and Rodriquez (1997) for France. It can be effectively controlled by early post-emergence application of imazethapyr in soyabean and groundnut (Cantwell et al., 1989; Wilcut et al., 1994). Imazaquin and imazethapyr are effective in both no-till and conventional tillage situations, but crop damage can result in both systems under some weather conditions (Mills and Witt, 1989). Post-emergent applications of clomazone provide a greater degree of control under conventional than reduced tillage systems (Mills et al., 1989). Selective chemical control of Datura species can be difficult in Solanaceous crops. However, mixtures of rimsulfuron and metribuzin can be used in potato (Robinson et al., 1996), whereas clomazone can be used safely post-emergence in direct-seeded sweet pepper (Cavero et al., 1996).

Herbicide-tolerant cultivars provide an opportunity for increased flexibility of chemical control. D. stramonium can be effectively controlled by pre-emergence applications of imazethapyr in imidazolinone-tolerant maize (Sprague et al., 1997). This approach would be particularly useful where triazine-resistant populations of the weed have evolved, for example, in the USA (Williams et al., 1995).

The susceptibility of other Datura species to herbicides is generally similar to that of D. stramonium. Efficient control of D. ferox in sorghum has been achieved with fluroxypyr, atrazine, 2,4-D and picloram or a combination of atrazine banded along the crop row and inter-row cultivation (Rawson and Bath, 1981; Webb and Feez, 1989). Floroxypyr and metribuzin can be used effectively against this species in sugarcane and soyabean, respectively (Mitidieri, 1976; Webb and Feez, 1989).

Biological Control

AAL-toxin, a potent natural herbicide derived from the fungus Alternaria alternata, has been reported to provide selective control of D. stramonium at low concentrations in maize, wheat and some dicotyledonous crops, including tomato (Abbas et al., 1995; Stewart-Wade et al., 1998). Although the mycoherbicidal potential of a number of fungal pathogens has been demonstrated (Boyette and Abbas, 1994) there are no reports of commercialization.

References

Top of page

Abbas HK; Duke SO; Paul RN; Riley RT; Tanaka T, 1995. AAL-toxin, a potent natural herbicide which disrupts sphingolipid metabolism of plants. Pesticide Science, 43(3):181-187; [presented at 8th international congress of pesticide chemistry (IUPAC), Washington DC, USA, 4-9 July 1994].

Adzet T; de Diego J; Iglesias J, 1979. Contribution a l'étude chimio-taxonomique de quelques taxa de Datura. Plantes Medicinales et Phytotherapie, 13:292-296.

Alva AS, 1973. Manual de las Malezas de al Costa Norperuana. Truijillo, Peru: Universidad Nacional de Truijillo.

Backer CA, 1973. Atlas of 220 weeds of sugar-cane fields in Java. In: van Steenis CGGJ, ed. Handbook for the cultivation of sugar-cane and manufacturing of cane sugar in Java. Vol. 7: Atlas (final instalment). Pasuruan, Indonesia: Indonesian Sugar Experiment Station.

Banda AK; Morris B, 1985. Common Weeds of Malawi. Lilangwe, Malawi: University of Malawi.

Blundell M, 1992. Collins Photo Guide to the Wild Flowers of East Africa. London, UK: Harper Collins Publishers.

Bolnick D, 1995. A Guide to the Common Wild flowers of Zambia and Neighbouring Regions. London, UK: Macmillan.

Botto JF; Sßnchez RA; Casal JJ, 1998. Burial conditions affect light responses of Datura ferox seeds. Seed Science Research, 8(4):423-429; 40 ref.

Boulos L; El-Hadidi MN, 1984. The Weed Flora of Egypt. Cairo, Egypt: The American University in Cairo Press.

Boyette CD; Abbas HK, 1994. Host range alteration of the bioherbicidal fungus Alternaria crassa with fruit pectin and plant filtrates. Weed Science, 42(3):487-491

Brust GE; House GJ, 1988. Weed seed destruction by arthropods and rodents in low-input soybean agroecosystems. American Journal of Alternative Agriculture, 3(1):19-25

Buchanan GA; Hoveland CS; Harris MC, 1975. Response of weeds to soil pH. Weed Science, 23(6):473-477

Cantwell JR; Liebl RA; Slife FW, 1989. Imazethapyr for weed control in soybean (Glycine max). Weed Technology, 3(4):596-601; 7 ref.

Carvalho E; Vasconcellos J de, 1958. Ervas Infestantes das Searas de Trigo. Lisbon, Portugal: Federacao Nacional dos Produtores de Trigo.

Cavero J; Zaragoza C; Gil Ortega R, 1996. Tolerance of direct-seeded pepper (Capsicum annuum) under plastic mulch to herbicides. Weed Technology, 10(4):900-906; 26 ref.

Chaudhary SA; Akram M, 1987. Weeds of Saudi Arabia and the Arabian Peninsula. Saudi Arabia: National Herbarium, Regional Agriculture and Water Research Center, Ministry of Agriculture and Water.

Chaudhary SA; Revri R, 1983. Weeds of North Yemen. Eschborn, Germany: Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) Gmbh.

Ciferri R; Pignatti S, 1960. La Facile Identificazione Delle Erbe Infestanti d'Italia. Pavia, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fitoiatria.

Circosta C; Pasquale A de; Occhiuto F; Tumino G, 1982. The morphology of the genus Datura section stramonium. Congresso sociale, Societa Botanica Italiana. Relazioni, communicazioni, dimostrazioni - riassunti. Florence, Italy: Societa Botanica Italiana.

Conklin ME, 1976. Genetic and biochemical aspects of development of Datura. Monographs in Developmental Biology, 12. New York, USA: S. Karger.

Drummond RB, 1984. Arable Weeds of Zimbabwe. Harare, Zimbabwe: Agricultural Research Trust of Zimbabwe.

Edgecombe WS, 1970. Weeds of Lebanon. Beirut, Lebanon: American University of Beirut.

Flora of China, 1994. Volume 17, Verbenaceae through Solanaceae. Beijing, China: Science Press; St. Louis, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.

Fournet J; Hammerton JL, 1991. Weeds of the Lesser Antilles. Paris, France: Department d'Economie et Sociologie Rurales, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique.

Genn DJ, 1987. Legislation to control weed spread. Queensland Agricultural Journal, 113(6):365-367.

Gharabadiyan F; Jamali S; Yazdi AA; Hadizadeh MH; Eskandari A, 2012. Weed hosts of root-knot nematodes in tomato fields. Journal of Plant Protection Research, 52(2):230-234. http://versita.metapress.com/link.asp?target=contribution&id=428087616X360N23

Gill NT, 1938. The viability of weed seeds at various stages of maturity. Annals of Applied Biology, 25:447-456.

Hadkins ES; Bye R; Brandenburg WA; Jarvis CE, 1997. Typification of Linnaean Datura names (Solanaceae). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 125(4):295-308.

Haegi I, 1976. A taxonomic account of Datura L. Solanaceae in Australia with a note on Brugmansia Pers. Australian Journal of Botany, 24:415-435.

Haselwood EL; Motter GG, 1966. Handbook of Hawaiian weeds. Hawaii, USA: Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, 479pp.

Hassawy GS; Tammimi SA; Al-Lizzi H, 1968. Weeds in Iraq. Baghdad, Iraq: College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad.

Henry WT; Bauman TT, 1991. Interference between soybean (Glycine max) and jimsonweed (Datura stramonium) in Indiana. Weed Technology, 5(4):759-764

Hepper FN, 1963. Flora of West Tropical Africa Volume 2. London, UK: Crown Agents for Overseas Governments and Administrations.

Hightower CE, 1979. Plants that kill and cure. Veterinary and Human Toxicology, 21:360-362.

Holm LG; Doll J; Holm E; Pancho JV; Herberger JP, 1997. World Weeds: Natural Histories and Distribution. New York, USA: John Wiley & Sons Inc.

Holm LG; Pancho JV; Herberger JP; Plucknett DL, 1979. A geographical atlas of world weeds. New York, USA: John Wiley and Sons, 391 pp.

Hoveland CS; Buchanan GA; Harris MC, 1976. Response of weeds to soil phosphorus and potassium. Weed Science, 24(2):194-201

Koch W; Walter H; Sauerborn J, 1988. Weeds of West Asia with Special Reference to Syria. Gaimersheim, Germany: Verlag Josef Margraf.

Kolbek J; Sßdlo J, 1996. Some short-lived ruderal plant communities of non-trampled habitats in North Korea. Folia Geobotanica et Phytotaxonomica, 31(2):207-217; 12 ref.

Lorenzi H, 1982. Weeds of Brazil, terrestrial and aquatic, parasitic, poisonous and medicinal. (Plantas daninhas de Brasil, terrestres, aquaticas, parasitas, toxicas e medicinais.) Nova Odessa, Brazil: H. Lorenzi, 425 pp.

Lorenzi H, 1984. Manual de Identificacao e Controle de Plantas Danhinas. Odessa, Brazil: H. Lorenzi.

Lorenzi HJ; Jeffery LS(Editors), 1987. Weeds of the United States and their control. New York, USA; Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. Ltd., 355 pp.

Mamarot J, 1996. Mauvais Herbes des Cultures. Paris, France: Association de Coordination Technique Agricole.

Mamarot J; Rodriguez A, 1997. Sensibilité des Mauvaises Herbes aux Herbicides. 4th edition. Paris, France: Association de Coordination Technique Agricole.

Martin J, 1943. Germination studies on the seeds of some common weeds. Proceedings of Iowa Academy of Science. 50:221-228.

Marzocca A, 1979. Manual de Malezas. 3rd edition. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Editorial Hemisferio Sur.

Mienis HK, 1982. Identification of the Datura species occurring in the cotton fields of Israel. Phytoparasitica, 10(4):264

Miguel LC de; Soriano A, 1974. The breakage of dormancy in Datura ferox seeds as an effect of water absorption. Weed Research, 14(4):265-270

Mills JA; Witt WW, 1989. Effect of tillage systems on the efficacy and phytotoxicity of imazaquin and imazethapyr in soybean (Glycine max). Weed Science, 37(2):233-238; 16 ref.

Mills JA; Witt WW; Barrett M, 1989. Effects of tillage on the efficacy and persistence of clomazone in soybean (Glycine max). Weed Science, 37(2):217-222; 27 ref.

Mitidieri A, Assessment of pre-em. herbicides and mechanical methods for pre-em. weed control in soybeans. Trabajos y Resumenes, III Congreso Asociacion Latinoamericana de Malezas "ALAM" y VIII Reunion Argentina de Malezas y su Control "ASAM". Buenos Aires, Argentina: ASAM, 2:284.

Monaco TJ; Grayson AS; Sanders DC, 1981. Influence of four weed species on the growth, yield and quality of direct-seeded tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum). Weed Science, 29(4):394-397

Moore DM, 1972. 14. Datura L. In: Tutin TG, Heywood VH, Burges NA, Valentine DH, Walters SM, Webb DA, eds. Flora Europea, Volume 3 Diapensiaceae to Myoporaceae. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 200-201.

Numoto M; Yoshizawa N, 1980. Weed Flora of Japan. Tokyo, Japan: Zenkoku Noson Kyoiku Kyokai.

Oduor-Owino P, 1993. Effects of aldicarb, Datura stramonium, Datura metel and Tagetes minuta on the pathogenicity of root-knot nematodes in Kenya. Crop Protection, 12(4):315-317; 12 ref.

Oliver LR; Chandler JM; Buchanan GA, 1991. Influence of geographic region on jimsonweed (Datura stramonium) interference in soybeans (Glycine max) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). Weed Science, 39(4):585-589

Oviedo Prieto R; Herrera Oliver P; Caluff MG, et al. , 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 6(Special Issue 1):22-96.

Parham BEV; Healy AJ, 1985. Common weeds in New Zealand. An illustrated guide to their identification with a section on noxious plants. Information Series, New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, 112.

Parham JW, 1958. The Weeds of Fiji. Bulletin Fiji Department of Agriculture, 35. Suava, Fiji: Government Press.

Parker C, 1992. Weeds of Bhutan. Weeds of Bhutan., vi + 236 pp.

Parsons WT; Cuthbertson EG, 1992. Noxious Weeds of Australia. Melbourne, Australia: Inkata Press, 692 pp.

Rataul HS; Kishore R, 1980. Development of Myzus persicae (Sulzer) on winter hosts at Simla. Indian Journal of Entomology, 42(3):535-536

Rawson JE; Bath SJ, 1981. Chemical control of giant pigweed, sesbania pea and fierce thornapple in sorghum. Queensland Journal of Agricultural and Animal Sciences, 38(1):13-19

Reisman-Berman O; Kigel J; Rubin B, 1988. Factors involved in the germination of Datura ferox and D. stramonium. Phytoparasitica, 16(4):371-372.

Robertson SA, 1989. Flowering Plants of Seychelles. Kew, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens.

Robinson DK; Monks DW; Monaco TJ, 1996. Potato (Solanum tuberosum) tolerance and susceptibility of eight weeds to rimsulfuron with and without metribuzin. Weed Technology, 10(1):29-34; 11 ref.

Sanchez RA; Miguel L de; Mercuri O, 1986. Phytochrome control of cellulase activity in Datura ferox L. seeds and its relationship with germination. Journal of Experimental Botany, 37(183):1574-1580

Sastry KSK; Boraiah G; Govindu HC; Khaleel TF, 1980. Weeds of Karnataka. Weeds of Karnataka. University of Agricultural Sciences Bangalore India, 360pp.

Song ZQ, 1987. Studies on the occurrence and control of green bug in Algeria. Journal of Shenyang Agricultural University, 18(1):27-33; 2 ref.

Sprague CL; Stoller EW; Hart SE, 1997. Preemergence broadleaf weed control and crop tolerance in imidazolinone-resistant and -susceptible corn (Zea mays). Weed Technology, 11(1):118-122; 21 ref.

Stace C, 1991. New Flora of the British Isles. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Stewart-Wade SM; Lawrie AC; Bruzzese E, 1998. An Australian isolate of Alternaria crassa shows potential as a mycoherbicide to control the weed Datura stramonium. Australasian Plant Pathology, 27(3):186-197; 21 ref.

Stoller EW; Wax LM, 1974. Dormancy changes and the fate of some annual weed seeds in the soil. Weed Science, 22(2):151-155

Stroud A; Parker C, 1989. A Weed Identification Guide for Ethiopia. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization.

Suteri BD; Joshi CC; Bala S, 1979. Some ornamentals and weeds as reservoirs of potato virus Y and cucumber mosaic virus in Kumaon. Indian Phytopathology, 32(4):640

Todorovic DB, 1959. Imenik Korovskog Bilja Jugoslavije. Beograd, Yugoslavia: Beograd University.

Toole EH; Brown E, 1946. Final results of the Duval buried seed experiment. Journal of Agricultural Research, 72:201-210.

Torner C; Sanchez del Arco MJ; Pardo A; Suso ML; Caudevilla ME; Zaragoza C, 1995. Growth of maize in competition with Chenopodium album L. and Datura stramonium L. Proceedings of the 1995 Congress of the Spanish Weed Science Society, Huesca, Spain, 14-16 November 1995., 323-328; 10 ref.

Tropicos, 1998. Nomenclatural Data Base. Missouri Botanical Garden. World Wide Web page at http://ginko.motbot.org.

Unterladstatter R, 1977. Guide to the identification and control of weeds. Guia para la identificacion y control de malezas. Comite de Obras Publicas. Santa Cruz Bolivia, 186 pp.

Velez I, 1950. Plantas Indeseables en los Cultivos Tropicales. Rio Piedras, Puerto Rico: Editorial Universitaria.

Wang ZR, 1990. Farmland Weeds in China. Beijing, China: Agricultural Publishing House.

Watt JM; Breyer-Brandwijk MG, 1962. The Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of Southern and Eastern Africa. Edinburgh and London, UK: E & S Livingstone Ltd.

Weaver SE; Warwick SI, 1984. The biology of Canadian weeds. 64. Datura stramonium L. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 64(4):979-991

Webb KR; Feez AM, 1987. Control of broadleaf weeds with fluroxypyr in sugarcane and grain sorghum in Northern New South Wales and Queensland, Australia. In: Proceedings of the 11th Asian Pacific Weed Science Society Conference Taipei, Taiwan: Asian Pacific Weed Science Society, 1:211-217.

Wells MJ; Balsinhas AA; Joffe H; Engelbrecht VM; Harding G; Stirton CH, 1986. A catalogue of problem plants in South Africa. Memoirs of the botanical survey of South Africa No 53. Pretoria, South Africa: Botanical Research Institute.

Wilcut JW; Richburg JS III; Eastin EF; Wiley GR; Walls FR Jr; Newell S, 1994. Imazethapyr and paraquat systems for weed management in peanut (Arachis hypogaea). Weed Science, 42(4):601-607

Williams MM II; Jordan N; Yerkes C, 1995. The fitness cost of triazine resistance in jimsonweed (Datura stramonium L.). American Midland Naturalist, 133(1):131-137

Wu ZhengYi; Raven PH, 1994. Flora of China. Volume 17: Verbenaceae through Solanaceae. Beijing, China: Science Press.

Yao Lin Q; Bao-tsung Y; Shi-kuo T, 1976. Weed Seedlings in Crop Fields. Bejing, China: Science Publishing House.

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map