Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Rabdophaga saliciperda
(shot-hole gall midge)

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Datasheet

Rabdophaga saliciperda (shot-hole gall midge)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 14 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Rabdophaga saliciperda
  • Preferred Common Name
  • shot-hole gall midge
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • R. saliciperda is not considered to be invasive.

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
R. saliciperda larvae in galls.
TitleLarvae
CaptionR. saliciperda larvae in galls.
Copyright©Rune Axelsson
R. saliciperda larvae in galls.
LarvaeR. saliciperda larvae in galls.©Rune Axelsson
R. saliciperda larvae in galls.
TitleLarvae
CaptionR. saliciperda larvae in galls.
Copyright©Rune Axelsson
R. saliciperda larvae in galls.
LarvaeR. saliciperda larvae in galls.©Rune Axelsson

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Rabdophaga saliciperda (Dufour, 1841)

Preferred Common Name

  • shot-hole gall midge

Other Scientific Names

  • Bertieria saliciperda Dufour, 1841
  • Cecidomyia saliciperda Dufour, 1841
  • Cecidomyia terebrans Loew, 1851
  • Dasineura saliciperda Dufour, 1841
  • Dasyneura saliciperda Dufour, 1841
  • Dichelomyia saliciperda Dufour, 1841
  • Helicomyia saliciperda Dufour, 1841
  • Lasioptera saliciperda Dufour, 1841
  • Rabdophaga terebrans Loew, 1851
  • Rhabdophaga saliciperda Dufour, 1841

International Common Names

  • Spanish: cecidomia del sauce
  • French: cécidomyie du saule

Local Common Names

  • Austria: Weidenholz-Gallmücke; Weidenknüppel-Gallmücke
  • Czech Republic: Bejlomorka korová
  • Denmark: pilevedgalmyg
  • Finland: pajunkuorisääski
  • Germany: Weidenholz-Gallmücke; Weidenknüppel-Gallmücke
  • Italy: cecidomia distruttrice dei salici; rhabdofaga distruttrice dei salici
  • Sweden: pilvedgallmygga
  • Switzerland: Weidenholz-Gallmücke; Weidenknüppel-Gallmücke

EPPO code

  • RHABSA (Helicomyia saliciperda)

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page R. saliciperda is not considered to be invasive.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Diptera
  •                         Family: Cecidomyiidae
  •                             Genus: Rabdophaga
  •                                 Species: Rabdophaga saliciperda

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

ArmeniaPresentMirzojan, 1977
JapanRestricted distributionYukawa, 1971; Yukawa, 1976; Nijveldt and Yukawa, 1982; Yukawa and Masuda, 1996
KazakhstanPresentFedotova, 2000
TurkeyPresentAlkan, 1952; Acatay, 1971

Europe

AustriaPresent, few occurrencesKurir, 1979a; Kurir, 1979b; Skuhravá and Franz, 1989
BelgiumRestricted distributionLeclercq, 1942; Gosseries, 1991
BulgariaRestricted distributionTsanov & Najdenov, 1975; Najdenov et al., 1987; Skuhrava et al., 1991; Skuhrava et al., 1992
CroatiaPresentMiklos, 1967
Czech RepublicPresent, few occurrencesSkuhravá, 1994a; Skuhravá, 1994b; Baudys, 1953; Skuhrav8 and Skuhravá, 1998
DenmarkPresentHenriksen and Tuxen, 1944; Thygesen, 1969
FrancePresent, few occurrencesDufour, 1841; Liebel, 1886; Kieffer, 1891; Marchal and Chateau, 1905
GermanyWidespreadBuhr, 1964; Stelter, 1969; Meyer and Jaschhof, 1999
GreecePresent, few occurrencesSkuhravá & Skuhravý, 1997a
HungaryRestricted distributionAmbrus, 1964; Toth, 1976; Skuhravá and Skuhravy, 1999
IrelandPresentO'Connor et al., 1999
ItalyRestricted distributionCecconi, 1912; Skuhravá et al., 2001
LatviaRestricted distributionSpungis, 1977
LithuaniaRestricted distributionMovsovicius, 1941; Pakalniskis et al., 2000
NetherlandsRestricted distributionNijveldt and Beuk, 2002
PolandPresent, few occurrencesSkuhravá and Skrzypczynska, 1983
RomaniaPresent, few occurrencesSkuhravá et al., 1972
Russian FederationPresentVoroncov and Sinadskij, 1960
-Russian Far EastPresentGraham de Vere & Gijswijt, 1998
SerbiaRestricted distributionSimova-Tosic et al., 2000
SlovakiaPresent, few occurrencesBaudys, 1924; Turcek, 1955; Skuhrava and Skuhravy, 1974; Skuhravá, 1991
SloveniaPresent, few occurrencesSimova-Tosic et al., 1996
SwedenPresentWahlgren, 1944
SwitzerlandPresent, few occurrencesSkuhravá & Skuhravý, 1997b; Gangolf, 1886
UKPresent, few occurrencesSen , 1939a; Barnes, 1951; Leatherdale, 1957; Harris, 1976

Growth Stages

Top of page Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Stems / galls
Stems / internal feeding
Stems / necrosis

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Eurytoma afra Parasite Larvae
Gastracnistrus salicis Parasite Larvae
Mesopolobus citrinus Parasite Larvae
Platygaster cecidomyiae Parasite Larvae
Platygaster niger Parasite Larvae
Torymus chlorocopes Parasite Larvae
Torymus fuscipes Parasite Larvae
Torymus microcerus Parasite Larvae
Torymus pulchellus Parasite Larvae
Torymus tipulariarum Parasite Larvae

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches larvae Yes

Wood Packaging

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Wood Packaging not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Loose wood packing material
Non-wood
Processed or treated wood
Solid wood packing material with bark
Solid wood packing material without bark

References

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Acatay A, 1971. On the occurrence of some forest pests in Turkey. Anzeiger für Schadlingskunde und Pflanzenschutz, 44(11):161-165.

Alkan B, 1952. Türkiyenin Zoosesid (Zoocecid)leri (kökeni hayvansal Bitki urlari) üzerinde calismalar. A. U. Ziraat Fakültesi, 185-225, 259-291 (in Turkish).

Ambrus B, 1964. Die Diptera als Gallenerzeuger unserer Weidenheine. ¦llattani Közlemények 51:7-21 (in Hungarian, German summary).

Barnes HF, 1935. On the gall midges injurious to the cultivation of willows. II. The so called "shot-hole gall midges" (Rhabdophaga spp.). Annals of Applied Biology, 22:86-105.

Barnes HF, 1949. Gall Midges of Economic Importance. Vol. VI. Gall Midges of Miscellaneous Crops. London.

Barnes HF, 1951. Gall Midges of Economic Importance. Vol. V. Gall Midges of Trees. London.

Baudys E, 1924. Contribution à l'extension des cécidies en Slovaquie. Jubilejni Sbornik Ceskoslovenske Spolecnosti entomologicke, 107-118.

Baudys E, 1953. The zoocecidia (galls) on basket willows in Moravia. Sbornik Vysoke Skoly Zemedelske (Rada A), 1-4:1-28 (in Czech, English summary).

Bergenstamm P; Löw P, 1876. Synopsis Cecidomyidarum. Verhandlungen der Zoologisch - Botanischen Gesellschaft in Österreich, 1876:1-104.

Buhr H, 1964-1965. Bestimmungstabellen der Gallen (Zoo- und Phytocecidien) an Pflanzen Mittel- und Nordeuropas. Jena.

Cecconi G, 1912. La Rhabdophaga distructrice dei salici in Italia (Rhabdophaga saliciperda Duf.). Boll. Lab. Zool. Portici, 6:320-331.

Dufour L, 1841. Histoire des métamorphoses des Cécidomyies du Pin maritime et du peuplier. Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Zoologie et Biologie Animale, (2)16:257-263.

Fedotova ZA, 2000. Gall midges - phytophages (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) of deserts and mountains of Kazakhstan: Morphology, biology, distribution, phylogeny and systematics. Samara (in Russian).

Fulmek L, 1968. Parasitinsekten der Insektengallen Europas. Beiträge zur Entomologie, 18:719-952.

Gagné RJ, 1989. The Plant-Feeding Gall Midges of North America. Ithaca, USA: Cornell University Press.

Gangolf G, 1886. Cecidomyia saliciperda Dufour. Societas Entomologica, Zürich, 1:109.

Giraud J, 1861. Fragments entomologiques. Verhandlungen der Zoologisch - Botanischen Gesellschaft in Österreich, 11:447-494.

Gosseries J, 1991. Cecidomyiidae. In: Grootaert P, De Bruyn L, De Meyer M, eds. Catalogue of the Diptera of Belgium. Studiendocumenten van het KIBN., 70:61-64.

Graham de Vere MWR; Gijswijt MJ, 1998. Revision of the European species of Torymus Dalman (Hymenoptera: Torymidae). Zoologische Verhandelingen, 317:3-202.

Harris KM, 1976. Cecidomyiidae. In: Kloet GS, Hincks WD, eds. A check List of British Insects. London, UK: Royal Entomological Society, 32-42.

Henriksen KL; Tuxen SL, 1944. Fortegnelse ober de danske Galler (Zoocecidier). Spolia Zoologica Musei Hauniensis, 6:1-212.

Houard C, 1908-1919. Les Zoocécidies des Plantes d'Europe et du Bassin de la Méditerranée. 2 Vols. Paris.

Kieffer JJ, 1891. Zur Kenntnis der Weidengallmücken. Berliner Entomologischer Zeitschrift, 36:241-258.

Kieffer JJ, 1896. Sur les Cécidomyies du Saule; description d'une genre nouveau et d'une espece nouvelle. Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France, 65:189.

Kieffer JJ, 1900. Monographie des Cécidomyes d'Europe et d'Algérie. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 69:181-472.

Kieffer JJ, 1913. Diptera, Family Cecidomyidae. In: Wytsman P, ed. Genera Insectorum, Fasc., 152:1-346.

Kurir A, 1979. New knowledge on the bionomics of Helicomyia saliciperda Dufour (Dipt., Cecidomyiidae) on Salix alba L. and S. purpurea L. Zeitschrift für Angewandte Entomologie, 88(3):318-325

Kurir A, 1979. The occurrence of the willow shot-hole midge (Helicomyia saliciperda Dufour (Cecidomyidae)) on white willow (Salix alba Linnaeus) and funeral willow (Salix alba var. vitellina-pendula Rehder). Zeitschrift für Angewandte Entomologie, 87(2):203-215

Leatherdale D, 1957. The incidence of some gall-causing insects and mites in south Oxfordshire and central Berkshire in 1956. The Entomologist's Monthly Magazine, 93:23-29.

Leclercq J, 1942. Les cécidies du pays de Liege. Lejeunia, 6: 89-98.

Liebel R, 1886. Die Zoocecidien (Pflanzendeformationen) und ihre Erzeuger in Lothringen. Zeitschrift für Neturwissenschaften, Halle, 59:531-579.

Marchal C; Chateau E, 1905. Catalogue des zoocécidies de Saone-&-Loire. Bulletin de la Société d'Histoire Naturelle d'Autun, 18:233-320.

McCallan E, 1940. Hymenopterous parasites of willow insects. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 31:35-44.

Meyer H; Jaschhof M, 1999. Cecidomyiidae (=Itonididae), 18-22. In: Schumann H, Bährmann R, Stark A, eds. Entomofauna Germanica 2. Checkliste der Dipteren Deutschands. Studia Dipterologica, Supplement, 2:1-354.

Miklos I, 1967. Helicomyia saliciperda and damage caused by it to willow plantations. Sumarski List, 61:21-24.

Mirzojan SA, 1977. Cecidomyiidae. In: Dendrophilous insects of forests and parks in Armenia. Jerevan, 286-287.

Movsovicius J., 1941. Les zoocécidies des plantes de l'arrondissement de Vilnius. Vilniaus Universiteto Matematikos-Gamtos Fakulteto Darbai, 1(14):115-142 (in Lithuanian with French summary).

Möhn E, 1955. Beiträge zur Systematik der Larven der Itonididae (=Cecidomyiidae, Diptera). 1. Teil. Porricondylinae und Itonidinae Mitteleuropas. Zoologica, Stuttgart, 38(105):1-247.

Najdenov J; Denev D; Canov C; Kalcev P, 1987. Vrbova galica Helicomyia saliciperda in Serbian. Zemizdat, 94-95.

Nef L; Perrin R, 1999. Damaging agents in European forest nurseries. Luxembourg, European Commission.

Nijveldt W, 1977. Notes on Cecidomyiidae, II. Entomologische Berichten, 37(6):88-92

Nijveldt W; Beuk PLT, 2002. Family Cecidomyiidae. In: Beuk PLT, ed. Checklist of the Diptera of the Netherlands, KNNV, uitgeverij, Utrecht, 69-84.

Nijveldt WC; Yukawa J, 1982. A taxonomic study on Salix-inhabiting gall midges in Japan (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae). Bulletin of the Kitakyushu Museum of Natural History, 4:23-56

O'Connor JP; Wistow S; Ashe P; O'Connor MA, 1998. A review of the Irish gall-inducing Cecidomyiidae (Diptera) and their inquilines. Irish Naturalists' Journal, 26(3/4):81-92; 39 ref.

Pakalniskis S; Rimsaité J; Sprangauskaité-Bernotiené R; Butautaité R; Podenas S, 2000. Checklist of Lithuanian Diptera. Acta Zoologica Lithuanica, 10:3-58.

Rübsaamen EH, 1892. Die Gallmücken des Königl. Museums für Naturkunde zu Berlin. Berliner Entomologischer Zeitschrift, 37:319-411.

Rübsaamen EH, 1915. Cecidomyidenstudien IV. Revision der deutschen Oligotropharien und Lasiopterarien nebst Beschreibung neuer Arten. Sitzungsberichte der Gesellschaft naturforschender Freunde, Berlin, 485-567.

Rübsaamen EH; Hedicke H, 1925-1939. Die Zoocecidien, durch Tiere erzeugte Pflanzengallen Deutschlands und ihre Bewohner. Die Cecidomyiden (Gallmücken) und ihre Cecidien. Zoologica, Stuttgart, 29 (77): 1-350.

Sen P, 1939. On the biology and morphology of Rhabdophaga saliciperda Dufour (Cecidomyiidae: Diptera), a common pest of willows (Salix fragilis). Zoologische Jahrbücher (Anat.), 65:1-36.

Sen P, 1939. On the structure (anatomical and histological) of the full-grown larva of Rabdophaga saliciperda Dufour (Cecidomyidae: Diptera). Zoologische Jahrbücher (Anat.), 65:37-62.

Simova-Tosic D; Skuhravá M; Skuhrav8 V, 1996. Gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) of Slovenia. Scopolia, 36:1-23.

Simova-Tosic D; Skuhravá M; Skuhrav8 V, 2000. Gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) of Serbia. Acta Entomologica Serbica, 5(1/2):47-93.

Skuhravá M, 1986. Cecidomyiidae. In: Soós A, ed. Catalogue of Palaearctic Diptera. Volume 4 Sciaridae - Anisopodidae. Budapest, Hungary: Akadémiai Kiadó.

Skuhravá M, 1989. Taxonomic changes and records in Palaearctic Cecidomyiidae (Diptera). Acta Entomologica Bohemoslovaca, 86:202-233.

Skuhravá M, 1991. Gallmücken der Slowakei (Cecidomyiidae, Diptera). VI. Die Zoogeographie der Gallmücken. Zborník Slovenského Národného Múzea, Prirodne Vedy, 37:85-178.

Skuhravá M, 1994. The zoogeography of gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) of the Czech Republic I. Evaluation of faunistic researches in the 1855-1990 period. Acta Societatis Zoologicae Bohemicae, 57(1993):211-293.

Skuhravá M, 1994. The zoogeography of gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) of the Czech Republic II. Review of gall midge species including geographical diagnoses. Acta Societatis Zoologicae Bohemicae, 58(1-2):79-126; 1 ref.

Skuhravá M, 1997. Family Cecidomyiidae. In: Papp L, Darvas B, eds. Contributions to a Manual of Palaearctic Diptera (with special reference to flies of economic importance). Vol. 2. Nematocera and Lower Brachycera. Budapest, 71-204.

Skuhravá M, 1997. Gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) of the Czech and Slovak Republics as members of zoogeographical units in the Palaearctic Region. Folia Facultatis Scientiarium Naturalium Universitatis Masarykianae Brunensis, Biologia 95, 149-171.

Skuhravá M; Franz H, 1989. Familie Cecidomyiidae (Itonididae). In: Franz H: Die Nordost-Alpen im Spiegel ihrer Landtierwelt. Innsbruck, Vol. VI/1: Diptera, Orthorapha, 67-97.

Skuhravá M; Skrzypczynska M, 1983. A review of gall-midges (Cecidomyiidae, Diptera) of Poland. Acta Zoologica Cracoviensis, 26:387-420 (in Polish, English summary).

Skuhravá M; Skuhrav8 V, 1974. Gall-midges of forest trees and shrubs of central Slovakia. Biológia, Czechoslovakia, 29(5):359-368

Skuhravá M; Skuhrav8 V; Doncev KD; Dimitrova BD, 1992. Gall midges (Cecidomyiidae, Diptera) of Bulgaria. II. Host plant relations and economic importance. Acta Zoologica Bulgarica, No. 43:23-42

Skuhravá M; Skuhrav8 V; Neacsu P, 1972. Verbreitung der Gallmücken in Rumänien (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, 19:375-392.

Skuhravá M; Skuhravý V, 1960. Bejlomorky (Gallmücken). CSAZV, SZN, Praha, (in Czech, German summary).

Skuhravá M; Skuhravý V, 1997. Gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) of Greece. Entomologica, 31:13-75; 45 ref.

Skuhravá M; Skuhravý V, 1997. Gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) of Switzerland. Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft, 70(1/2):133-176; 3 pp. of ref.

Skuhravá M; Skuhravý V, 1999. Gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) of Hungary. Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici, 91:105-139; 5 pp. of ref.

Skuhravá M; Skuhravý V; Doncev KD; Dimitrova BD, 1991. Gall midges (Cecidomyiidae, Diptera) of Bulgaria. I. Faunistic researches in the 1978-1987 period. Acta Zoologica Bulgarica, No. 42:3-26

Skuhravá M; Skuhravý V; Hellrigl K, 2001. Die Gallmückenfauna (Cecidomyiidae, Diptera) Südtirols, ein Beitrag zur Gallmückenfauna Italiens. Gredleriana, 1:83-132.

Skuhravý V; Skuhravá M, 1998. Bejlomorky lesních stromu a keru (Gall midges of Forest Trees and Shrubs). Matice lesnická, Písek (in Czech, English and German summaries).

Spungis V, 1977. Faunistic materials on some Latvian gall midges. Latvijas Entomologs, 20:57-67 (in Latvian, English summary).

Stelter H, 1969. Untersuchungen über Gallmücken XV. Rhabdophaga albipennis (H. Loew, 1850) und Rhabdophaga saliciperda (Dufour, 1841) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). Beiträge zur Entomologie, 19:483-493.

Stelter H, 1993. Investigations on gall midges XXXVIII: synonyms of European species of the genus Rabdophaga Westwood, 1847. Beiträge zur Entomologie, 43(2):387-391

Sylvén E; Carlbäcker U, 1981. Morphometric studies on Oligotrophini adults (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) including an attempt to correct for allometric deviations. Entomologica Scandinavica, 15:185-210.

Szépligeti G, 1899. Fauna Regni Hungariae, Diptera. Budapest, 16-18.

Thygesen T, 1969. En galmyg af interesse for piledyrkere - Helicomyia saliciperda. Gartner Tidende, 85:105-106 (in Danish).

Toth J, 1976. Aetiology and damage of Helicomyia saliciperda in Hungary. Novenyvedelem, 8:363-366 (in Hungarian, English summary).

Tsanov Ts; Naidenov Ya, 1975. A dangerous pest of Willow plantations. Gorsko Stopanstvo, 31(11):30-33

Turcek J, 1955. Severe damage to willows by Helicomyia saliciperda. Les Bratislava, 2:478-480 (in Slovakian).

Voroncov AI; Sinadskij JV, 1960. Insect pests of Salix alba in bottomland stands of the Lower Volga. Zoologicheskii Zhurnal, 39:1335-1344 (in Russian, English summary).

Wahlgren E, 1944. Cecidiologiska anteckningar. Entomologisk Tidskrift, 64:50-121.

Yukawa J, 1971. A revision of the Japanese gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). Memoirs of the Faculty of Agriculture, Kagoshima University, 8:1-203.

Yukawa J, 1976. Check list of midge galls of Japan, with descriptions of newly recorded galls. I. Choripetalé. Memoirs of the Faculty of Agriculture, Kagoshima University, 12(21):109-123

Yukawa J; Masuda H, 1996. Insect and Mite Galls of Japan in Colors. Zenkoku Noson Kyokai, Tokyo (in Japanese).

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