Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Bactrocera zonata
(peach fruit fly)

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Datasheet

Bactrocera zonata (peach fruit fly)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 10 December 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Bactrocera zonata
  • Preferred Common Name
  • peach fruit fly
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Native to South and South-East Asia, B. zonata is now found in more than 20 countries. The potential risk of its introduction to a new area is facilitated by increasing international tourism and trade, and is influenced by changes in climat...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
B. zonata: line drawing of various structures; (a) egg, (b) lateral view of head and prothoracic segment of 3rd instar larva, (c) Cephalopharyngeal skeleton of third instar larva, (d) anterior prothoracic respiratory spiracle, (e) spiracular plate and caudal respiratory (posterior) spiracle, (f) third instar larva and (g) puparium.
TitleMorphology
CaptionB. zonata: line drawing of various structures; (a) egg, (b) lateral view of head and prothoracic segment of 3rd instar larva, (c) Cephalopharyngeal skeleton of third instar larva, (d) anterior prothoracic respiratory spiracle, (e) spiracular plate and caudal respiratory (posterior) spiracle, (f) third instar larva and (g) puparium.
CopyrightM.L. Argawal
B. zonata: line drawing of various structures; (a) egg, (b) lateral view of head and prothoracic segment of 3rd instar larva, (c) Cephalopharyngeal skeleton of third instar larva, (d) anterior prothoracic respiratory spiracle, (e) spiracular plate and caudal respiratory (posterior) spiracle, (f) third instar larva and (g) puparium.
MorphologyB. zonata: line drawing of various structures; (a) egg, (b) lateral view of head and prothoracic segment of 3rd instar larva, (c) Cephalopharyngeal skeleton of third instar larva, (d) anterior prothoracic respiratory spiracle, (e) spiracular plate and caudal respiratory (posterior) spiracle, (f) third instar larva and (g) puparium.M.L. Argawal

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Bactrocera zonata (Saunders, 1841)

Preferred Common Name

  • peach fruit fly

Other Scientific Names

  • Bactrocera maculigera Doleshall (misidentification)
  • Chaetodacus zonatus (Saunders)
  • Dacus (Strumeta) zonatus
  • Dacus mangiferae Cotes, 1893
  • Dacus persicae
  • Dacus persicus (Biggott)
  • Dacus zonatus (Saunders)
  • Dasyneura zonata Saunders
  • Dasyneura zonatus Saunders, 1942
  • guava fruit fly
  • Rivellia persicae Bigot, 1889
  • Strumeta zonata (Saunders)
  • Strumeta zonatus Saunders

International Common Names

  • English: fruit fly, peach; peach fruitfly

EPPO code

  • DACUZO (Bactrocera zonata)

Summary of Invasiveness

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Native to South and South-East Asia, B. zonata is now found in more than 20 countries. The potential risk of its introduction to a new area is facilitated by increasing international tourism and trade, and is influenced by changes in climate and land use. After introduction, it can easily adapt and spread as it is a polyphagous species and has a high reproductive potential (as many as 564 eggs in a lifetime), high biotic potential (several generations of progeny in a year), and a rapid dispersal ability. B. zonata is a strong flier and can be active throughout the year.

Economic impacts may result primarily from the loss of export markets and the costly requirement of quarantine restrictions and eradication measures. Furthermore, its establishment may have a serious impact on the environment following the initiation of chemical and/or biological control programmes. B. zonata is of quarantine significance to EPPO (the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization) countries. The pest is classified on the A1 List of Pests recommended for regulation as quarantine pests.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Diptera
  •                         Family: Tephritidae
  •                             Genus: Bactrocera
  •                                 Species: Bactrocera zonata

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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This species was originally described in the genus Dasyneura; a genus now exclusively used in the Cecidomyiidae. The synonyms Rivellia persicae and Dacus mangiferae have been little used and are unlikely to be encountered outside of taxonomic catalogues. The name Bactrocera maculigera has for many years been erroneously listed as a synonym of B. zonata in catalogues, including the recent work by Norrbom et al. (1999). However, a recent study of the type specimen of B. maculigera, from Indonesia, has shown that it is a totally unrelated species (White and Evenhuis, 1999). This is of significance as the only record of B. zonata from Indonesia was based on that misidentified specimen. B. zonata belongs to the subgenus Bactrocera within the genus Bactrocera and it may therefore be cited as Bactrocera (Bactrocera) zonata.

Description

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Eggs

Elongated, elliptical, whitish, 1.0-1.2 mm long, somewhat rounded at posterior end, slightly pointed anteriorly.

Larvae

Some details were given by White and Elson-Harris (1994), but they were insufficient as to permit separation from other pest species.

Pupae

Barrel-shaped, 11 segmented, yellowish or yellowish-brown, 4.2-5.8 mm long, 2.3-2.5 mm wide; anterior end with two anterior spiracles, posterior end rounded; posterior spiracles occupy the same position as in larva.

Adults

The genus Bactrocera belongs to the family Tephritidae, which is part of the superfamily Tephritoidea. In common with most species of Tephritoidea it has patterned wings, and the female has a long telescopic and pointed ovipositor; these features are hardly known outside the Tephritoidea. The family Tephritidae may also be separated from all other Diptera by the shape of the sub-costal vein, which bends abruptly through a right-angle and fades to a fold before reaching the wing edge, combined with the presence of setulae along the dorsal side of vein R1. At the wing base, Bactrocera and Dacus species have a very deep cell bm and a very long pointed extension of cell bcu (=cup). The genus Bactrocera is separated from Dacus by the terga (dorsal sclerites of the abdomen) not being fused into a single sclerotized plate.

In common with most species in or close to subgenus Bactrocera, the scutum has two pale lateral vittae (lateral stripes). The scutum has both anterior supra-alar setae and prescutellar acrostichal setae; there are two setae (apical pair) on the margin of the scutellum. The males have a deep V-shaped notch on the fifth sternite and a pecten (comb of setae) on each side of the third abdominal tergite.

This species is unusual in its wing pattern and structure. In common with Bactrocera correcta, it lacks a complete costal band (that is reduced to an apical wing spot), and it lacks microtrichiae in the narrow raised area near the base of cell br. It differs from B. correcta in having round or oval facila spots (a dark spot in each antennal groove rather than a broken transverse line), and by having a red brown scutum (rather than almost black).

Distribution

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B. zonata has been recorded from most states of India. It is expected that it is widely distributed throughout India and Pakistan.

B. zonata occurs in two regions in Africa. It is reported from some of the islands in the Indian Ocean (Mauritius and Réunion) and is also found in northern Africa (Egypt and Libya). B. zonata is present in several countries in the Arabian Peninsula, includnig Oman, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates and Yemen. Recently it has been reported from Gezira region in Sudan, suggesting a southward spread and potential risk of invasion for Sub-Saharan region (Meyer et al., 2007).

From North America (California), three individuals were trapped (Carey and Dowell, 1989), but eradicated (Spaugy, l988). The record from Moluccas (Amboina) is a misidentification (White and Elson-Harris, 1994) and the record for Sumatra in this same publication cannot now be traced and is presumed to be a misidentification (CABI/EPPO, 2001). There is a specimen from the United Arab Emirates in Geneva, Switzerland (IM White, UK [address available from CABI], personal communication, 2001).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 17 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

EgyptPresent, WidespreadIntroduced1993Invasive
LibyaPresent, LocalizedIntroduced2007East of the country
MauritiusPresentIntroduced1942Two records
RéunionPresent, LocalizedIntroduced1991Invasive
SudanPresent, Localized

Asia

BangladeshPresent, Few occurrencesNative
BhutanPresent
IndiaPresent, WidespreadNative
-Andhra PradeshPresent
-AssamPresent
-BiharPresent
-ChhattisgarhPresent
-DelhiPresent
-GoaPresent
-GujaratPresent
-HaryanaPresent
-Himachal PradeshPresent
-Jammu and KashmirPresent
-KarnatakaPresent
-KeralaPresent
-Madhya PradeshPresent
-MaharashtraPresent
-PunjabPresent
-Tamil NaduPresent
-Uttar PradeshPresent
-West BengalPresent
IndonesiaAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)
-SumatraAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)
IranPresent, LocalizedIntroduced2002
IraqPresentvia PestLens newsletter.
IsraelPresent, Few occurrencesIntroduced2000
LaosPresentNative
MyanmarPresentNative
NepalPresent
OmanPresentIntroduced
PakistanPresentNative
Saudi ArabiaPresent, LocalizedIntroduced1982InvasiveJazane, Najrane (south-west)
Sri LankaPresentNative
ThailandPresentNative
United Arab EmiratesPresentIntroduced
VietnamPresentNative
YemenPresentIntroduced

Europe

AustriaAbsent, Confirmed absent by survey
SloveniaAbsent

North America

United StatesPresent, Transient under eradicationIntroduced
-CaliforniaPresent, Transient under eradicationIntroducedvia alert from PestLens newsletter.
-FloridaAbsent, Eradicated

Oceania

New ZealandAbsent, Confirmed absent by survey

History of Introduction and Spread

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B. zonata was detected in Egypt in 1914 (Efflatoun, 1924) in Port Said on the Red Sea coast, but there were no further records to suggest that quarantine interception was the start of establishment (label information for the two specimens, in the collection of the Ministry of Agriculture: “Port-said customs from India, Sample No. 1036.14 V 1914”).

According to De Meyer et al. (2007), the first record of B. zonata being established in Egypt was in Kalubia governorate (East Cairo) in 1993 from guava (Psidium guajava) samples, and later the same year in Faiuom governorate (west Cairo). Both governorates are fruit-producing areas and there is a continuous presence of plant hosts during the year. The following year, the pest was found in Alexandria governorate (Agami), where the fig (Ficus carica) is widely distributed, and in Giza governorate (West Cairo), where various horticultural trees are cultivated in home gardens. By 1995, the insect was found in further fruit-producing governorates. By 1997, it was distributed throughout Egypt, including the Dakhla and Kharga oases (west Egypt) and in Sinai (north-east Egypt), both of which are desert areas. In Egypt, due to the spread of B. zonata, the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata has become more restricted in the horticulture areas (Hashem et al., 2001), and mixed infestation by both fruit flies produced flies mostly of B. zonata irrespective of which insect infested the fruit first (Mohamed, 2004).

By the early 1980s, B. zonata had become established in the Arabian Peninsula including Saudi Arabia, Oman, and Yemen (White, 2006).

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
California 1988-2006 Live food or feed trade (pathway cause) No No NAPPO (2008) last interception of flies occurred in 2006 and was eradicated
Egypt 1993 Live food or feed trade (pathway cause) Yes No Meyer et al. (2007) widespread

Risk of Introduction

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For export of fruits and vegetables from countries where B. zonata is prevalent, the exporting country/agency should develop and implement a preharvest quarantine system that enables production of fruit totally free from live stages of fruit flies. They should also develop postharvest disinfestation treatments. B. zonata is mainly a tropical species and has the potential to establish itself in similar areas. The way it has shown its dominance over B. dorsalis in some parts of India is alarming. Careful attempts must be taken by the countries in which it is not found, where it is of quarantine significance. Phytosanitary measures should also be enforced to limit further spread.

Habitat

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Adults of B. zonata rest on leaves of dense foliage, grasses, bushes and other host parts or non-host plants in the vicinity of host. During the warmer hours of the day they disperse and fly actively. Their eggs and larvae are well protected and found inside the host. and the soil provides a good shelter for the pupae.

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalDeserts Secondary/tolerated habitat Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalArid regions Secondary/tolerated habitat Productive/non-natural

Hosts/Species Affected

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White and Elson-Harris (1994) and Allwood et al. (1999) reviewed available host data and only records accepted by these publications are listed in the table. In a recent survey in Sri Lanka (Tsuruta et al., 1997), Careya arborea was the major host and it was not found attacking any commercial fruit crops.

B. zonata has been reported on potato in Egypt (El-Samea and Fetoh, 2006) but surveys conducted by the Plant Protection Research Institute, Egypt, have confirmed that the report is invalid (NPPO of Egypt, communication to CABI, 2020).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Abelmoschus esculentus (okra)MalvaceaeUnknown
Aegle marmelos (golden apple)RutaceaeOther
Annona reticulata (bullock's heart)AnnonaceaeUnknown
Annona squamosa (sugar apple)AnnonaceaeOther
    Careya arborea (tummy wood)LecythidaceaeWild host
    Carica papaya (pawpaw)CaricaceaeOther
    CitrusRutaceaeOther
    Citrus aurantium (sour orange)RutaceaeUnknown
    • Saafan et al. (2005)
    Citrus limetta (sweet lemon tree)RutaceaeUnknown
    Citrus limon (lemon)RutaceaeUnknown
    • Saafan et al. (2005)
    Citrus reticulata (mandarin)RutaceaeUnknown
    Citrus sinensis (navel orange)RutaceaeUnknown
    Citrus x paradisi (grapefruit)RutaceaeUnknown
    • Saafan et al. (2005)
    Cydonia oblonga (quince)RosaceaeOther
    Diospyros kaki (persimmon)EbenaceaeUnknown
    Drypetes roxburghiiEuphorbiaceaeUnknown
    Elaeocarpus hygrophilusElaeocarpaceaeUnknown
    Eriobotrya japonica (loquat)RosaceaeUnknown
    FicusMoraceaeUnknown
    Ficus carica (common fig)MoraceaeOther
      Grewia asiatica (phalsa)TiliaceaeOther
      Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd)CucurbitaceaeUnknown
      LuffaCucurbitaceaeOther
        Malus domestica (apple)RosaceaeOther
        Malus sylvestris (crab-apple tree)RosaceaeUnknown
        Mangifera indica (mango)AnacardiaceaeMain
        Manilkara zapota (sapodilla)SapotaceaeUnknown
        Mimusops elengi (spanish cherry)SapotaceaeUnknown
        Momordica charantia (bitter gourd)CucurbitaceaeOther
        Musa x paradisiaca (plantain)MusaceaeUnknown
        Persea americana (avocado)LauraceaeUnknown
        Phoenix dactylifera (date-palm)ArecaceaeOther
        Prunus armeniaca (apricot)RosaceaeUnknown
        Prunus domestica (plum)RosaceaeUnknown
        Prunus persica (peach)RosaceaeMain
        Psidium cattleianum (strawberry guava)MyrtaceaeUnknown
        Psidium guajava (guava)MyrtaceaeMain
        Punica granatum (pomegranate)PunicaceaeOther
        Pyrus pyrifolia (Oriental pear tree)RosaceaeUnknown
        Solanum tuberosum (potato)SolanaceaeUnknown
        Syzygium jambos (rose apple)MyrtaceaeUnknown
        Syzygium samarangense (water apple)MyrtaceaeUnknown
        Terminalia catappa (Singapore almond)CombretaceaeOther
        ZiziphusRhamnaceaeUnknown
        Ziziphus mauritiana (jujube)RhamnaceaeUnknown

        Growth Stages

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        Fruiting stage

        Symptoms

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        In juicy fruits, fluid exudes from the oviposition puncture in the form of a droplet that later dries up and appears as a brown, resinous deposit. On hatching, maggots bore their way into the interior of the host. The activity of first instar larvae is restricted in the area below the oviposition puncture. Second- and third-instar larvae are voracious feeders, go deeper in the host and are mainly responsible for complete deterioration of the host.

        List of Symptoms/Signs

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        SignLife StagesType
        Fruit / internal feeding

        Biology and Ecology

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        Rahman et al. (1993) described the biology of B. zonata. Winter is passed in the pupal stage and the adults emerge when the ambient temperature increases. The adults appear by the end of March and start mating. The mated female, after selecting a suitable site for oviposition, inserts her ovipositor in the host tissues and deposits three to nine eggs at one time. The hatched larvae feed and grow inside the host. The duration of various immature stages varies at different temperatures. No stages develop at 15°C or less, the optimum temperature is 25-30°C (Qureshi et al., 1993). Full-grown larvae enter the soil for pupariation. Pupal duration is quite long in the winter. The adults hatch from pupae mainly in the early hours of the morning.

        B. zonata is a tropical species and unable to survive in extreme cold. Agarwal and Pramod Kumar (1999) studied the population dynamics of B. zonata in north Bihar, India. The maximum fly population was observed during the third week of June. The fly population was positively correlated with temperature and rainfall whereas negative correlation was observed between the fly population and relative humidity. Abundance of larval host is also an important factor regulating its population. More flies were available during the second to fourth weeks of June, which synchronized with the peak fruiting period of its preferred hosts.

        B. zonata is an ecological homologue of B. dorsalis. Both species are polyphagous, infest common hosts and exhibit interference competition. Their larvae also compete with each other in concealed feeding niches. Narayanan and Batra (1960) considered zonata to be of less importance than dorsalis in terms of population and severity of damage. Agarwal and Kapoor (1986) reported zonata superseding dorsalis in northern India. In Bihar, the average mean population of zonata was 3.38 times greater than dorsalis (Agarwal et al., 1999). However, in southern parts of India, dorsalis is still dominating zonata.

        Climate

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        ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
        Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
        B - Dry (arid and semi-arid) Tolerated < 860mm precipitation annually
        BS - Steppe climate Tolerated > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
        BW - Desert climate Tolerated < 430mm annual precipitation
        C - Temperate/Mesothermal climate Tolerated Average temp. of coldest month > 0°C and < 18°C, mean warmest month > 10°C
        Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers

        Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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        Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
        35 22

        Air Temperature

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        Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
        Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) 11 0
        Mean annual temperature (ºC) 22 33
        Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 31 34
        Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 21 23

        Rainfall

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        ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
        Dry season duration012number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
        Mean annual rainfall1003200mm; lower/upper limits

        Rainfall Regime

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        Summer
        Winter

        Notes on Natural Enemies

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        Details pertaining to natural enemies of B. zonata are not known and attempts have not been made to produce and release such natural enemies on a large scale. Syed et al. (1970) and Ahmad et al. (1975) observed Biosteres longicaudatus and Biosteres vandenvoschi as parasitoids of immature stages of B. zonata in Pakistan. Kapoor and Agarwal (1986) reported Opius sp. as a parasitoid of B. zonata pupae.

        Means of Movement and Dispersal

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        Natural Dispersal

        B. zonata is a strong flier and highly mobile. Extensive dispersal movements occur during the post-teneral period. The mature adults also cover long distances in search of new hosts. Qureshi et al. (1975) recorded marked individuals moving distances of up to 40 km. The incidence of B. zonata on the Réunion Island in 1991 is indicative of the fly’s ability to spread. Initially, the infested area was limited mainly to the north of the island, with rare captures in the southern part. Two years later, there was a significant increase in the population and the pest has established near St. Denis and expanded to areas in the north-east (St. Denis, St. Marie, St. André), north-west (La Possession, Rivière des Galets, St. Paul) and in the west (Hurtrel et al., 2002).

        Accidental Introduction

        The transport of infested hosts, mainly fruit, from one area to another, as well as to previously uninfested areas is also an important means of movement and dispersal.

        Pathway Causes

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        CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
        Crop production Yes Yes
        Hitchhiker Yes Yes
        Horticulture Yes Yes
        Live food or feed tradeEgypt Yes Yes Meyer et al. (2007); NAPPO (2008)
        Smuggling Yes Yes

        Pathway Vectors

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        VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
        AircraftFruits infested with larvae and/or eggs Yes Yes
        Bulk freight or cargoAll life stages Yes Yes
        ConsumablesFruits infested with larvae and/or eggs Yes Yes
        Containers and packaging - non-woodFruits infested with larvae and/or eggs Yes Yes
        Floating vegetation and debrisFruits infested with larvae and/or eggs Yes
        Land vehiclesFruits infested with larvae and/or eggs Yes Yes
        LuggageFruits infested with larvae and/or eggs Yes Yes
        MailFruits infested with larvae and/or eggs Yes Yes
        Plants or parts of plantsFruits infested with larvae and/or eggs Yes Yes
        Soil, sand and gravelPupae Yes Yes

        Plant Trade

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        Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
        Fruits (inc. pods) eggs; larvae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
        Growing medium accompanying plants pupae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
        Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
        Bark
        Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
        Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
        Leaves
        Roots
        Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
        Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches
        True seeds (inc. grain)
        Wood

        Impact Summary

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        CategoryImpact
        Economic/livelihood Negative
        Environment (generally) Negative
        Human health Negative

        Impact

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        B. zonata is polyphagous. In India, Pakistan and now Egypt, it is an important fruit fly pest and causes severe damage to peach [Prunus persica], guava [Psidium guajava] and mango [Mangifera indica]. Many other fruit and vegetables are also infested by this fly. In certain areas of north India and Pakistan it has been more notorious than Bactrocera dorsalis (Qureshi et al., 1991; Kapoor, 1993). It has a great preference for fruits including peaches and guavas and sometimes the crop is severely damaged. Infestations are often mixed with B. dorsalis. The present status of this fly is quite contrary to earlier reports when dorsalis was mentioned as more aggressive and serious. However, in Sri Lanka B. zonata does not appear to be an important pest (Tsuruta et al., 1997).

        Economic Impact

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        B. zonata is known in India and South-East Asia as a serious pest of tropical and subtropical fruits. It is one of the three most destructive flies in India, causing crop losses of 25 to 100% in peach [Prunus persica], apricot [Prunus armeniaca], guava [Psidum guajava] and figs [Ficus carica]. In Pakistan, B. zonata alone has caused 25-50% damage to guava fruit (Siddiqui et al., 2003), and the farmers have abandoned harvesting the kharif guava crop in southern Pakistan. In Egypt, the percentages of apricot and citrus infested with B. zonata were higher than those infested with Ceratitis capitata and reached 20% (Saafan et al., 2005a,b). In recent years, B. zonata has increased its host range to a number of important commercial crops such as citrus, mango [Mangifera indica], eggplant [Solanum melongena], tomato [Solanum lycopersicum], apple [Malus domestica], loquat [Eriobotrya japonica] and even potatoes [Solanum tuberosum] (El-Samea and Fetoh, 2006). Economic impacts may result from costly eradication measures and quarantine restrictions imposed by important domestic and foreign import markets, and from direct yield losses from infested fruit. After years of costly and intensive eradication and surveillance programmes following the detection of B. zonata on the Réunion Islands and in Egypt, the unsuccessful eradication campaign had to be abandoned. 

        Environmental Impact

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        Because of the competition for food, B. zonata may displace other less aggressive fruit fly species. Duyck et al. (2004) suggested that the r–K gradient could be used as a predictor of the potential invasive capacity of a species. Species with type K-demographic strategy traits, such as species of the genus Bactrocera, would be adapted for competition in saturated habitats. Duyck et al. (2004) reported that in all recorded cases, species further along the r–K gradient, such as Bactrocera dorsalis have invaded over r-selected species, such as Ceratitis capitata, but never the reverse. In Egypt, because of the spread of B. zonata, the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata has become more restricted in the horticulture areas (Hashem et al., 2001), and the mixed infestation of fruits by both species produced flies mostly of the B. zonata irrespective of which insect infested the fruit first (Mohamed, 2004). Recent reports (Saafan et al., 2005a,b) indicted that even in cultivated orchards of citrus and apricot [Prunus armeniaca] in Fayoum Governorate, Egypt, the population of Ceratitis capitata was very low compared with B. zonata.

        Earlier reports from India (Narayanan and Batra, 1960) considered B. zonata to be of less importance than B. dorsalis in terms of population and severity of damage. However, Agarwal and Kapoor (1986) reported that B. zonata superseded B. dorsalis in northern India. In Bihar, the average mean population of B. zonata was 3.38 times greater than B. dorsalis (Agarwal et al., 1999). Nevertheless, in southern parts of India and in Sri Lanka, B. dorsalis is still dominating B. zonata (Tsuruta et al., 1997).

        Impact: Biodiversity

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        The environmental impact is rated high because the establishment of B. zonata would be likely to trigger the initiation of chemical and/or biological control programmes. Chemical control would harm native insects and species of conservation significance.

        Social Impact

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        Human health and tourism may be affected if plantations treated with insecticides are close to habitat and touristic resorts. However, the risk is very low because local protein bait spray and male annihilation techniques are the most common methods used for the management of B. zonata.

        Risk and Impact Factors

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        Invasiveness
        • Invasive in its native range
        • Proved invasive outside its native range
        • Abundant in its native range
        • Highly adaptable to different environments
        • Is a habitat generalist
        • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
        • Capable of securing and ingesting a wide range of food
        • Highly mobile locally
        • Long lived
        • Fast growing
        • Has high reproductive potential
        Impact outcomes
        • Host damage
        • Negatively impacts agriculture
        • Transportation disruption
        Impact mechanisms
        • Competition - monopolizing resources
        • Pest and disease transmission
        • Interaction with other invasive species
        Likelihood of entry/control
        • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
        • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
        • Highly likely to be transported internationally illegally
        • Difficult/costly to control

        Detection and Inspection

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        Host fruits with oviposition punctures may contain eggs or larvae of B. zonata.

        Infested host fruits should be kept in rearing jars on sand for rearing adult flies. Jars should be covered with muslin cloth. The pupae can be collected from the sand and then kept in glass vials covered with muslin cloth. Adults that subsequently hatch from the pupae may be identified.

        Methyl eugenol, an extraordinarily attractive and very widely used lure for males of many dacine species, has been observed to be very effective in monitoring B. zonata populations. It attracts flies at a very low concentration and is believed to attract over a range of up to 1 km (Qureshi et al., 1992). The attractant is usually placed in the trap designed by Steiner (1957). The attractant can also be mixed with malathion and then soaked in small cotton wicks. Such impregnated wicks are suspended in the middle of the trap. Traps can be suspended from trees about 1.5-2.0 m above the ground in places with no direct sunlight. Agarwal et al. (1995) found protein hydrolysate+malathion+methyl eugenol combination to be most effective against male B. zonata.

        For more information see Invasive Fruit Fly Pests in Africa (Meyer et al., 2007).

        Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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        A few other species of Dacus and Bactrocera have a similar wing pattern and B. zonata has sometimes been mistaken for Bactrocera correcta and perhaps for Dacus ciliatus. Particular care should be taken not to confuse it with Bactrocera affinis, a very similar species that attacks wild fruits in some areas of southern India. B. affinis only differs in its lack of prescutellar acrostichal setae and in having a trilobed (rather than pointed) aculeus (apical segment of ovipositor that usually needs dissection before it can be examined).

        Prevention and Control

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        Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

        Sanitary Measures

        Infested host fruits should be plucked or those that fall on the ground should be collected and buried deep in the soil. Proper sanitation in fields and orchards is essential. After harvest no fruit should be left unpicked because they become the source of later infestation.

        Physical Control

        Wrapping or bagging individual fruit to prevent oviposition by females is also effective.

        Chemical Control

        The use of chemical control based on bait sprays and relatively less hazardous insecticide such as malathion seem to be the most convenient and efficient control methods available (Roessler, 1989). The insecticide is usually mixed with protein hydrolysate to form a bait spray. Individuals of both sexes are strongly attracted to a protein source from which ammonia emanates. Practical details have been summarized by Bateman (1982).

        Male Annihilation

        Methyl eugenol is an effective attractant to the males of B. zonata. It can be mixed with insecticide (preferably malathion) and protein bait and can be used in traps. Male annihilation by using attractant would be effective in reducing the population to a very low level if carried out on a large scale.

        Plant Quarantine

        Prevention of B. zonata from establishing in fly-free areas may be achieved by strictly enforcing quarantine regulations. Import of host fruits and vegetables from areas of infestation without postharvest disinfestation treatment should not be allowed. Travellers may also carry infested hosts in their baggage and thorough checking at entry ports is essential.

        Postharvest Treatment

        Many countries, such as the mainland USA, forbid the import of susceptible fruit without strict post-harvest treatment having been applied by the exporter. This may involve fumigation, heat treatment (hot vapour or hot water), cold treatments, insecticidal dipping or irradiation (Armstrong and Couey, 1989; Armstrong, 1997). Irradiation is not accepted in most countries and fumigation is a hazardous operation. Heat treatment tends to reduce the shelf-life of most fruits and so the most effective method of regulatory control is preferentially to restrict imports of a given fruit to areas free from fruit fly attack.

        Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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        Details pertaining to natural enemies of B. zonata are not known and attempts have not been made to produce and release such natural enemies on a large scale. Biosteres longicaudatus, Biosteres vandenvoschi, Opius sp. and Fopius arisanus, observed as parasitoids of immature stages of B. zonata in Pakistan (Syed et al., 1970; Ahmad et al., 1975; Agarwal and Kapoor, 1986; Rousse et al., 2007), should be investigated.

        The male annihilation technique (MAT) uses bait stations containing a powerful male attractant (methyl eugenol) mixed with a small amount of an insecticide. This technique is the key for any eradication programme and needs to be optimized in terms of insecticide type and formulation.

        A trapping system geared towards female B. zonata would be a good tool for improving the efficacy of integrated fruit fly management, including the sterile insect technique (SIT).

        References

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        Links to Websites

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        WebsiteURLComment
        California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA)http://www.cdfa.ca.gov
        Invasive Fruit Fly Pests in Africahttp://www.africamuseum.be/fruitfly/AfroAsia.htm

        Organizations

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        Pakistan: Nuclear Institute of Agriculture, 70060 Tandojam

        France: CIRAD (Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développment), Head Office, 42, rue Scheffer, 75116 Paris, http://www.cirad.fr

        Contributors

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        26/03/2008 Updated by:

        Abdeljelil Bakri, University Cadi Ayyad, Faculty of Science Semlalia, Unit of Insect Biological Control, Boulevard Prince My Abdallah, 40 000 Marrakech, Morocco

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