Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Bactrocera dorsalis
(Oriental fruit fly)

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Datasheet

Bactrocera dorsalis (Oriental fruit fly)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 27 September 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Bactrocera dorsalis
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Oriental fruit fly
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Bactrocera dorsalis is a highly invasive species. Native to Asia, Oriental fruit fly is now found in at least 65 countries, including parts of America and Oceania, and most of continental Africa (sub-Saharan co...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Bactrocera dorsalis (Oriental fruit fly); adult.
TitleAdult
CaptionBactrocera dorsalis (Oriental fruit fly); adult.
Copyright©Clive Lau
Bactrocera dorsalis (Oriental fruit fly); adult.
AdultBactrocera dorsalis (Oriental fruit fly); adult.©Clive Lau
Bactrocera dorsalis (Oriental fruit fly); adult.
TitleAdult
CaptionBactrocera dorsalis (Oriental fruit fly); adult.
Copyright©Clive Lau
Bactrocera dorsalis (Oriental fruit fly); adult.
AdultBactrocera dorsalis (Oriental fruit fly); adult.©Clive Lau
Bactrocera dorsalis (Oriental fruit fly); adult.
TitleAdult
CaptionBactrocera dorsalis (Oriental fruit fly); adult.
Copyright©Clive Lau
Bactrocera dorsalis (Oriental fruit fly); adult.
AdultBactrocera dorsalis (Oriental fruit fly); adult.©Clive Lau
Bactrocera dorsalis (Oriental fruit fly); adult. Museum set specimen.
TitleAdult
CaptionBactrocera dorsalis (Oriental fruit fly); adult. Museum set specimen.
Copyright©CABI BioScience
Bactrocera dorsalis (Oriental fruit fly); adult. Museum set specimen.
AdultBactrocera dorsalis (Oriental fruit fly); adult. Museum set specimen.©CABI BioScience
Bactrocera dorsalis (Oriental fruit fly); an aggregation of male flies on the spadix of an aroid, gathering eugenol to augment their pheromone.  Wat Palad, Doi Suthep, Chiang Mai, Thailand. July 1994.
TitleAggregation of males
CaptionBactrocera dorsalis (Oriental fruit fly); an aggregation of male flies on the spadix of an aroid, gathering eugenol to augment their pheromone. Wat Palad, Doi Suthep, Chiang Mai, Thailand. July 1994.
Copyright©R. Davies/Natural History Museum
Bactrocera dorsalis (Oriental fruit fly); an aggregation of male flies on the spadix of an aroid, gathering eugenol to augment their pheromone.  Wat Palad, Doi Suthep, Chiang Mai, Thailand. July 1994.
Aggregation of malesBactrocera dorsalis (Oriental fruit fly); an aggregation of male flies on the spadix of an aroid, gathering eugenol to augment their pheromone. Wat Palad, Doi Suthep, Chiang Mai, Thailand. July 1994.©R. Davies/Natural History Museum

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel, 1912)

Preferred Common Name

  • Oriental fruit fly

Other Scientific Names

  • Bactrocera (Bactrocera) dorsalis Drew & Hancock, 1994
  • Bactrocera (Bactrocera) invadens Drew et al., 2005
  • Bactrocera (Bactrocera) papayae Drew & Hancock, 1994
  • Bactrocera (Bactrocera) philippinensis Drew & Hancock, 1974
  • Bactrocera (Bactrocera) variabilis Lin & Wang
  • Bactrocera ferruginea Bezzi, 1913
  • Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta & White
  • Bactrocera papayae Drew & Hancock
  • Bactrocera philippinensis
  • Chaetodacus ferrugineus Bezzi, 1916
  • Chaetodacus ferrugineus dorsalis Bezzi, 1916
  • Chaetodacus ferrugineus var. dorsalis Hendel, 1915
  • Chaetodacus ferrugineus var. okinawanus Shiraki, 1933
  • Dacus (Bactrocera) dorsalis Hardy, 1977
  • Dacus (Bactrocera) semifemoralis Tseng et al., 1992
  • Dacus (Bactrocera) vilanensis Tseng et al., 1992
  • Dacus (Strumeta) dorsalis Hardy & Adachi, 1956
  • Dacus dorsalis Hendel, 1912
  • Dacus ferrugineus (Fabricius, 1805)
  • Musca ferruginea Fabricius, 1794, preocc.
  • Strumeta dorsalis Hering, 1956
  • Strumeta dorsalis okinawa Shiraki, 1968
  • Strumeta ferruginea Hering, 1956

International Common Names

  • Spanish: mosca oriental de la fruta
  • French: mouche de fruits asiatique; mouche orientale des arbres fruitiers
  • Portuguese: mosca oriental das frutas

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Orientalische Fruchtfliege
  • Japan: mikan-ko-mibae
  • Netherlands: mangga-vlieg

EPPO code

  • DACUDO (Bactrocera dorsalis)
  • DACUFE (Dacus ferrugineus)

Summary of Invasiveness

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Bactrocera dorsalis is a highly invasive species. Native to Asia, Oriental fruit fly is now found in at least 65 countries, including parts of America and Oceania, and most of continental Africa (sub-Saharan countries). The potential risk of its introduction to a new area is facilitated by increasing international tourism and trade, and is influenced by changes in climate and land use. After introduction, it can easily disperse as it has a high reproductive potential, high biotic potential (short life cycle, up to 10 generations of offspring per year depending on temperature), a rapid dispersal ability (can fly 50-100 km) and a broad host range. The economic impact would result primarily from the loss of the export markets and the costly requirement of quarantine restrictions and eradication measures. Furthermore, its establishment would have a serious impact on the environment, following the initiation of chemical and/or biological control programmes. Invasive B. dorsalis has been shown to be highly competitive with native fruit flies where it has established, quickly becoming the dominant fruit fly pest (Duyck et al., 2004; Vargas et al., 2007; Vayssières et al., 2015).

Oriental fruit fly is of quarantine significance to EPPO (European Plant Protection Organization), APPPC (Asia and Pacific Plant Protection Commission), COSAV (Comité de Sanidad Vegetal del Cono Sur), CPPC (Caribbean Plant Protection Commission), IAPSC (Inter-African Phytosanitary Council) and OIRSA (Organismo Internacional Regional de Sanidad Agropecuaria) countries.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Diptera
  •                         Family: Tephritidae
  •                             Genus: Bactrocera
  •                                 Species: Bactrocera dorsalis

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Bactrocera dorsalis is a member of the Oriental fruit fly (B. dorsalis) species complex. This species complex forms a group within the subgenus Bactrocera and the name may therefore be cited as Bactrocera (Bactrocera) dorsalis. B. dorsalis was originally treated as a single species, widespread over Asia, until it was split into several species, with the description of Bactrocera carambolae, B. papayae and B. philippinensis by Drew and Hancock (1994). Native range of true B. dorsalis became restricted primarily to continental Asian countries north of the Malay Peninsula. Bactrocera invadens was later described by Drew et al. (2005), when established populations were detected in East Africa (Lux et al., 2003) and in West Africa (Vayssières, 2004). Bactrocera philippinensis was designated a synonym of B. papayae by Drew and Romig (2013). Extensive research was carried out to delimitate species boundaries, based on morphological, molecular, cytogenetic, behavioural and chemoecological data by multidisciplinary teams, in great part coordinated under an FAO/IAEA Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on the ‘Resolution of cryptic species complexes of tephritid pests to overcome constraints to SIT application and international trade’. This resulted in the synonymization of B. invadens and B. papayae under B. dorsalis and leaving B. carambolae as a distinct species by Schutze et al. (2014), who summarized the extensive research and evidence supporting the synonymization. Records of B. pedestris (Bezzi) from outside of the Philippines are mostly based on misidentifications of B. dorsalis.

Description

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Eggs

The eggs of Bactrocera oleae were described in detail by Margaritis (1985) and those of other species are probably very similar. They are 0.8 mm long and 0.2 mm wide, with the micropyle protruding slightly at the anterior end, and white to yellow-white. The chorion is reticulate (requires scanning electron microscope examination).

Larvae

The following larval description was taken from White and Elson-Harris (1994):

B. dorsalis third-instar larva: medium-sized: 7.5-10.0 mm long and 1.5-2.0 mm wide;

Head: stomal sensory organ with three to four sensilla, surrounded by five large, unserrated preoral lobes; oral ridges with 11-14 rows of blunt edged, short teeth; accessory plates 12-15, shell-shaped with small, rounded teeth; mouth hooks moderately sclerotized, without pre-apical teeth.

Thoracic and abdominal segments: anterior portion of each thoracic segment with an encircling band of several discontinuous rows of small spinules; T1 with 9-11 rows of large, sharply pointed spinules; T2 spinules small, stout, sharply pointed with five to six rows dorsally, three to four rows laterally, five to seven rows ventrally; T3 spinules similar to those on T2, two to four rows dorsally, one to three rows laterally, three to five rows ventrally. Creeping welts with small, stout spinules, with one posterior row of spinules larger and stouter than remainder. A8 rounded with prominent intermediate areas and obvious sensilla.

Anterior spiracles: 8-12 tubules.

Posterior spiracles: spiracular slits thick walled, approximately 2.5-3.0 times as long as broad. Spiracular hairs just longer than a spiracular slit; dorsal and ventral bundles with 17-20 broad, flat hairs, branched apically; lateral bundles with 8-12 similarly shaped hairs.

Anal area: lobes protuberant, surrounded by three to five discontinuous rows of spinules. The inner rows of spinules stout, slightly curved, sharply pointed becoming larger just below the anal opening, outer rows with smaller spinules.

Puparium

Barrel-shaped with most larval features unrecognisable, the exception being the anterior and posterior spiracles, which are little changed by pupariation. White to yellow-brown. Usually approximately 60-80% the length of the larva.

Adults

Drew and Hancock (1994) distinguish the B. dorsalis species complex as follows: Bactrocera (Bactrocera) spp. with a clear wing membrane, except for a narrow costal band (not reaching R4+5); cells bc and c colourless (except in a few non-pests with a very pale tint) with microtrichia restricted to outer corner of cell c. Scutum generally black with lateral vittae present and medial vitta absent; yellow scutellum, except for basal band which is usually very narrow; abdomen with a medial dark stripe on T3-T5; dark laterally (but form of marking varies from species to species). B. dorsalis belongs to a subgroup that has yellow postpronotal lobes, parallel lateral vittae, and femora not extensively marked. Within this group it is distinguished by its short to long aculeus/aedeagus; tomentum with no gap; narrow costal band; generally narrow but sometimes extensive abdominal markings. It is noteworthy that colour of scutum varies in B. dorsalis from generally black to black with an extensive lanceolate red-brown pattern to almost entirely red-brown. Populations from the Indian subcontinent and Africa have extensive pale markings (Leblanc et al., 2013a), whereas specimens from Asia east of Myanmar mostly have dark scutum.

Distribution

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The revision by Drew and Hancock (1994) split the original B. dorsalis into B. carambolae and three species, B. dorsalis, B. papayae and B. philippinensis, with mutually exclusive geographic ranges. B. dorsalis sensu stricto became restricted to mainland Asia (and Taiwan) and its adventive populations in Hawaii and French Polynesia, and newly described B. papayae ranged from southern Thailand and Peninsular Malaysia through East Malaysia and all Indonesian islands to New Guinea Island, and B. philippinensis was restricted to the Philippines and introduced to Palau. When B. dorsalis invaded continental Africa, around 2003, it was described as B. invadens, the origin and native range of which was believed to be Sri Lanka (Drew et al., 2005). With the exception of B. carambolae, all of these species are now treated together as B. dorsalis sensu lato, which is the most destructive, invasive and widespread of all Dacine fruit flies. The distribution and invasion history of B. dorsalis are summarized on a map published in Vargas et al. (2015). EPPO (2014) includes California, USA, in the distribution because the fly is repeatedly trapped there in small numbers. Whether or not B. dorsalis is actually established in continental America is a hotly debated topic (Papadopoulos et al., 2013; Suckling et al., 2014).

The distribution of B. dorsalis was mapped by IIE (1994a) and more recently by CABI/EPPO (2013). See also CABI/EPPO (1998, No. 24). Records of B. dorsalis in Guam, Northern Mariana Islands and New Caledonia published in IIE (1994a) and in previous versions of the Compendium were incorrect; B. dorsalis has been absent from Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands since 1965 (Leblanc, 1997) and was never present in New Caledonia. An interactive distribution map for B. dorsalis and other pest species in the Asia-Pacific region is available on the website, Dacine Fruit Flies of the Asia-Pacific [http://www.herbarium.hawaii.edu/fruitfly/maps.php].

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

BangladeshWidespreadNative Invasive Leblanc et al., 2013a; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
BhutanPresentNative Not invasive Drew et al., 2007; CABI/EPPO, 2008; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
Brunei DarussalamPresentNative Not invasive EPPO, 2014
CambodiaWidespread Invasive Waterhouse, 1993a; Drew and Hancock, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
ChinaWidespread Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014Widespread across southern China.
-AnhuiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013
-ChongqingPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-FujianPresent Invasive Liang et al., 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-GuangdongPresent Invasive Drew and Hancock, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-GuangxiPresent Invasive Drew and Hancock, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-GuizhouPresent Invasive Chao and Ming, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-HainanPresent Invasive Liang et al., 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-Hong KongPresent Invasive Drew and Hancock, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-HubeiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-HunanPresent Invasive Chao and Ming, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-JiangsuPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-JiangxiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-MacauPresent, few occurrencesIntroduced1996 Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-ShanghaiWidespreadChen et al., 2010; EPPO, 2014
-SichuanPresent Invasive Chao and Ming, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-TibetPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013
-YunnanPresent Invasive Drew and Hancock, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
Christmas Island (Indian Ocean)PresentNative Not invasive Drew and Hancock, 1994
IndiaWidespread Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsAbsent, invalid recordCABI/EPPO, 2013
-Andhra PradeshPresentSithanantham et al., 2006; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-AssamPresent Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-BiharPresent Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-DelhiPresent Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-GoaPresentSatarkar et al., 2009; CABI/EPPO, 2013
-GujaratPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013
-Himachal PradeshPresent Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-Indian PunjabPresent Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-Jammu and KashmirPresent Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-KarnatakaPresent Invasive Drew and Hancock, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-KeralaWidespreadDavid et al., 2008; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-Madhya PradeshPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-MaharashtraPresent Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-ManipurPresent Invasive EPPO, 2014
-OdishaPresent Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-RajasthanPresent Invasive Drew and Hancock, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-SikkimPresent Invasive EPPO, 2014
-Tamil NaduPresent Invasive Drew and Hancock, 1994; Sithanantham et al., 2006; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-Uttar PradeshPresent Invasive Drew and Hancock, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-UttarakhandPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013
-West BengalPresent Invasive Drew and Hancock, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
IndonesiaWidespread Not invasive CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-Irian JayaPresent1992 Invasive EPPO, 2014
-JavaPresentNative Not invasive Drew and Hancock, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-KalimantanPresentNative Not invasive Drew and Hancock, 1994; EPPO, 2014
-Nusa TenggaraWidespreadEPPO, 2014
-SulawesiPresentNative Not invasive Drew and Hancock, 1994; EPPO, 2014
-SumatraPresentNative Not invasive Iwahashi, 2000
JapanEradicatedCABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-Ryukyu ArchipelagoEradicated Invasive FFEPO, 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
LaosPresent Invasive Waterhouse, 1993a; Drew and Hancock, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
MalaysiaPresentEPPO, 2014
-Peninsular MalaysiaWidespreadNative Not invasive Drew and Hancock, 1994; EPPO, 2014
-SabahWidespreadNative Not invasive Drew and Hancock, 1994
MyanmarPresent Invasive Waterhouse, 1993a; Drew and Hancock, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
NepalPresent Invasive Drew and Hancock, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
OmanAbsent, invalid recordEPPO, 2014
PakistanWidespread Invasive Drew and Hancock, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
PhilippinesPresentDrew and Hancock, 1994; EPPO, 2014
SingaporePresentNative Not invasive Drew and Hancock, 1994; EPPO, 2014
Sri LankaWidespread Not invasive Drew and Hancock, 1994; Drew et al., 2005; CABI/EPPO, 2008; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
TaiwanWidespread Invasive Drew and Hancock, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
ThailandWidespread Invasive Waterhouse, 1993a; Drew and Hancock, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
VietnamWidespread Invasive Waterhouse, 1993a; Drew and Hancock, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2013; Drew Romig, 2013; EPPO, 2014

Africa

AngolaPresentIntroducedCABI/EPPO, 2008; Vayssières et al., 2008; EPPO, 2014
BeninWidespreadIntroduced2004 Invasive Vayssières, 2004; Drew et al., 2005; White, 2006; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
BotswanaPresentIntroducedEPPO, 2014
Burkina FasoPresentIntroducedVayssières et al., 2005; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
BurundiPresentIntroducedLiu et al., 2011; EPPO, 2014
CameroonPresentIntroduced2004 Invasive Drew et al., 2005; White, 2006; CABI/EPPO, 2008; Vayssières et al., 2008; EPPO, 2014
Cape VerdePresentIntroducedEPPO, 2014
Central African RepublicPresentIntroducedCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
ChadPresentIntroducedCABI/EPPO, 2008; Vayssières et al., 2008; EPPO, 2014
ComorosPresentIntroduced2005 Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
CongoPresentIntroducedCABI/EPPO, 2008; Vayssières et al., 2008; EPPO, 2014
Congo Democratic RepublicPresentIntroducedEkesi and Billah, 2006; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
Côte d'IvoirePresentIntroduced2005 Invasive Vayssières et al., 2005; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
Equatorial GuineaPresentIntroduced Invasive Ekesi et al., 2006; CABI/EPPO, 2008; Vayssières et al., 2008; EPPO, 2014
EthiopiaPresentIntroduced2005 Invasive Ekesi and Billah, 2006; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
GabonPresentIntroducedEkesi and Billah, 2006; CABI/EPPO, 2008; Vayssières et al., 2008; EPPO, 2014
GambiaPresentIntroducedCABI/EPPO, 2008; Vayssières et al., 2008; EPPO, 2014
GhanaPresentIntroduced2005 Invasive Vayssières et al., 2004; Drew et al., 2005; Ekesi and Billah, 2006; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
GuineaPresentIntroduced Invasive Vayssières et al., 2005; Ekesi et al., 2006; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
Guinea-BissauPresentIntroducedCABI/EPPO, 2008; Vayssières et al., 2008; EPPO, 2014
KenyaWidespreadIntroduced2003 Invasive Drew et al., 2005; Ekesi et al., 2006; White, 2006; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
LiberiaPresentIntroducedCABI/EPPO, 2008; Vayssières et al., 2008; EPPO, 2014
MadagascarRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
MaliPresentIntroducedVayssières et al., 2005; Ekesi and Billah, 2006; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
MauritaniaPresentIntroducedCABI/EPPO, 2008; Vayssières et al., 2008; EPPO, 2014
MauritiusEradicated1996Seewooruthun et al., 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
MayottePresentIntroduced2007 Invasive EPPO, 2014
MozambiquePresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2008; IPPC, 2008; EPPO, 2014
NamibiaPresentIntroducedEPPO, 2014
NigerPresentIntroducedCABI/EPPO, 2008; Vayssières et al., 2008; EPPO, 2014
NigeriaPresentIntroduced2005 Invasive Drew et al., 2005; Ekesi and Billah, 2006; CABI/EPPO, 2008; Umeh et al., 2008; Vayssières et al., 2008; Asawalam and Nwachukwu, 2011; EPPO, 2014
RwandaPresentIntroduced Invasive EAPIC, 2009; EPPO, 2014
SenegalPresentIntroduced2004 Invasive Vayssières, 2004; Drew et al., 2005; Ekesi and Billah, 2006; IPPC, 2006; White, 2006; CABI/EPPO, 2008; IPPC, 2008; EPPO, 2014
Sierra LeonePresentIntroducedCABI/EPPO, 2008; Vayssières et al., 2008; EPPO, 2014
South AfricaRestricted distributionIPPC, 2010; EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014; IPPC, 2016
SudanPresentIntroduced2004 Invasive Drew et al., 2005; Ekesi and Billah, 2006; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
SwazilandPresentIPPC, 2013; EPPO, 2014B. invadens [B. dorsalis] has been detected in methyl eugenol baited fruit fly traps in the northern parts of Swaziland border with South Africa at Matsamo. Further detections have been in north eastern parts namely Mananga also along the border with South Africa and Lomahasha on the border with Mozambique. Isolated one-off cases recorded in central and eastern Swaziland. The central detections were from produce markets.
TanzaniaWidespreadIntroduced2003 Invasive Mwatawala et al., 2004; Drew et al., 2005; Ekesi and Billah, 2006; White, 2006; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
TogoPresentIntroduced2004 Invasive Vayssières et al., 2004; Drew et al., 2005; Ekesi and Billah, 2006; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
UgandaPresentIntroduced2004 Invasive Drew et al., 2005; Ekesi and Billah, 2006; White, 2006; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
ZambiaPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
ZimbabwePresentIntroducedEPPO, 2014

North America

USARestricted distribution Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-CaliforniaEradicated Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2013; NAPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014; NAPPO, 2016
-FloridaEradicatedEPPO, 2014; IPPC, 2015; IPPC, 2016
-HawaiiWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Drew and Hancock, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014

South America

ChileAbsent, confirmed by surveyEPPO, 2014
French GuianaAbsent, invalid recordEPPO, 2014
SurinameAbsent, invalid recordEPPO, 2014

Oceania

AustraliaEradicatedEPPO, 2014
-Australian Northern TerritoryEradicatedAllwood, 1997; Smith, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-QueenslandEradicatedIntroduced1995 Invasive Hancock et al., 2000a; Hancock et al., 2000b; Cantrell et al., 2002; EPPO, 2014
-VictoriaAbsent, intercepted onlyEPPO, 2014
Cook IslandsEradicated2013SPC, 2013
French PolynesiaPresentIntroduced Invasive Vargas et al., 2007; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014Tahiti, Moorea, Raiatea, Tahaa and Huahine Islands
GuamEradicatedIntroduced Invasive Waterhouse, 1993a; Leblanc, 1997; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
Micronesia, Federated states ofAbsent, invalid recordEPPO, 2014
NauruEradicatedIntroduced Invasive Waterhouse, 1993a; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
New ZealandAbsent, confirmed by surveyEPPO, 2014
PalauPresentIntroduced1996 Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
Papua New GuineaWidespreadIntroduced1992 Invasive Sar et al., 2001; EPPO, 2014

History of Introduction and Spread

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Oriental fruit fly has been established since about 1945 and quickly became widespread in the Hawaiian Islands (Pemberton, 1946).

B. dorsalis (as B. papayae) is believed to have been introduced accidentally into the eastern Indonesian province of Irian Jaya [Papua Barat] prior to 1992, when it was first detected in the border areas of Papua New Guinea (Sar et al., 2001). By 2000 it had spread throughout much of mainland Papua New Guinea (Sar et al., 2001). In March 1993, it was detected on several northern islands in Torres Strait, Queensland (Fay et al., 1997). This represents the first detection of this known invasive species in Australian territory and it was quickly eradicated. In October 1995, it was detected in the Cairns region of northern Queensland (Fay et al., 1997; Hancock et al., 2000b). This was probably the result of accidental introduction from Papua New Guinea. The fly had spread throughout the Cairns-Mareeba-Mossman region and detections were made from Cooktown to Cardwell before it was eradicated during 1997-1998 (Hancock et al., 2000b; Cantrell et al., 2002). An isolated outbreak at Mount Isa in western Queensland was eradicated during 1997 (Hancock et al., 2000; Cantrell et al., 2002). Since then, there have been occasional incursions onto Torres Strait islands from Papua New Guinea. These have been eradicated whenever establishment occurred.

In 1991, the Ministry of Agriculture in Mauritius established a network of quarantine traps for exotic fruit flies. In June 1996, one Oriental fruit fly (B. dorsalis) was found in a trap near the airport in Mauritius (White, 2006). The quarantine trap grid was immediately extended in the area surrounding the airport, and fruit in the area was inspected for larval infestations. The larvae were reared from infested fruit found near the airport and it was clear that the oriental fruit fly had established in southern Mauritius. Morphological examination indicated that the flies had originated in southern India. An eradication programme for B. dorsalis infesting various tree crops was conducted from July 1996 to April 1998, in the southern region of Mauritius, using bait application technique (BAT), male annihilation technique (MAT), cover spray of trees with ripening fruits, soil drenching under trees with ripening and fallen fruits, and fruit clean-up and disposal. The introduction was probably accidental, as the first flies were detected in the airport neighbourhood.

In 2003, an unknown Bactrocera species was found in Kenya. Taxonomic expertise showed that it could not be a native species of Africa, but that it proved to be a member of the B. dorsalis complex. Identical specimens were collected earlier during a survey in Sri Lanka in 1993 and initially classified as aberrant forms of B. dorsalis. It was decided that both populations belonged to the same, hitherto undescribed species: B. invadens, which was formally described in 2005 (Drew et al., 2005) and designated a synonym of B. dorsalis a decade later (Schutze et al., 2014).

After its discovery in Kenya, it was recorded in a number of countries in eastern, central and western Africa in a relatively short time (Mwatawala et al., 2004; Drew et al., 2005; Meyer et al., 2007). This threat has also been reported in 2004 in Sudan (Luckman, 2004), Cameroon (Ndzana Abanda et al., 2008), Senegal (Vayssières, 2004), Benin (Vayssières et al., 2005) and other West African countries. Recently, the species has also been reported from southern Africa (Meyer et al., 2007), southern India (Sithanantham et al., 2006) and Bhutan (Drew et al., 2007).

The exact invasion pathway into Africa is unknown. From 1999 to 2004, an intensive sampling programme was conducted in Kenya (Copeland et al., 2004). During that period, close to 4000 fruit samples (comprising approximately 980,000 pieces of fruit) belonging to 882 taxa and 116 plant families, were collected from coastal and western Kenya, as well as from the Central Highlands. Some trapping, including the use of methyl eugenol, was also carried out as a parallel study from 1999 to 2000 (IM White, UK [address available from CABI], personal communication, 2008). It was only in March 2003 that the first specimens were collected from the coastal region (Lux et al., 2003).

Vayssières and Kalabane (2000) and Vayssières et al. (2004) conducted intensive fruit fly sampling in commercial mango (Mangifera indica) orchards in different localities in western Africa, in Coastal Guinea and Mali, from 1992 to 1995 and 2000, respectively. None of these yielded any specimens of B. dorsalis. The first specimens in that part of the African mainland were detected in June 2004 (Drew et al., 2005; Vayssières, 2004). The presence of this species in those eastern or western African countries before the beginning of the twenty-first century is, therefore, very unlikely. Unfortunately, no similar studies were conducted at that time in other parts of the African continent where the fly is currently found. The fact that the first specimens were reported from the East African coast appears to indicate that the port of entry could have been an East African (coastal) locality, although there is no proof of this.

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Mauritius India 1996 Hitchhiker (pathway cause) ,
Live food or feed trade (pathway cause)
Yes No Seewooruthun et al. (2000) Eradicated in June 1998. The Ministry of Agriculture declared Mauritius free of oriental fruit fly

Risk of Introduction

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The major risk is from the import of fruit containing larvae, either as part of cargo, or through the smuggling of fruit in airline passenger baggage or mail. For example, in New Zealand, Baker and Cowley (1991) recorded 7-33 interceptions of fruit flies per year in cargo and 10-28 per year in passenger baggage. Individuals who successfully smuggle fruit are likely to discard it when they discover that it is rotten. This method of introduction probably accounts for the discovery of at least one fly in a methyl eugenol trap in California, USA every year (Foote et al., 1993), although immediate implementation of eradication action plans has ensured that the fly has never been able to establish a proper breeding population, a view that has been challenged in recent years (Papadopoulos et al., 2013).

Habitat List

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CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial-managed
Cultivated / agricultural land Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Cultivated / agricultural land Principal habitat Productive/non-natural
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Principal habitat Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial-natural/semi-natural
Natural forests Present, no further details Natural
Scrub / shrublands Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Scrub / shrublands Principal habitat Natural

Hosts/Species Affected

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With over 300 species of commercial/edible and wild hosts, B. dorsalis has the broadest host range of any species of Bactrocera. It is a serious pest of a wide range of fruit crops throughout its native range and wherever is has invaded. Due to the confusion between B. dorsalis and related species in Malaysia, the Philippines, Indonesia, southern India and Sri Lanka, there are very few published host records which definitely refer to B. dorsalis, as opposed to misidentifications of related species within the B. dorsalis species complex. Taking China as an example area where the pest populations are definitely the true B. dorsalis, the major hosts are apple, guava, mango, peach and pear (XJ Wang, unpublished data, 1988, as reported in White and Elson-Harris (1994)). Other recorded commercial and wild hosts are taken primarily from Allwood et.al. (1999), Tsuruta et al. (1997), Leblanc et al. (2012, 2013b) and Hancock et al. (2000a). Records from Africa (as hosts of synonymous B. invadens) are mostly sourced from the website on invasive fruit fly pests in Africa (http://www.africamuseum.be/fruitfly/AfroAsia.htm).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContext
Adenanthera pavonina (red-bead tree)FabaceaeWild host
Afzelia xylocarpaFabaceaeWild host
Alangium chinenseAlangiaceaeWild host
Alangium salviifoliumAlangiaceaeWild host
Alpinia muticaZingiberaceaeWild host
Anacardium occidentale (cashew nut)AnacardiaceaeMain
Annona cherimola (cherimoya)AnnonaceaeMain
Annona glabra (pond apple)AnnonaceaeMain
Annona macroprophyllataAnnonaceaeMain
Annona montanaAnnonaceaeMain
Annona muricata (soursop)AnnonaceaeMain
Annona reticulata (bullock's heart)AnnonaceaeMain
Annona senegalensis (wild custard apple)AnnonaceaeMain
Annona squamosa (sugar apple)AnnonaceaeMain
Antidesma ghaesembilla (black currant tree)EuphorbiaceaeWild host
Aporosa villosaEuphorbiaceaeWild host
Ardisia crenata (coral berry)PrimulaceaeWild host
Areca catechu (betelnut palm)ArecaceaeMain
Arenga pinnata (sugar palm)ArecaceaeWild host
Arenga westerhoutiiArecaceaeWild host
Artabotrys siamensisAnnonaceaeWild host
Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit)MoraceaeMain
Artocarpus elasticusMoraceaeMain
Artocarpus heterophyllus (jackfruit)MoraceaeMain
Artocarpus integer (champedak)MoraceaeMain
Artocarpus lacucha (monkey jack)MoraceaeMain
Artocarpus lanceifoliusMoraceaeMain
Artocarpus nitidusMoraceaeMain
Artocarpus odoratissimusMoraceaeMain
Artocarpus rigidusMoraceaeMain
Artocarpus sericicarpusMoraceaeMain
Averrhoa bilimbi (bilimbi)OxalidaceaeMain
Averrhoa carambola (carambola)OxalidaceaeMain
Azadirachta excelsaMeliaceaeWild host
Baccaurea motleyanaEuphorbiaceaeMain
Baccaurea racemosaEuphorbiaceaeMain
Baccaurea ramifloraEuphorbiaceaeMain
Balakata baccataEuphorbiaceaeWild host
Barringtonia edulisLecythidaceaeMain
Blighia sapida (Akee apple)SapindaceaeMain
Borassus flabellifer (toddy palm)ArecaceaeMain
Bouea macrophyllaAnacardiaceaeMain
Bouea oppositifoliaAnacardiaceaeMain
Breonia chinensisRubiaceaeWild host
Breynia racemosaEuphorbiaceaeWild host
Bridelia stipularisEuphorbiaceaeWild host
Callicarpa longifoliaLamiaceaeWild host
Calophyllum inophyllum (Alexandrian laurel)ClusiaceaeWild host
Cananga odorata (perfume tree)AnnonaceaeWild host
Capparis sepiaria (indian caper)CapparaceaeWild host
Capsicum annuum (bell pepper)SolanaceaeMain
Capsicum frutescens (chilli)SolanaceaeMain
Careya arborea (tummy wood)LecythidaceaeWild host
Carica papaya (pawpaw)CaricaceaeMain
Carissa carandas (caranda (plum))ApocynaceaeWild host
Carissa spinarumApocynaceaeWild host
Caryota mitisArecaceaeWild host
Casimiroa edulis (white sapote)RutaceaeMain
Castanopsis (evergreen chinkapin)FagaceaeWild host
Celtis tetrandaUlmaceaeWild host
Chionanthus parkinsoniiOleaceaeWild host
Chrysophyllum albidumSapotaceaeMain
Chrysophyllum cainito (caimito)SapotaceaeMain
Chukrasia tabularis (Chittagong wood)MeliaceaeWild host
Cissus repensVitaceaeWild host
Citrofortunella mitisRutaceaeMain
Citrullus colocynthis (colocynth)CucurbitaceaeMain
Citrullus lanatus (watermelon)CucurbitaceaeMain
Citrus aurantiifolia (lime)RutaceaeMain
Citrus aurantium (sour orange)RutaceaeMain
Citrus hystrix (mauritius bitter orange)RutaceaeMain
Citrus jambhiri (rough lemon)RutaceaeMain
Citrus latifolia (tahiti lime)RutaceaeMain
Citrus limon (lemon)RutaceaeMain
Citrus maxima (pummelo)RutaceaeMain
Citrus reticulata (mandarin)RutaceaeMain
Citrus sinensis (navel orange)RutaceaeMain
Citrus swingleiRutaceaeMain
Citrus x paradisi (grapefruit)RutaceaeMain
Clausena lansium (wampi)RutaceaeMain
Coccinia grandis (scarlet-fruited ivy gourd)CucurbitaceaeWild host
Coffea arabica (arabica coffee)RubiaceaeMain
Coffea canephora (robusta coffee)RubiaceaeMain
Cordia albaBoraginaceaeWild host
Cordia myxa (sebesten)BoraginaceaeWild host
Cordia sinensisBoraginaceaeWild host
Cordyla africanaFabaceaeWild host
Crinum asiaticumAmaryllidaceaeWild host
Cucumis ficifoliusCucurbitaceaeWild host
Cucumis melo (melon)CucurbitaceaeMain
Cucumis sativus (cucumber)CucurbitaceaeMain
Cucurbita maxima (giant pumpkin)CucurbitaceaeMain
Cucurbita pepo (marrow)CucurbitaceaeMain
Desmos chinensisAnnonaceaeWild host
Dillenia obovata (Burma simpoh)DilleniaceaeWild host
Dimocarpus longan (longan tree)SapindaceaeMain
Diospyros areolataEbenaceaeWild host
Diospyros blancoi (mabolo)EbenaceaeMain
Diospyros castaneaEbenaceaeWild host
Diospyros diepenhorstiiEbenaceaeWild host
Diospyros kaki (persimmon)EbenaceaeMain
Diospyros malabaricaEbenaceaeWild host
Diospyros mollisEbenaceaeWild host
Diospyros montanaEbenaceaeMain
Diospyros roxburghiiEbenaceaeWild host
Dovyalis hebecarpa (ketembilla)FlacourtiaceaeMain
Dracaena steudneriAgavaceaeWild host
Ehretia microphyllaBoraginaceaeWild host
Elaeocarpus hygrophilusElaeocarpaceaeMain
Eriobotrya japonica (loquat)RosaceaeMain
Erycibe subspicataConvolvulaceaeWild host
Eugenia reinwardtianaMyrtaceaeMain
Eugenia uniflora (Surinam cherry)MyrtaceaeMain
Excoecaria agallochaEuphorbiaceaeWild host
Fagraea ceilanicaLoganiaceaeWild host
Fibraurea tinctoriaMenispermaceaeWild host
Ficus auriculataMoraceaeWild host
Ficus benjamina (weeping fig)MoraceaeWild host
Ficus chartaceaMoraceaeWild host
Ficus fistulosaMoraceaeWild host
Ficus hirtaMoraceaeWild host
Ficus hispidaMoraceaeWild host
Ficus microcarpa (Indian laurel tree)MoraceaeWild host
Ficus obpyramidiataMoraceaeWild host
Ficus ottoniifoliaMoraceaeWild host
Ficus racemosa (cluster tree)MoraceaeMain
Ficus religiosa (sacred fig tree)MoraceaeWild host
Ficus sycomorus (sycamore fig)MoraceaeMain
Flacourtia indica (governor's plum)FlacourtiaceaeMain
Flacourtia rukam (rukam)FlacourtiaceaeMain
Flueggea virosaMain
Fortunella japonica (round kumquat)RutaceaeMain
Fortunella margarita (oval kumquat)RutaceaeMain
Garcinia atroviridisClusiaceaeMain
Garcinia cowaClusiaceaeMain
Garcinia dioicaClusiaceaeMain
Garcinia dulcisClusiaceaeMain
Garcinia griffithiiClusiaceaeWild host
Garcinia hombronianaClusiaceaeWild host
Garcinia mangostana (mangosteen)ClusiaceaeMain
Garcinia manniiClusiaceaeWild host
Garcinia prainianaClusiaceaeMain
Garcinia speciosaClusiaceaeWild host
Garcinia xanthochymusClusiaceaeMain
Garuga floribunda (garuga)BurseraceaeWild host
Glochidion littoraleEuphorbiaceaeWild host
Glycosmis pentaphyllaRutaceaeMain
Gmelina ellipticaLamiaceaeWild host
Gmelina philippensisLamiaceaeWild host
Gymnopetalum scabrumCucurbitaceaeWild host
Hanguana malayanaHanguanaceaeWild host
Heynea trijugaMeliaceaeWild host
Holigarna kurziiAnacardiaceaeWild host
Hylocereus undatus (dragon fruit)CactaceaeMain
Inocarpus fagiferFabaceaeMain
Irvingia gabonensis (wild mango)IrvingiaceaeMain
Irvingia malayanaIrvingiaceaeWild host
Ixora javanicaRubiaceaeWild host
Ixora macrothyrsaRubiaceaeWild host
Knema globulariaMyristicaceaeWild host
Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd)CucurbitaceaeMain
LandolphiaApocynaceaeWild host
Lansium domesticum (langsat)MeliaceaeMain
Lepisanthes fruticosaSapindaceaeMain
Lepisanthes rubiginosaSapindaceaeWild host
Lepisanthes tetraphyllaSapindaceaeWild host
Litchi chinensis (lichi)SapindaceaeUnknown
Litsea glutinosa (indian laurel)LauraceaeWild host
Litsea salicifoliaLauraceaeWild host
Maclura cochinchinensisMoraceaeMain
Maerua duchesneiCapparaceaeWild host
Malpighia emarginataMalpighiaceaeMain
Malpighia glabra (acerola)MalpighiaceaeMain
Malus domestica (apple)RosaceaeMain
Mammea siamensisClusiaceaeWild host
Mangifera caesia (binjai)AnacardiaceaeMain
Mangifera foetida (bachang)AnacardiaceaeMain
Mangifera griffithiiAnacardiaceaeMain
Mangifera indica (mango)AnacardiaceaeMain
Mangifera laurinaAnacardiaceaeMain
Mangifera odorata (kurwini mango)AnacardiaceaeMain
Manilkara zapota (sapodilla)SapotaceaeMain
Merremia vitifoliaConvolvulaceaeWild host
Microcos tomentosaTiliaceaeMain
Mimusops elengi (spanish cherry)SapotaceaeMain
Mitrephora teysmanniiAnnonaceaeMain
Momordica charantia (bitter gourd)CucurbitaceaeMain
Morinda citrifolia (Indian mulberry)RubiaceaeMain
Morinda coreiaWild host
Morinda umbellataRubiaceaeWild host
Morus alba (mora)MoraceaeMain
Morus nigra (black mulberry)MoraceaeMain
Muntingia calabura (Jamaica cherry)TiliaceaeMain
Murraya paniculata (orange jessamine)RutaceaeWild host
Musa (banana)MusaceaeMain
Musa acuminata (wild banana)MusaceaeMain
Musa acuminata (wild banana)MusaceaeMain
Musa balbisianaMusaceaeWild host
Musa troglodytarumMusaceaeMain
Musa x paradisiaca (plantain)MusaceaeMain
Myrciaria cauliflora (jaboticaba)MyrtaceaeMain
Myxopyrum smilacifoliumOleaceaeWild host
Nauclea latifolia (pin cushion tree)RubiaceaeWild host
Nauclea orientalisRubiaceaeWild host
Neonauclea purpureaRubiaceaeWild host
Nephelium lappaceum (rambutan)SapindaceaeMain
Ochreinauclea maingayiRubiaceaeMain
OchrosiaApocynaceaeWild host
Palaquium (nyatoh)SapotaceaeWild host
Palaquium maingayiSapotaceaeWild host
Parinari anamenseChrysobalanaceaeWild host
Parkia speciosaFabaceaeMain
Passiflora edulis (passionfruit)PassifloraceaeMain
Passiflora foetida (red fruit passion flower)PassifloraceaeWild host
Passiflora laurifoliaPassifloraceaeMain
Passiflora quadrangularis (giant granadilla)PassifloraceaeMain
Passiflora suberosa (corkystem passionflower)PassifloraceaeWild host
Pereskia grandifoliaCactaceaeWild host
Persea americana (avocado)LauraceaeMain
Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean)FabaceaeMain
Physalis angulata (cutleaf groundcherry)SolanaceaeMain
Piper nigrum (black pepper)PiperaceaeOther
PlanchonellaSapotaceaeWild host
Planchonella duclitanSapotaceaeWild host
Polyalthea longifoliaAnnonaceaeWild host
Polyalthia simiarumAnnonaceaeWild host
Pometia pinnata (fijian longan)SapindaceaeMain
Poncirus trifoliata (Trifoliate orange)RutaceaeMain
Pouteria caimitoSapotaceaeMain
Pouteria campechiana (canistel)SapotaceaeMain
Premna serratifoliaLamiaceaeWild host
Prunus armeniaca (apricot)RosaceaeMain
Prunus avium (sweet cherry)RosaceaeMain
Prunus cerasus (sour cherry)RosaceaeMain
Prunus domestica (plum)RosaceaeMain
Prunus mume (Japanese apricot tree)RosaceaeMain
Prunus persica (peach)RosaceaeMain
Prunus salicina (Japanese plum)RosaceaeMain
Psidium cattleianum (strawberry guava)MyrtaceaeMain
Psidium guajava (guava)MyrtaceaeMain
Punica granatum (pomegranate)PunicaceaeMain
Pyrus communis (European pear)RosaceaeMain
Pyrus pyrifolia (Oriental pear tree)RosaceaeMain
Rhizophora (mangrove)RhizophoraceaeWild host
Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Downy rose-myrtle)MyrtaceaeMain
Rollinia pulchrinervisAnnonaceaeMain
Saba senegalensisApocynaceaeWild host
Sambucus javanicaCaprifoliaceaeWild host
Sandoricum koetjape (santol)MeliaceaeMain
Sauropus androgynusEuphorbiaceaeMain
Schoepfia fragransOlacaceaeWild host
Sclerocarya birrea (marula)AnacardiaceaeMain
Shirakiopsis indicaEuphorbiaceaeWild host
SiphonodonSalaciaWild host
Solanum aethiopicum (african scarlet eggplant)SolanaceaeMain
Solanum americanumSolanaceaeMain
Solanum anguiviSolanaceaeMain
Solanum capsicoides (cockroach berry)SolanaceaeWild host
Solanum hazeniiSolanaceaeWild host
Solanum incanum (grey bitter-apple)SolanaceaeWild host
Solanum lycopersicum (tomato)SolanaceaeMain
Solanum melongena (aubergine)SolanaceaeMain
Solanum rudepannumSolanaceaeWild host
Solanum sodomeumSolanaceaeWild host
Solanum stramoniifoliumSolanaceaeMain
Solanum torvum (turkey berry)SolanaceaeWild host
Solanum trilobatumSolanaceaeWild host
Sorindeia madagascariensisAnacardiaceaeWild host
Spondias dulcis (otaheite apple)AnacardiaceaeMain
Spondias mombin (hog plum)AnacardiaceaeMain
Spondias pinnataAnacardiaceaeMain
Spondias purpurea (red mombin)AnacardiaceaeMain
Streblus asperMoraceaeWild host
Strychnos mellodoraLoganiaceaeWild host
Syzygium aqueum (watery rose-apple)MyrtaceaeMain
Syzygium aromaticum (clove)MyrtaceaeMain
Syzygium borneenseMyrtaceaeWild host
Syzygium cumini (black plum)MyrtaceaeMain
Syzygium formosanumMyrtaceaeWild host
Syzygium grande (sea apple)MyrtaceaeWild host
Syzygium jambos (rose apple)MyrtaceaeMain
Syzygium lineatumMyrtaceaeMain
Syzygium malaccense (Malay apple)MyrtaceaeMain
Syzygium megacarpumMyrtaceaeMain
Syzygium nervosumMyrtaceaeMain
Syzygium samarangense (water apple)MyrtaceaeMain
Terminalia arenicolaCombretaceaeWild host
Terminalia catappa (Singapore almond)CombretaceaeWild host
Terminalia citrinaCombretaceaeWild host
Theobroma cacao (cocoa)SterculiaceaeMain
Thevetia peruviana (exile tree)ApocynaceaeWild host
Trichosanthes ovigeraCucurbitaceaeMain
Triphasia trifolia (limeberry)RutaceaeMain
Uvaria cordataAnnonaceaeWild host
Uvaria grandifloraAnnonaceaeWild host
Veitchia merrillii (christmas palm)ArecaceaeWild host
Vitellaria paradoxa (shea tree)SapotaceaeMain
Willughbeia edulisApocynaceaeMain
Xanthophyllum flavescensPolygalaceaeWild host
Ximenia americana (Hog plum)OlacaceaeMain
Zehneria wallichiiCucurbitaceaeWild host
Ziziphus jujuba (common jujube)RhamnaceaeMain
Ziziphus mauritiana (jujube)RhamnaceaeMain
Ziziphus nummularia (lotebush)RhamnaceaeMain
Ziziphus oenopliaRhamnaceaeWild host

Growth Stages

Top of page Fruiting stage, Post-harvest

Symptoms

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Following oviposition there may be some necrosis around the puncture mark ('sting'). This is followed by decomposition of the fruit.

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / internal feeding
Fruit / lesions: black or brown
Fruit / premature drop

Biology and Ecology

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The eggs of B. dorsalis are laid below the skin of the host fruit. These hatch within a day (although this can be delayed up to 20 days in cool conditions) and the larvae feed for another 6-35 days, depending on the season. Pupariation is in the soil under the host plant for 10-12 days at 25°C and 80% RH, but may be delayed for up to 90 days under cool conditions. The adults occur throughout the year and begin mating after approximately 8-12 days, and may live for 1-3 months, depending on temperature (up to 12 months in cool conditions) (Christenson and Foote, 1960).

[Erratum: In previous versions of this datasheet, it was stated that “many Bactrocera spp. can fly 50-100 km (Fletcher, 1989)” but a review of Fletcher (1989a) and Fletcher (1989b) by Hicks (2016, unpublished data, USDA) found no evidence to support this statement and it has been removed. Fletcher (1989b) provides dispersal data for only 11 of 651 species of Bactrocera, many of the case studies lack the necessary numerical data, and the study did not discern between active flight and passive wind-assisted dispersal. There are differences among fruit fly species and further studies are required to determine dispersal distances for individual species. For further information on trapping Bactrocera species to monitor movement, see Weldon et al. (2014).]

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Tolerated > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Tolerated Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
30 15 0 0

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) 6 0
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 23 32
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 30 35
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 16 26

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration36number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall2502620mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

Top of page Summer
Uniform
Winter

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Aceratoneuromyia indica Parasite Guam; Hawaii; Mariana Islands vegetables
Aganaspis daci Parasite Hawaii vegetables
Austroopius fijiensis Parasite Hawaii vegetables
Biosteres angaleti Parasite Hawaii vegetables
Biosteres arisanus Parasite French Polynesia; Guam; Hawaii; Saipan fruits; loquats; peaches; vegetables
Biosteres deeralensis Parasite Hawaii (not established) vegetables
Biosteres kraussii Parasite Hawaii vegetables
Biosteres longicaudatus Parasite Larvae French Polynesia; Guam; Hawaii; Saipan fruits; loquats; peaches; vegetables
Biosteres persulcatus Parasite Hawaii (presence uncertain)
Biosteres skinneri Parasite Hawaii (not established) vegetables
Biosteres vandenboschi Parasite Larvae Guam; Hawaii; Saipan fruits; vegetables
Bracon fletcheri Parasite Hawaii vegetables
Diachasmimorpha albobalteata Parasite Hawaii (not established) vegetables
Diachasmimorpha kraussii Parasite Larvae
Diachasmimorpha tryoni Parasite USA; Hawaii loquats; peaches
Dirhinus anthracina Parasite Pupae
Dirhinus giffardii Parasite Pupae Hawaii; Saipan fruits
Doryctobracon areolatus Parasite Hawaii vegetables
Oecophylla longinoda Predator Adults
Opius fletcheri Parasite
Opius incisi Parasite Guam; Mariana Islands; Saipan fruits
Opius makii Parasite Hawaii vegetables
Opius phaeostigma Parasite Hawaii vegetables
Orius insidiosus Predator
Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae Parasite Pupae Hawaii, Benin
Paratriphleps laevisculus Predator
Psyttalia fijiensis Parasite Hawaii (not established) vegetables
Psyttalia incisi Parasite Larvae Guam; Hawaii; Saipan fruits
Psyttalia makii Parasite Hawaii (not established) vegetables
Psyttalia walkeri Parasite
Solenopsis geminata Predator
Spalangia endius Parasite Pupae
Steinernema carpocapsae Parasite
Tachinaephagus malayensis Parasite
Tetrastichus dacicida Parasite Larvae
Tetrastichus giffardianus Parasite Larvae Hawaii
Thyreocephalus albertisi Predator Hawaii vegetables
Trybliographa daci Parasite Larvae
Tytthus mundulus Predator
Utetes anastrephae Parasite Hawaii vegetables
Utetes manii Parasite Larvae Hawaii (not established)

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Bactrocera spp. can be attacked as larvae either by parasitoids or by vertebrates eating fruit (either on the tree or as fallen fruit). Mortality due to vertebrate fruit consumption can be very high as can puparial mortality in the soil, either due to predation or environmental mortality (see White and Elson-Harris (1994) for brief review). Parasitoids appear to have little effect on the populations of most fruit flies and Fletcher (1987) noted that 0-30% levels of parasitism are typical. To date there are only a few records of partial biological control success for any Bactrocera or Dacus spp. (Wharton, 1989). Clausen (1978) noted that any benefit was almost entirely due to Biosteres arisanus (as Opius oophilus) and gave the example of guava fruit (Psidium guajava) attack being reduced from 100 to 22% as a result of reduction in B. dorsalis populations through the effects of parasitism in Hawaii. More recently, B. arisanus introduction to French Polynesia has reduced infestations (larvae/kg) on guava, Tahitian chestnut and tropical almond by 70-95%, but reduction in percentage of infested fruits (by at least one larva) was not reduced as substantially (Leblanc et al., 2013c). A number of parasitoids were also released in Guam against B. dorsalis and this programme was reviewed by Waterhouse (1993). Due to difficulties in verifying the identifications of both parasitoids and (in some cases) the fruit fly hosts, no attempt has been made to catalogue all natural enemy records; see Clausen (1978), White and Elson-Harris (1994), Stibick (2004) and the website on parasitoids of fruit-infesting Tephritidae (http://paroffit.org/public/site/paroffit/home) for major sources of information. Bautista et al. (1998) described the phenology of B. arisanus. Van Mele et al. (2007) showed the positive effects of African weaver ants (Oecophylla longinoda) in controlling fruit flies in relation to the repellent cues of weaver ants (Adandonon et al., 2009), including B. invadens, in mango trees (Mangifera indica). 

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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B. dorsalis is known to have the potential to establish adventive populations in various tropical and subtropical areas. Using microsatellite markers, Aketarawong et al. (2007) investigated the population structure and genetic variability in 14 geographical populations across the four areas of the actual species range: Far East Asia; South Asia; South-East Asia; and the Pacific Area. Regarding the pattern of invasion, the overall genetic profile of the considered populations suggests a western-orientated migration route from China to the west.

Adult flight and the transport of infected fruit are the major means of movement and dispersal to previously uninfested areas. Many Bactrocera spp. can fly 50-100 km (Fletcher, 1989).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Crop production Yes Yes
Food Yes Yes
Hitchhiker Yes Yes
Live food or feed trade Yes Yes
Smuggling Yes Yes

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
AircraftFruits infested with larvae and/or eggs Yes
Bulk freight or cargoAll life stages. In New Zealand, 7-33 interceptions of fruit flies per year in cargo Yes
ConsumablesAll life stages Yes
Floating vegetation and debrisFruits infested with larvae and/or eggs Yes Yes
Land vehiclesFruits infested with eggs, larvae and/or pupae Yes
LuggageFruits infested with larvae and/or eggs. 10-28 interceptions per year in passenger baggage in NZ Yes Yes Foote et al., 1993
MailFruits infested with eggs and/or larvae Yes Yes
Plants or parts of plantsFruits infested with eggs and/or larvae Yes Yes
Soil, sand and gravelPupae Yes Yes
WindAdults Yes

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Fruits (inc. pods) eggs; larvae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Growing medium accompanying plants pupae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Leaves
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

Wood Packaging

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Wood Packaging liable to carry the pest in trade/transportTimber typeUsed as packing
Loose wood packing material Yes
Non-wood Yes
Processed or treated wood Yes
Solid wood packing material with bark Yes
Solid wood packing material without bark Yes

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Animal/plant collections None
Animal/plant products Negative
Biodiversity (generally) None
Crop production Negative
Economic/livelihood Negative
Environment (generally) None
Fisheries / aquaculture None
Forestry production None
Human health None
Livestock production None
Native fauna Negative
Native flora None
Rare/protected species Negative
Tourism None
Trade/international relations Negative
Transport/travel None

Impact

Top of page B. dorsalis is a very serious pest of a wide variety of fruits and vegetables throughout its range and damage levels can be anything up to 100% of unprotected fruit.

Economic Impact

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B. dorsalis is a very serious pest of a wide variety of fruits and vegetables throughout its range and damage levels can be anything up to 100% of unprotected fruit. As a result of its widespread distribution, pest status, invasive ability and potential impact on market access, B. dorsalis is considered to be a major threat to many countries, requiring costly quarantine restrictions and eradication measures. In Mauritius, the total cost of the eradication operation was approximately US$1 million (Seewooruthun et al., 2000). In Japan, eradication from the Ryukyu Islands has cost more than 200 million euros (Kiritani, 1998). In California, USA it has been estimated that the cost of not eradicating Oriental fruit fly would range from US$ 44 to 176 million in crop losses, additional pesticide use, and quarantine requirements. The cost for the eradication programme in northern Queensland (1995-1999) was AUS$ 33 million, but the estimated annual cost to control the pest, had it been left established, was estimated to be AUS$ 7-8 million (Cantrell et al., 2002). In Hawaii, annual losses in major fruit crops caused by B. dorsalis may exceed 13%, or US$ 3 million (Culliney, 2002).

Environmental Impact

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Due to the competition for food, oriental fruit flies would displace other less aggressive fruit fly species. Duyck et al. (2004) suggested that the r–K gradient could be used as a predictor of the potential invasive capacity of a species. Species with type K-demographic strategy traits, such as species of the genus Bactrocera, would be adapted for competition in saturated habitats. Duyck et al. (2004) reported that in all recorded cases, species further along the r–K gradient, such as B. dorsalis; have invaded over r-selected species, such as Ceratitis capitata, never the reverse.

Impact: Biodiversity

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The environmental impact is rated high because the establishment of oriental fruit flies would likely trigger the initiation of chemical and/or biological control programmes. Chemical control would harm native insects and species of conservation significance. 

Social Impact

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Human health and tourism would be affected if plantations treated with insecticides are close to habitat and touristic resorts. However, the risk is very low because local protein bait application techniques (BAT) and male annihilation techniques (MAT) are the most common methods used for the area-wide management of the oriental fruit fly.

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Invasive in its native range
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Has high genetic variability
Impact outcomes
  • Host damage
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Pest and disease transmission
  • Interaction with other invasive species
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally illegally
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field
  • Difficult/costly to control

Detection and Inspection

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Fruits (locally grown or samples of fruit imports) should be inspected for puncture marks and any associated necrosis. Suspect fruits should be cut open and checked for larvae. Larval identification is difficult, so if time allows, mature larvae should be transferred to saw dust (or similar dry medium) to allow pupariation. Upon emergence, adult flies must be fed with sugar and water for several days to allow hardening and full colour to develop, before they can be identified. Detection is described in the Prevention and Control section under Early Warning Systems.

Prevention and Control

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Regulatory Control

Many countries, such as the mainland USA, forbid the import of susceptible fruit without strict post-harvest treatment having been applied by the exporter. This may involve fumigation, heat treatment (hot vapour or hot water), cold treatments, insecticidal dipping, or irradiation (Armstrong and Couey, 1989). Irradiation is not accepted in most countries and many have now banned methyl bromide fumigation. Heat treatment tends to reduce the shelf life of most fruits and so the most effective method of regulatory control is preferentially to restrict imports of a given fruit to areas free of fruit fly attack.

Cultural Control and Sanitary Methods

One of the most effective control techniques against fruit flies in general is to wrap fruit, either in newspaper, a paper bag, or in the case of long/thin fruits, a polythene sleeve. This is a simple physical barrier to oviposition, but it has to be applied well before the fruit is attacked. There is also some evidence that neem seed kernel extract can deter oviposition (Shivendra-Singh and Singh, 1998). Early harvesting is also an effective control strategy for mango (Gajendra-Singh et al., 1997). Little information is available on the attack time for most fruits but few Bactrocera spp. attack prior to ripening.

Other control and sanitary methods include the removal and destruction of fallen fruits because they may harbour larvae that could form a next generation. Destruction can either be by burning, deep burrowing (at least 0.5 m below the surface), feeding them to pigs, or putting the fruits in dark-coloured plastic bags and placing them in the sun (so that the inside temperature rises and kills the larvae).

Another method is raking or disturbing the soil below the fruit trees using other means. This will expose the puparia, leading to desiccation or predation by other organisms.

Chemical Control

Although cover sprays of entire crops are sometimes used, the use of bait sprays is both more economical and more environmentally acceptable. A bait spray consists of a suitable insecticide (e.g. malathion, spinosad, fipronil) mixed with a protein bait. Both males and females of fruit flies are attracted to protein sources emanating ammonia, and so insecticides can be applied to just a few spots in an orchard and the flies will be attracted to these spots. The protein most widely used is hydrolysed protein, but some supplies of this are acid hydrolysed and so highly phytotoxic. Smith and Nannan (1988) have developed a system using autolysed protein. In Malaysia, this has been developed into a very effective commercial product derived from brewery waste. Light-activated xanthene dye is an effective alternative (McQuate et al., 1999).

Sterile Insect Technique

Sterile insect technique was used successfully to eradicate B. dorsalis from Okinawa and neighbouring islands in the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan (FFEPO, 1987).

Male Suppression

The males of B. dorsalis are attracted to methyl eugenol (4-allyl-1,2-dimethoxybenzene), sometimes in very large numbers. On a small scale, many farmers use male suppression as a control technique; however, with flies attracted over a few hundred metres the traps may be responsible for increasing the fly level (at least of males) on a crop as much as for reducing it. However, the technique has been used as an eradication technique (male annihilation), in combination with bait (Bateman, 1982).

Early Warning Systems

Many countries that are free of Bactrocera spp., e.g. the USA (California and Florida) and New Zealand, maintain a grid of methyl eugenol and cue lure traps, at least in high-risk areas (ports and airports) if not around the entire climatically suitable area. The trap used will usually be modelled on the Steiner trap (White and Elson-Harris, 1994) or Jackson trap.

Field Monitoring

Monitoring is largely carried out by traps baited with methyl eugenol male lure (see Early Warning Systems) set in areas of infestation. However, there is evidence that some fruit flies have different host preferences in different parts of their range and host fruit surveys should also be considered as part of the monitoring process.

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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Host plant surveys have not yet been carried out to show which hosts are of particular importance within the Asian range of true B. dorsalis.

Exploration of Fopius arisanus as a potential classical biological control of B. dorsalis outside Hawaii and French Polynesia is suggested.

References

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Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Dacine Fruit Flies of the Asia-Pacifichttp://www.herbarium.hawaii.edu/fruitfly
Featured Creatureshttp://entnemdept.ufl.edu/creatures/
Hawaii Area-Wide Fruit Fly IPMhttp://www.fruitfly.hawaii.edu/
Invasive Fruit Fly Pests in Africahttp://www.africamuseum.be/fruitfly/AfroAsia.htm
Pacific Fruit Fly Webhttp://www.spc.int/pacifly/
Pest Fruit Flies of the Worldhttp://delta-intkey.com/ffa/www/_wintro.htm
Tephritid Workers Databasehttp://www.tephritid.org/twd/srv/en/home
True Fruit Flies (Diptera, Tephritidae) of the Afrotropical Regionhttp://projects.bebif.be/fruitfly/index.html

Organizations

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Benin: IITA (Institut International d'Agriculture Tropicale), BP 08-0932 Cotonou, http://www.iita.org/

France: CIRAD (Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développment), Head Office, 42, rue Scheffer, 75116 Paris, http://www.cirad.fr

USA: UHM (University of Hawaii at Manoa), College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources Department of Plant and Environmental Protecti, Honolulu, HI 96822, http://www.uhm.hawaii.edu/

USA: USDA-ARS, Tropical Plant Pests Research Unit,, 64 Nowelo Street, Hilo, HI 96720, http://www.ars.usda.gov/

Australia: ICMPFF (International Centre for the Management of Pest Fruit Flies), Griffith University Nathan Campus, Queensland 4111, http://www.griffith.edu.au/centre/icmpff/

Contributors

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15/07/15 Updated by:

Luc Leblanc, Department of Plant and Environmental Protection Sciences, College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii.

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