Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Bactrocera cucurbitae
(melon fly)

Toolbox

Datasheet

Bactrocera cucurbitae (melon fly)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 11 December 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Bactrocera cucurbitae
  • Preferred Common Name
  • melon fly
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Considered native to India, B. cucurbitae, the melon fly, is now found in more than 40 countries. The potential risk of its introduction to a new area is facilitated by an increase in international tourism and trade, and is influenced by ch...

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Bactrocera cucurbitae (melon fly); adult at rest. Bisai Bigha, Nalanda, Bihar, India. Latitude 25.18 N, Longitude 85.30 E. Altitude 62m amsl.
TitleAdult
CaptionBactrocera cucurbitae (melon fly); adult at rest. Bisai Bigha, Nalanda, Bihar, India. Latitude 25.18 N, Longitude 85.30 E. Altitude 62m amsl.
Copyright©Dr Chandra Shekhar Prabhakar-2014
Bactrocera cucurbitae (melon fly); adult at rest. Bisai Bigha, Nalanda, Bihar, India. Latitude 25.18 N, Longitude 85.30 E. Altitude 62m amsl.
AdultBactrocera cucurbitae (melon fly); adult at rest. Bisai Bigha, Nalanda, Bihar, India. Latitude 25.18 N, Longitude 85.30 E. Altitude 62m amsl.©Dr Chandra Shekhar Prabhakar-2014
Bactrocera cucurbitae (melon fly); three adults at rest on a pigeon pea leaf (Cajanus cajan), in the vicinity of cucurbit plants. Bisai Bigha, Nalanda, Bihar, India. Latitude 25.18 N, Longitude 85.30 E. Altitude 62m amsl. October, 2014.
TitleAdults
CaptionBactrocera cucurbitae (melon fly); three adults at rest on a pigeon pea leaf (Cajanus cajan), in the vicinity of cucurbit plants. Bisai Bigha, Nalanda, Bihar, India. Latitude 25.18 N, Longitude 85.30 E. Altitude 62m amsl. October, 2014.
Copyright©Dr Chandra Shekhar Prabhakar-2014
Bactrocera cucurbitae (melon fly); three adults at rest on a pigeon pea leaf (Cajanus cajan), in the vicinity of cucurbit plants. Bisai Bigha, Nalanda, Bihar, India. Latitude 25.18 N, Longitude 85.30 E. Altitude 62m amsl. October, 2014.
AdultsBactrocera cucurbitae (melon fly); three adults at rest on a pigeon pea leaf (Cajanus cajan), in the vicinity of cucurbit plants. Bisai Bigha, Nalanda, Bihar, India. Latitude 25.18 N, Longitude 85.30 E. Altitude 62m amsl. October, 2014.©Dr Chandra Shekhar Prabhakar-2014

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett

Preferred Common Name

  • melon fly

Other Scientific Names

  • Bactrocera (Zeugodacus) cucurbitae (Coquillett)
  • Chaetodacus cucurbitae (Coquillett)
  • Dacus cucurbitae Coquillett
  • Dacus yayeyamanus
  • Strumeta cucurbitae Coquillett
  • Zeugodacus cucurbitae (Coquillett)

International Common Names

  • English: melon fruit fly
  • Spanish: mosca del melon
  • French: mouche de melon; mouche du concombre

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Fliege, Tropische Melonen-
  • Italy: mosca del melone
  • Japan: uri-mibae

EPPO code

  • DACUCU (Bactrocera cucurbitae)

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page

Considered native to India, B. cucurbitae, the melon fly, is now found in more than 40 countries. The potential risk of its introduction to a new area is facilitated by an increase in international tourism and trade, and is influenced by changes in climate and land use. After introduction, it can easily disperse due to its high reproductive potential, high biotic potential (short life cycle of 3-5 weeks, up to 10 generations of offspring per year), and a rapid dispersal ability.

The economic impacts of this species result primarily from the loss of export markets and the costly requirement of quarantine restrictions and eradication measures. Furthermore, its establishment has a serious impact on the environment following the initiation of chemical and/or biological control programmes.

B. cucurbitae is of quarantine significance to EPPO (European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization), APPPC (Asia and Pacific Plant Protection Commission), COSAV (Comité de Sanidad Vegetal del Cono Sur), CPPC (Caribbean Plant Protection Commission), and OIRSA (Organismo Internacional Regional de Sanidad Agropecuaria) countries.

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Diptera
  •                         Family: Tephritidae
  •                             Genus: Bactrocera
  •                                 Species: Bactrocera cucurbitae

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page

B. cucurbitae was first described by Coquillett in 1899 from material collected in the Hawaiian Islands. There are no published synonyms, but it has been used in some other generic combinations, most notably as Dacus cucurbitae. It is a member of the subgenus Zeugodacus and is therefore sometimes cited as Bactrocera (Zeugodacus) cucurbitae.

Description

Top of page

Adult

Adult description derived from computer-generated description from White and Hancock (1997). Larval description from White and Elson-Harris (1994).

Head: Pedicel+1st flagellomere not longer than ptilinal suture. Face with a dark spot in each antennal furrow; facial spot round to elongate. Frons - 2-3 pairs frontal setae; 1 pair orbital setae.

Thorax: Predominant colour of scutum red-brown. Postpronotal (=humeral) lobe entirely pale (yellow or orange). Notopleuron yellow. Scutum with parallel sided lateral postsutural vittae (yellow/orange stripes) which extend anterior to suture and posteriorly to level of the intra-alar setae. Medial vitta present; not extended anterior to suture. Scutellum yellow, except for narrow basal band. Anepisternal stripe not reaching anterior notopleural seta. Yellow marking on both anatergite and katatergite. Postpronotal lobe (=humerus) without a seta. Notopleuron with anterior seta. Scutum with or without anterior supra-alar setae; with prescutellar acrostichal setae. Scutellum rarely (5%) with basal as well as apical pair of setae.

Wing: Length 4.2-7.1 mm. With a complete costal band; depth to below R2+3, sometimes reaching R4+5. Costal band expanded into a spot at apex, which extends about half way to M. With an anal streak. Cells bc and c colourless. May have a transverse mark over crossvein r-m. Always with transverse mark over crossvein dm-cu. Cells bc and c without extensive covering of microtrichia. Cell br (narrowed part) with extensive covering of microtrichia.

Legs: All femora pale basally, red-brown apically.

Abdomen: Predominant colour orange-brown. Tergites not fused. Abdomen not wasp waisted. Pattern distinct; transverse band across tergite 3; tergite 4 dark laterally; medial longitudinal stripe on T3-5.

Terminalia and secondary sexual characters: male wing without a bulla. Male tergite 3 with a pecten (setal comb) on each side. Male sternite 5 not V-shaped. Surstylus (male) with a long posterior lobe. Wing (male) with a deep indent in posterior margin. Hind tibia (male) with a preapical pad. Aculeus apex pointed.

Egg

The eggs of Bactrocera olae were described in detail by Margaritis (1985) and those of other species are probably very similar. Size, 0.8 mm long, 0.2 mm wide, with the micropyle protruding slightly at the anterior end. The chorion is reticulate (requires scanning electron microscope examination). White to yellow-white in colour.

Larva

Third instar larva: Large, length 9.0-11.0 mm; width 1.0-2.0 mm.

Head: Stomal sensory organ small, completely surrounded by 6-7 large preoral lobes, some bearing serrated edges similar to oral ridges; oral ridges with 17-23 rows of moderately long, uniform, bluntly rounded teeth; accessory plates numerous, with serrated edges and interlocking with oral ridges; mouthhooks large, heavily sclerotized, each with a small, but well-defined preapical tooth.

Thoracic and abdominal segments: anterior portion of T1 with an encircling, broad band of spinules which dorsally and laterally form small plates 7-10 rows deep, becoming discontinuous rows ventrally; T2 with smaller, stouter spinules, forming 5-7 discontinuous rows around anterior portion of segment; T3 similar to T2, but reduced to 4-6 rows. Creeping welts obvious, with 9-13 rows of small spinules. A8 with large well rounded intermediate areas, almost linked by a large, slightly curved, pigmented transverse line (mature larvae only). Tubercles and sensilla well defined.

Anterior spiracles: 16-20 tubules.

Posterior spiracles: spiracular slits large, with heavily sclerotized rimae; about 3 times as long as broad. Spiracular hairs long, fine and often branched in apical half; dorsal and ventral bundles of 6-12 spiracular hairs; lateral bundles of 4-6 hairs.

Anal area: lobes large with a lightly sculptured surface, surrounded by 3-7 rows of spinules. Around outer edges spinules small, in discontinuous rows; closer to anal lobes, spinules becoming stouter, and forming small groups below anal opening.

Puparium

Barrel-shaped with most larval features unrecognisable, the exception being the anterior and posterior spiracles which are little changed by pupariation. White to yellow-brown in colour. Usually about 60-80% length of larva.

Distribution

Top of page

The Asian parts of the range of this species represent its natural (native) range. In Hawaii it is known to be an introduction, having arrived there late in the 19th century (Clausen, 1978). Old records for Australia derive from an eradicated outbreak in Darwin (ca. 1910), but as no specimens could be traced this may have been based on a misidentification of Bactrocera chorista (IM White, IIE, personal communication, 1996).

In Africa, B. cucurbitae is found in several countries in East and West Africa, including Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Gambia, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal and Togo in West Africa, and Kenya, Sudan, Tanzania and Uganda in East Africa (Meyer et al., 2007).

The distribution of this species was mapped by Drew (1982) and International Institute of Entomology (1995). The distribution map includes records of B. cucurbitae from the collection in the National History Museum (London, UK). See also CABI/EPPO (2003, No. 64).

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 30 Jun 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

BeninPresentIntroduced2004Invasive
Burkina FasoPresentIntroducedInvasive
BurundiPresent
CameroonPresentIntroducedInvasive
ComorosPresent
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresentIntroducedInvasive
Côte d'IvoirePresentIntroducedInvasive
EgyptAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)
EthiopiaPresent
GambiaPresentIntroducedInvasive
GhanaPresent
GuineaPresentIntroducedInvasive
KenyaPresent, LocalizedIntroducedInvasive
MalawiPresent
MaliPresentIntroducedInvasive
MauritiusPresentIntroducedInvasive
MozambiquePresent
NigerPresentIntroducedInvasive
NigeriaPresentIntroducedInvasive
RéunionPresentIntroducedInvasive
SenegalPresentIntroducedInvasive
SeychellesPresentIntroduced1999Invasive
Sierra LeonePresent
SomaliaPresentIntroducedInvasive
SudanPresent
TanzaniaPresent, LocalizedIntroducedInvasive
TogoPresentIntroducedInvasive
UgandaPresentIntroducedInvasive

Asia

AfghanistanPresentInvasive
BangladeshPresent, WidespreadInvasive
BhutanPresent
IndonesiaPresentInvasive
-BorneoPresent
-Irian JayaPresentInvasive
-JavaPresentInvasive
-Lesser Sunda IslandsPresentInvasive
-Maluku IslandsPresent
-SulawesiPresentInvasive
-SumatraPresentInvasive
BruneiPresentInvasive
CambodiaPresentInvasive
ChinaPresent, LocalizedInvasive
-FujianPresentInvasive
-GuangdongPresentInvasive
-GuangxiPresentInvasive
-GuizhouPresentInvasive
-HainanPresentInvasive
-JiangsuPresentInvasive
-YunnanPresentInvasive
-ZhejiangPresent
Hong KongPresent, WidespreadInvasive
IndiaPresent, WidespreadNativeInvasive
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresentInvasive
-Andhra PradeshPresentInvasive
-AssamPresentInvasive
-BiharPresentInvasive
-ChhattisgarhPresent
-DelhiPresentInvasive
-GujaratPresentInvasive
-HaryanaPresentInvasive
-Himachal PradeshPresentInvasive
-Jammu and KashmirPresentInvasive
-KarnatakaPresentInvasive
-KeralaPresentInvasive
-Madhya PradeshPresentInvasive
-MaharashtraPresentInvasive
-OdishaPresentInvasive
-PunjabPresentInvasive
-RajasthanPresentInvasive
-Tamil NaduPresentInvasive
-Uttar PradeshPresentInvasive
-UttarakhandPresentInvasive
-West BengalPresentInvasive
IranPresentInvasive
JapanAbsent, Eradicated19931919
-Ryukyu IslandsAbsent, Eradicated1993
LaosPresentInvasive
MalaysiaPresent, WidespreadInvasive
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentInvasive
-SabahPresentInvasive
-SarawakPresentInvasive
MyanmarPresentInvasive
NepalPresentInvasive
OmanPresentInvasive
PakistanPresentInvasive
PhilippinesPresentInvasive
Saudi ArabiaPresentInvasive
SingaporePresentInvasive
Sri LankaPresentInvasive
TaiwanPresent, WidespreadInvasive
ThailandPresentInvasive
United Arab EmiratesPresentIntroducedInvasive
VietnamPresentInvasive

Europe

SloveniaAbsent

North America

United StatesPresent, LocalizedIntroduced1895Invasive
-CaliforniaAbsent, Eradicated
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced1895Invasive

Oceania

AustraliaPresent, Few occurrencesIntroduced1997Invasive
-QueenslandPresent, Few occurrencesIntroduced1997Invasive
Christmas IslandPresentInvasive
GuamPresent, LocalizedIntroducedInvasive
KiribatiPresentIntroducedInvasive
NauruPresentIntroduced1982InvasiveEradicated 1999, reintroduced 2001
New ZealandAbsent, Confirmed absent by survey
Northern Mariana IslandsPresent, LocalizedIntroduced1943Invasive
Papua New GuineaPresentIntroducedInvasive
Solomon IslandsPresent, Localized
Timor-LestePresentInvasive

History of Introduction and Spread

Top of page

The first B. cucurbitae specimens from Africa are from the early 1930s, but it is possible that the fly has been established on the continent for much longer. It was restricted to eastern Africa for several decades, but has recently been reported from western Africa and the Seychelles (Meyer et al., 2007).

B. cucurbitae was first found in Hawaii in the 1890s (Meyer et al., 2007).

In November 1999, B. cucurbitae was detected for the first time in the Seychelles. It is believed that the flies came from infested fruits and vegetables from a meal served on a plane, and the waste was not correctly treated at the airport. B. cucurbitae established quickly on Mahe Island and then invaded the other islands of the archipelago. An eradication programme was planned for 2004 after delimitation of the infestation (Knight, 2003).

Introductions

Top of page
Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Northern Mariana Islands Guam 1981 Food (pathway cause); Live food or feed trade (pathway cause) Yes No EPPO (2006); Waterhouse (1993); Waterhouse (1993a); Waterhouse (1993b) Detected in 1943, eradicated in 1963, re-established in 1981
Seychelles 1999 Hitchhiker (pathway cause) Yes No EPPO (2006) Probably discarded food in the airport

Risk of Introduction

Top of page
The major risk is from the import of fruit containing larvae, either as part of cargo, or through the smuggling of fruit in airline passenger baggage or mail. For example, in New Zealand Baker and Cowley (1991) recorded 7-33 interceptions of fruit flies per year in cargo and 10-28 per year in passenger baggage. Private individuals who successfully smuggle fruit are likely to discard it when they discover that it is rotten. Isolated catches of B. cucurbitae in cue lure baited traps in California, USA (Foote et al., 1993) probably had an origin of this sort.

Habitat List

Top of page
CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalArid regions Secondary/tolerated habitat Productive/non-natural

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page

B. cucurbitae is a very serious pest of cucurbit crops. According to Weems (1964), it has been recorded from over 125 plants, including members of families other than Cucurbitaceae; however, many of those records were based on casual observation of adults resting on plants or caught in traps set in non-host trees. In common with some other species of subgenus Bactrocera (Zeugodacus) it can attack flowers as well as fruit, and additionally, will sometimes attack stem and root tissue. In Hawaii, pumpkin and squash fields (varieties of Cucurbita pepo) have been known to be heavily attacked before fruit had even set, with eggs being laid into unopened male and female flowers, and larvae even developing successfully in the taproots, stems and leaf stalks (Back and Pemberton, 1914). Most of the records listed are from recently published host catalogues that were largely based on extensive rearing programmes (Tsuruta et al., 1997; Allwood, et al., 2000); doubtful records are omitted.

Primary hosts are species of Cucurbitacaeae, as follows: Cucumis melo (Drew, 1989; Allwood et al., 2000), Cucurbita maxima (Tsuruta et al., 1997; Allwood et al., 2000), Cucurbita pepo (Drew, 1989; Allwood et al., 2000) and Trichosanthes cucumerina (Tsuruta et al., 1997; Allwood et al., 2000).

Secondary hosts are species of Cucurbitaceae and rarely species of other families, as follows:

Cucurbitaceae: Benincasa hispida (Allwood et al., 2000) fruit and flowers, Citrullus colocynthis (White and Elson-Harris, 1994), Citrullus lanatus (Allwood et al., 2000), Coccinia grandis (Tsuruta et al., 1997; Allwood et al., 2000) fruit and flowers, Cucumis anguria (Ravi et al., 1998), Cucumis sativus (Drew, 1989; Tsuruta et al., 1997; Allwood et al., 2000), Cucurbita moschata (Allwood et al., 2000) fruit and flowers, Lagenaria siceraria (Tsuruta et al., 1997; Allwood et al., 2000), Luffa acutangula (Tsuruta et al., 1997; Allwood et al., 2000), Luffa aegyptiaca (Allwood et al., 2000) fruit and flowers, Momordica balsamina (White and Elson-Harris, 1994), Momordica charantia (Drew, 1989; Tsuruta et al., 1997; Allwood et al., 2000), Momordica cochinchinensis (White and Elson-Harris, 1994) and Momordica dioica (Ranganath and Veenakumari, 1995).

Caricaceae: Carica papaya (Tsuruta et al., 1997); Fabaceae: Phaseolus vulgaris, Vigna sinensis [Vigna unguiculata subsp. unguiculata] and Vigna unguiculata (Allwood et al., 2000); Loganiaceae: Strychnos nux-vomica (Tsuruta et al., 1997); Malvaceae: Abelmoschus moschatus (Allwood et al., 2000); Myrtaceae: Psidium guajava (Allwood et al., 2000); Pandanaceae: Pandanus odoratissimus [Pandanus odorifer] (Tsuruta et al., 1997); Passifloraceae: Passiflora edulis (Tsuruta et al., 1997); Rhamnaceae: Ziziphus jujuba (Allwood et al., 2000); Sapotaceae: Manilkara zapota (Allwood et al., 2000); Solanaceae: Lycopersicon esculentum (Allwood et al., 2000).

Wild hosts of B. cucurbitae are wild species of Cucurbitaceae and rarely fruits of other families, as follows:

Cucurbitaceae: Cucumis trigonus [Cucumis melo subsp. melo] (White and Elson-Harris, 1994), Diplocyclos palmatus (Tsuruta et al., 1997), Gymnopetalum integrifolium (Allwood et al., 2000), Melothria wallichii (Allwood et al., 2000), Mukia maderaspatana [Cucumis maderaspatanus] (Ranganath and Veenakumari, 1995), Trichosanthes ovigera, Trichosanthes tricuspidata, Trichosanthes wallichiana and Trichosantheswawraei (Allwood et al., 2000).

Agavaceae: Dracaena curtissi (Allwood et al., 2000); Capparidaceae: Capparis sepiaria, Capparis thorellii and Maerua siamensis (Allwood et al., 2000); Moraceae: Ficus chartacea (Allwood et al., 2000); Rutaceae: Citrus hystrix (Allwood et al., 2000); Solanaceae: Solanum trilobatum (Allwood et al., 2000); and Vitaceae: Tetrastigma lanceolarium (Allwood et al., 2000).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

Top of page
Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Abelmoschus esculentus (okra)MalvaceaeUnknown
Abelmoschus moschatus (musk mallow)MalvaceaeOther
    Adenia hondalaUnknown
    Anacardium occidentale (cashew nut)AnacardiaceaeUnknown
    Annona senegalensis (wild custard apple)AnnonaceaeUnknown
    Artocarpus heterophyllus (jackfruit)MoraceaeOther
    Artocarpus integer (champedak)MoraceaeUnknown
    Averrhoa carambola (carambola)OxalidaceaeUnknown
    Baccaurea angulataUnknown
    Benincasa hispida (wax gourd)CucurbitaceaeOther
    Brassica oleracea var. botrytis (cauliflower)BrassicaceaeUnknown
    Brassica oleracea var. gongylodes (kohlrabi)BrassicaceaeUnknown
    Capparis sepiaria (indian caper)CapparaceaeWild host
      Capparis thorelliiCapparaceaeWild host
        Capsicum annuum (bell pepper)SolanaceaeUnknown
        Capsicum frutescens (chilli)SolanaceaeUnknown
        Carica papaya (pawpaw)CaricaceaeOther
        Citrullus colocynthis (colocynth)CucurbitaceaeOther
        Citrullus lanatus (watermelon)CucurbitaceaeOther
        Citrus hystrix (mauritius bitter orange)RutaceaeWild host
          Citrus maxima (pummelo)RutaceaeOther
            Citrus sinensis (navel orange)RutaceaeOther
              Coccinia grandis (scarlet-fruited ivy gourd)CucurbitaceaeOther
              Cucumeropsis manniiUnknown
              Cucumis (melons, cucuimbers, gerkins)CucurbitaceaeUnknown
              Cucumis anguria (West Indian gherkin)CucurbitaceaeOther
                Cucumis dipsaceus (hedgehog gourd)Unknown
                Cucumis maderaspatanusCucurbitaceaeWild host
                  Cucumis melo (melon)CucurbitaceaeMain
                  Cucumis melo subsp. meloCucurbitaceaeWild host
                    Cucumis sativus (cucumber)CucurbitaceaeOther
                    Cucurbita maxima (giant pumpkin)CucurbitaceaeMain
                    Cucurbita moschata (pumpkin)CucurbitaceaeOther
                    Cucurbita pepo (marrow)CucurbitaceaeMain
                      Cucurbitaceae (cucurbits)CucurbitaceaeWild host
                        Cyclanthera pedataCucurbitaceaeUnknown
                        Cydonia oblonga (quince)RosaceaeOther
                          Cyphomandra betacea (tree tomato)SolanaceaeOther
                          Diplocyclos palmatusWild host
                          Dracaena curtissiAgavaceaeWild host
                            Dracontomelon dao (Argus pheasant tree)AnacardiaceaeUnknown
                            Ficus carica (common fig)MoraceaeOther
                              Ficus chartaceaMoraceaeWild host
                                Ficus erectaMoraceaeUnknown
                                Ficus pumila (creeping fig)MoraceaeUnknown
                                Gymnopetalum integrifoliumCucurbitaceaeWild host
                                  Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd)CucurbitaceaeOther
                                  LuffaCucurbitaceaeUnknown
                                  Luffa acutangula (angled luffa)CucurbitaceaeOther
                                  Luffa aegyptiaca (loofah)CucurbitaceaeOther
                                  Maerua siamensisCapparaceaeWild host
                                    Mangifera indica (mango)AnacardiaceaeOther
                                    Manilkara zapota (sapodilla)SapotaceaeOther
                                      Melothria wallichiiCucurbitaceaeWild host
                                        Momordica balsamina (common balsam apple)CucurbitaceaeOther
                                          Momordica charantia (bitter gourd)CucurbitaceaeOther
                                          Momordica cochinchinensisCucurbitaceaeOther
                                          Momordica dioicaCucurbitaceaeOther
                                            Momordica foetidaUnknown
                                            Momordica trifoliolataUnknown
                                            Pandanus odoriferPandanaceaeOther
                                            Passiflora (passionflower)PassifloraceaeOther
                                              Passiflora edulis (passionfruit)PassifloraceaeOther
                                              Persea americana (avocado)LauraceaeOther
                                              Phaseolus lunatus (lima bean)FabaceaeUnknown
                                              Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean)FabaceaeOther
                                                Praecitrullus fistulosusUnknown
                                                Prunus persica (peach)RosaceaeOther
                                                  Psidium guajava (guava)MyrtaceaeOther
                                                  Sechium edule (chayote)CucurbitaceaeOther
                                                  Sesbania grandiflora (sesbania)FabaceaeOther
                                                  Solanum (nightshade)SolanaceaeUnknown
                                                  Solanum aethiopicum (african scarlet eggplant)SolanaceaeUnknown
                                                  Solanum americanumSolanaceaeUnknown
                                                  Solanum anguiviSolanaceaeUnknown
                                                  Solanum erianthum (potato tree)SolanaceaeUnknown
                                                  Solanum lycopersicum (tomato)SolanaceaeOther
                                                  Solanum macrocarpon (local garden egg)SolanaceaeUnknown
                                                  Solanum melongena (aubergine)SolanaceaeUnknown
                                                  Solanum trilobatumSolanaceaeWild host
                                                    Strychnos nux-vomica (nux-vomica tree)LoganiaceaeOther
                                                    Strychnos spinosaLoganiaceaeUnknown
                                                    Syzygium samarangense (water apple)MyrtaceaeOther
                                                    Telfairia occidentalisCucurbitaceaeUnknown
                                                    Terminalia catappa (Singapore almond)CombretaceaeUnknown
                                                    Tetrastigma lanceolariumVitaceaeWild host
                                                      TrichosanthesCucurbitaceaeUnknown
                                                      Trichosanthes cucumerina (snake gourd)CucurbitaceaeMain
                                                      Trichosanthes ovigeraCucurbitaceaeWild host
                                                      Trichosanthes tricuspidataCucurbitaceaeWild host
                                                      Trichosanthes wallichianaCucurbitaceaeWild host
                                                        Trichosanthes wawraeiCucurbitaceaeWild host
                                                          Triphasia trifolia (limeberry)RutaceaeUnknown
                                                          Vaccinium (blueberries)EricaceaeUnknown
                                                          Vigna (cowpea)FabaceaeUnknown
                                                          Vigna unguiculata (cowpea)FabaceaeOther
                                                            Vigna unguiculata subsp. unguiculataFabaceaeOther
                                                              Zehneria mucronataUnknown
                                                              Ziziphus jujuba (common jujube)RhamnaceaeOther

                                                                Growth Stages

                                                                Top of page
                                                                Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Post-harvest

                                                                Symptoms

                                                                Top of page

                                                                Following oviposition there may be some necrosis around the puncture mark ('sting'). This is followed by decompostion of the fruit.

                                                                List of Symptoms/Signs

                                                                Top of page
                                                                SignLife StagesType
                                                                Fruit / internal feeding
                                                                Fruit / lesions: black or brown
                                                                Inflorescence / internal feeding
                                                                Leaves / internal feeding
                                                                Roots / internal feeding
                                                                Stems / internal feeding

                                                                Biology and Ecology

                                                                Top of page

                                                                Eggs (up to 40) are laid below the skin of the host fruit; a female may lay more than 1000 eggs. These hatch within 1-2 days and the larvae feed for another 4-17 days (longest in thick-skinned fruits such as pumpkin). Pupariation is in the soil under the host plant for 7-13 days, but may be delayed for several weeks under cool conditions. Adults occur throughout the year and begin mating (at dusk) after about 10-12 days, and may live 5-15 months depending on temperature (longer in cool conditions); data from Christenson and Foote (1960), Clausen (1978) and Waterhouse (1993). Adult flight and the transport of infected fruit are the major means of movement and dispersal to previously uninfected areas. This is one of the most common species attracted to cue lure.

                                                                The biological basis of cue lure attraction is under investigation; Shelley and Villalobos (1995) showed that wing vibrating activity increased following a cue lure feed, and evidence from other species suggests that in nature feeding on certain chemicals increases mating success (see White, 2000, for a review).

                                                                [Erratum: In previous versions of this datasheet, it was stated that “many Bactrocera spp. can fly 50-100 km (Fletcher, 1989)” but a review of Fletcher (1989a) and Fletcher (1989b) by Hicks et al. (2019) found no evidence to support this statement and it has been removed. Fletcher (1989b) provides dispersal data for only 11 of 651 species of Bactrocera, many of the case studies lack the necessary numerical data, and the study did not discern between active flight and passive wind-assisted dispersal. There are differences among fruit fly species and further studies are required to determine dispersal distances for individual species. For further information on trapping Bactrocera species to monitor movement, see Weldon et al. (2014).]

                                                                Climate

                                                                Top of page
                                                                ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
                                                                Af - Tropical rainforest climate Tolerated > 60mm precipitation per month
                                                                Am - Tropical monsoon climate Tolerated Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
                                                                Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
                                                                BS - Steppe climate Preferred > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
                                                                Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

                                                                Latitude/Altitude Ranges

                                                                Top of page
                                                                Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
                                                                23 23

                                                                Air Temperature

                                                                Top of page
                                                                Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
                                                                Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) 6 0
                                                                Mean annual temperature (ºC) 23 32
                                                                Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 30 35
                                                                Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 16 26

                                                                Rainfall

                                                                Top of page
                                                                ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
                                                                Dry season duration36number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
                                                                Mean annual rainfall2502620mm; lower/upper limits

                                                                Rainfall Regime

                                                                Top of page
                                                                Bimodal
                                                                Summer
                                                                Uniform
                                                                Winter

                                                                Natural enemies

                                                                Top of page
                                                                Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
                                                                Biosteres angaleti Parasite Arthropods|Larvae Hawaii vegetables
                                                                Biosteres arisanus Parasite
                                                                Biosteres dacusii Parasite Guam; Hawaii; Mariana Islands fruits; vegetables
                                                                Biosteres longicaudatus Parasite Arthropods|Larvae Hawaii vegetables
                                                                Diachasmimorpha hageni Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
                                                                Diachasmimorpha tryoni Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
                                                                Dirhinus anthracia Parasite Arthropods|Pupae
                                                                Dirhinus anthracina Parasite Arthropods|Pupae
                                                                Doryctobracon areolatus Parasite Hawaii vegetables
                                                                Opius fletcheri Parasite Arthropods|Larvae Guam; Hawaii; Mariana Islands; Ryukyu Archipelago Cucurbitaceae; fruits; vegetables
                                                                Opius humilis Parasite Guam; Mariana Islands fruits; vegetables
                                                                Orius sauteri Predator
                                                                Psyttalia incisi Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
                                                                Spalangia endius Parasite Arthropods|Pupae Sri Lanka gourds
                                                                Spalangia hirta Parasite Arthropods|Pupae
                                                                Steinernema carpocapsae Parasite
                                                                Tetrastichus dacicida Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
                                                                Tetrastichus giffardianus Parasite Arthropods|Larvae

                                                                Notes on Natural Enemies

                                                                Top of page

                                                                Bactrocera spp. can be attacked as larvae either by parasitoids or by vertebrates eating fruit (either on the tree or as fallen fruit). Mortality due to vertebrate fruit consumption can be very high as can puparial mortality in the soil, either due to predation or environmental mortality (see White and Elson-Harris, 1994, for a brief review). Parasitoids appear to have little effect on the populations of most fruit flies and Fletcher (1987) noted that 0-30% levels of parasitism are typical. To date there are no records of complete biological control which, in the classical sense, has never been achieved for any Bactrocera or Dacus spp. (Wharton, 1989). Releases of Opius spp., Biosteres spp. and an un-named Spalangia sp. in Hawaii (Clausen, 1978) may have been expected to have some impact on B. cucurbitae as well as Bactrocera dorsalis. Biological control programmes can result in significant reduction in pest populations, and such reductions have led to relatively pest-free cultivation of at least some less susceptible varieties of fruits and vegetables.

                                                                Due to difficulties in verifying the identifications of both parasitoids and (in some cases) the fruit fly hosts, no attempt has been made to catalogue all natural enemy records; see White and Elson-Harris (1994) for major sources. No comprehensive list of parasitoid records is given here; the list under Natural Enemies was extracted from Wharton and Gilstrap (1983) and Waterhouse (1993).

                                                                Pathway Causes

                                                                Top of page
                                                                CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
                                                                Crop production Yes Yes
                                                                HitchhikerSeychelles Yes Yes
                                                                Horticulture Yes Yes
                                                                Live food or feed tradeNorthern Mariana Islands Yes Yes Waterhouse (1993)
                                                                Smuggling Yes Yes

                                                                Pathway Vectors

                                                                Top of page
                                                                VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
                                                                AircraftMost frequently eggs and larvae inside fruit Yes Yes
                                                                Bulk freight or cargoAll life stages Yes Yes
                                                                Clothing, footwear and possessionsFruit in case or handbag Yes
                                                                ConsumablesMost frequently eggs and larvae inside fruit Yes Yes
                                                                Containers and packaging - woodOf fruit cargo Yes
                                                                Floating vegetation and debrisMost frequently eggs and larvae inside fruit Yes Yes
                                                                Land vehiclesLess frequently pupae Yes Yes
                                                                LuggageMost frequently eggs and larvae inside fruit Yes Yes
                                                                MailMost frequently eggs and larvae inside fruit Yes Yes
                                                                Plants or parts of plantsLess frequently eggs and larvae inside stem, root or leaves Yes Yes
                                                                Soil, sand and gravelMost frequently pupae Yes Yes

                                                                Plant Trade

                                                                Top of page
                                                                Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
                                                                Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx eggs; larvae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
                                                                Fruits (inc. pods) eggs; larvae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
                                                                Growing medium accompanying plants pupae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
                                                                Leaves eggs; larvae Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
                                                                Roots eggs; larvae Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
                                                                Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches eggs; larvae Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
                                                                Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
                                                                Bark
                                                                Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
                                                                Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
                                                                True seeds (inc. grain)
                                                                Wood

                                                                Impact Summary

                                                                Top of page
                                                                CategoryImpact
                                                                Economic/livelihood Negative
                                                                Environment (generally) Negative
                                                                Human health Negative

                                                                Impact

                                                                Top of page

                                                                B. cucurbitae is a very serious pest of cucurbit crops throughout its native range (tropical Asia) and in introduced areas such as the Hawaiian Islands. Damage levels can be anything up to 100% of unprotected fruit.

                                                                Economic Impact

                                                                Top of page

                                                                Economic impacts result from quarantine restrictions imposed by important domestic and foreign export markets and from direct yield losses from infested fruit. B. cucurbitae is a major pest of cucurbitaceous vegetables and requires costly quarantine restrictions and eradication measures. A relevant example to cite is in Japan, where B. cucurbitae and oriental fruit flies have cost the equivalent of more than 200 million Euros to eradicate from the Ryukyu Islands (Kiritani, 1998).

                                                                Environmental Impact

                                                                Top of page

                                                                Due to the competition for food, B. cucurbitae may displace other less aggressive fruit fly species. Duyck et al. (2004) suggested that the r–K gradient could be used as a predictor of the potential invasive capacity of a species. Species with type K-demographic strategy traits, such as species of the genus Bactrocera, would be adapted for competition in saturated habitats. Duyck et al. (2004) reported that in all recorded cases, species further along the r–K gradient, such as Bactrocera dorsalis have invaded over r-selected species, such as Ceratitis capitata, but never the reverse.

                                                                Impact: Biodiversity

                                                                Top of page

                                                                The environmental impact is rated as high because the establishment of B. cucurbitae would likely trigger the initiation of chemical and/or biological control programmes. Chemical control would harm native insects and species of conservation significance.

                                                                Social Impact

                                                                Top of page

                                                                Human health and tourism may be affected if plantations treated with insecticides are close to habitat and touristic resorts. However, the risk is very low because local protein bait spray and male annihilation techniques are the most common methods used for the management of B. cucurbitae.

                                                                Risk and Impact Factors

                                                                Top of page
                                                                Invasiveness
                                                                • Invasive in its native range
                                                                • Proved invasive outside its native range
                                                                • Abundant in its native range
                                                                • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
                                                                • Highly mobile locally
                                                                • Long lived
                                                                • Fast growing
                                                                • Has high reproductive potential
                                                                Impact outcomes
                                                                • Host damage
                                                                • Negatively impacts agriculture
                                                                • Transportation disruption
                                                                Impact mechanisms
                                                                • Competition - monopolizing resources
                                                                • Pest and disease transmission
                                                                Likelihood of entry/control
                                                                • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
                                                                • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
                                                                • Highly likely to be transported internationally illegally
                                                                • Difficult to identify/detect in the field
                                                                • Difficult/costly to control

                                                                Detection and Inspection

                                                                Top of page

                                                                Fruits (locally grown or samples of fruit imports) should be inspected for puncture marks and any associated necrosis. Suspect fruits should be cut open and checked for larvae. Larval identification is difficult, so if time allows, mature larvae should be transferred to sawdust (or a similar dry medium) to allow pupariation. Upon emergence, adult flies must be fed with sugar and water for several days to allow hardening and full colour to develop, before they can be identified. Detection is described under Control, Early Warning Systems.

                                                                For more information, see Invasive Fruit Fly Pests in Africa (Meyer et al., 2007).

                                                                Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

                                                                Top of page

                                                                B. cucurbitae is easily separated from most other Bactrocera and Dacus spp. by the combination of the coloured mark across the dm-cu crossvein (seen with the unaided eye as a reddish mark across the posterior half of the wing about one-third from wing apex), combined with the general reddish coloured body, and three bright yellow longitudinal vittae (stripes) on the scutum (dorsum of thorax). In addition, about 95% of individuals have only two setae on the scutellum margin, which is a rare feature in species with three vittae on the scutum. Larger than the house fly (wing length 4.2-7.1 mm).

                                                                Minimum characters to differentiate from all other Bactrocera and Dacus spp. (White and Hancock, 1997): face with a dark spot in each antennal furrow; scutum red-brown; has prescutellar acrostichal setae; fore femora pale basally, red-brown apically; wing with isolated mark along dm-cu crossvein.

                                                                Prevention and Control

                                                                Top of page

                                                                Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

                                                                Biological Control
                                                                 

                                                                Some benefit from biological control has been claimed in Hawaii and the Ryukyu Islands, Japan (Clausen, 1978).

                                                                Regulatory Control
                                                                 

                                                                Many countries, such as the mainland USA, forbid the import of susceptible fruit without strict post-harvest treatment having been applied by the exporter. This may involve fumigation, heat treatment (hot vapour or hot water), cold treatments, insecticidal dipping, or irradiation (Armstrong and Couey, 1989). Irradiation is not accepted in most countries and fumigation is a hazardous operation. Heat treatment tends to reduce the shelf life of most fruits and so the most effective method of regulatory control is to preferentially restrict imports of a given fruit to areas free of fruit fly attack.

                                                                Cultural Control and Sanitary Methods

                                                                 

                                                                One of the most effective control techniques against fruit flies in general is to wrap fruit, either in newspaper, a paper bag, or in the case of long/thin cucurbits, a polythene sleeve. This is a simple physical barrier to oviposition, but it has to be applied well before the fruit is attacked. Little data is available on the attack time for most fruits, but few Bactrocera spp. attack prior to ripening.

                                                                Choice of planting time has also been used to help in control, for example, in India, summer-sown cucumber had a higher yield than October-sown plants (Borah, 1996). There is also some evidence that varietal resistance can be employed as a control strategy (Tewatia and Dhankhar, 1996).

                                                                Chemical Control

                                                                 

                                                                Although cover sprays of entire crops are sometimes used, the use of bait sprays is both more economical and more environmentally acceptable. A bait spray consists of a suitable insecticide (e.g. malathion) mixed with a protein bait. Both males and females of fruit flies are attracted to protein sources emanating ammonia and so insecticides can be applied to just a few spots in an orchard and the flies will be attracted to these spots. The protein most widely used is hydrolysed protein, but some supplies of this are acid hydrolysed and so highly phytotoxic. Smith and Nannan (1988) have developed a system using autolysed protein. In Malaysia this has been developed into a very effective commercial product derived from brewery waste.

                                                                There has been some recent work on the efficacy of entomopathogenic fungi to B. cucurbitae larvae (Purnima-Sinha and Saxena, 1998; 1999), but it is not clear how this could be applied without causing fruit spoilage. Tests have also shown that neem (Azadirachta indica) seed kernel extracts can be used as an oviposition deterrent (Shivendra-Singh and Singh, 1998).

                                                                Sterile Insect Technique

                                                                 

                                                                Sterile insect technique has been used to eradicate B. cucurbitae from the southern islands of Japan (Shiga, 1989 and unpublished notices at symposia).

                                                                Male Suppression/Annihilation
                                                                 

                                                                The males of most pest species of Bactrocera are attracted to either cue lure (4-(p-acetoxyphenyl)-2-butanone) or to methyl eugenol (4-allyl-1,2-dimethoxybenzene). Males of B. cucurbitae are attracted to cue lure, sometimes in very large numbers. On a small scale many farmers use male suppression as a control technique; however, with flies attracted over a few hundred metres the traps may be responsible for increasing the fly level (at least of males) on a crop as much as for reducing it. However, the technique has been used as an eradication technique (male annihilation), in combination with bait spraying (an area of the Solomon Islands, Eta, 1986).

                                                                Early Warning Systems
                                                                 

                                                                Many countries that are free of Bactrocera spp., for example, USA (California and Florida) and New Zealand, maintain a grid of methyl eugenol and cue lure traps, at least in high risk areas (ports and airports) if not around the entire climatically suitable area. The trap used will usually be modelled on the Steiner trap (White and Elson-Harris, 1994).

                                                                Field Monitoring
                                                                 

                                                                Monitoring is largely carried out by traps set in areas of infestation. However, there is evidence that some fruit flies have different host preferences in different parts of their range and host fruit surveys should also be considered as part of the monitoring process.

                                                                Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

                                                                Top of page

                                                                The following areas are in need of research:

                                                                • a study of the potential distribution of B. cucurbitae based on the CLIMEX model
                                                                   
                                                                • in contrast to Oriental fruit fly complex, B. cucurbitae has not been extensively studied taxonomically
                                                                   
                                                                • the native origin needs to be determined with modern molecular genetic tools
                                                                   
                                                                • the genetic aspects of the invasion process of B. cucurbitae have remained relatively unexplored
                                                                   
                                                                • an investigation into the population structure and genetic variability.

                                                                References

                                                                Top of page

                                                                Allwood AJ, Chinajariyawong A, Kritsaneepaiboon S, Drew RAI, Hamacek EL, Hancock DL, Hengsawad C, Jipanin JC, Jirasurat M, Krong CK, Leong CTS, Vijaysegaran S, 1999. Host plant records for fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Southeast Asia. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, 47(Supplement 7):1-92; 26 ref

                                                                Amandeep Kaur, Sohal, S. K., Rajbir Singh, Saroj Arora, 2010. Development inhibitory effect of Acacia auriculiformis extracts on Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera:Tephritidae). Journal of Biopesticides, 3(2), 499-504. http://www.jbiopest.com

                                                                Amin, M. R., Tules Sarkar, Chun IkJo, 2011. Comparison of host plants infestation level and life history of fruit fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett) on cucurbitaceous crops. Horticulture, Environment and Biotechnology, 52(5), 541-545. doi: 10.1007/s13580-011-0036-5

                                                                APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Technical Document No. 135. Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA)

                                                                Armstrong JW, 1983. Infestation biology of three fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) species on 'Brazilian', 'Valery', and William's' cultivars of banana in Hawaii. Journal of Economic Entomology, 76(3):539-543

                                                                Armstrong JW, Couey HM, 1989. Control; fruit disinfestation; fumigation, heat and cold. In: Robinson AS, Hooper G, eds. Fruit Flies; their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. World Crop Pests. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, 3(B):411-424

                                                                Armstrong JW, Mitchell WC, Farias GJ, 1983. Resistance of 'Sharwil' avocados at harvest maturity to infestation by three fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii. Journal of Economic Entomology, 76(1):119-121

                                                                Armstrong JW, Vargas RI, 1982. Resistance of pineapple variety '59-656' to field populations of oriental fruit flies and melon flies (Diptera: Tephritidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 75(5):781-782

                                                                Armstrong JW, Vriesenga JD, Lee CYL, 1979. Resistance of pineapple varieties D-10 and D-20 to field populations of oriental fruit flies and melon flies. Journal of Economic Entomology, 72(1):6-7

                                                                AVA, 2001. Diagnostic records of the Plant Health Diagnostic Services, Plant Health Centre, Agri-food & Veterinary Authority, Singapore

                                                                Back EA, Pemberton CE, 1914. Life history of the melon fly. Journal of Agricultural Research, 3:269-274

                                                                Badii, K. B., Billah, M. K., Afreh-Nuamah, K., Obeng-Ofori, D., 2015. Species composition and host range of fruit-infesting flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in northern Ghana. International Journal of Tropical Insect Science, 35(3), 137-151. http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayJournal?jid=JTI

                                                                Baker RT, Cowley JM, 1991. A New Zealand view of quarantine security with special reference to fruit flies, In: Vijaysegaran S, Ibrahim AG, eds. First International Symposium on Fruit Flies in the Tropics, Kuala Lumpur, 1988. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute, 396-408

                                                                Bakri A, 2001. The Sterile Insect Technique: Example of Application to Melon Fly Bactrocera cucurbitae. International database on Insect Disinfestation and Sterilization (IDIDAS). Vienna, Austria: International Atomic Energy Agency. http://www-ididas.iaea.org/ididas/

                                                                Batra HN, 1964. The population, behaviour, host specificity and development potential of fruit flies bred at constant temperature in winter. Indian Journal of Entomology, 26:195-206

                                                                Bhatia SK, Mahto Y, 1968. Notes on breeding of fruit flies Dacus ciliatus Loew and D. cucurbitae Coquillett in stem galls of Coccinia indica W. & A. Indian Journal of Entomology, 30:244-245

                                                                Borah RK, 1996. Influence of sowing seasons and varieties on the infestation of fruitfly Bactrocera cucurbitae (Dacus cucurbitae) in cucumber in the hill zone of Assam. Indian Journal of Entomology, 58(4):382-383; 3 ref

                                                                CABI/EPPO, 1998. Distribution maps of quarantine pests for Europe (edited by Smith IM, Charles LMF). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, xviii + 768 pp

                                                                CABI/EPPO, 2003. Bactrocera cucurbitae. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, No. 64. Wallingford, UK: CAB International

                                                                Carey JR, Dowell RV, 1989. Exotic fruit pests and California agriculture. California Agriculture, 43(3):38-40

                                                                Christenson LD, Foote RH, 1960. Biology of fruit flies. Annual Review of Entomology, 5:171-192

                                                                Clausen CP, 1978. Tephritidae (Trypetidae, Trupaneidae), In: Clausen CP, ed. Introduced Parasites and Predators of Arthropod Pests and Weeds: A World Review. Agricultural Handbook, United States Department of Agriculture, 480:320-335

                                                                Clausen, C. P., Clancy, D. W., Chock, Q. C., 1965. Biological control of the oriental fruit fly (Dacus dorsalis Hendel) and other fruit flies in Hawaii. Technical Bulletin. United States Department of Agriculture, 1322, 102 pp.

                                                                Dhillon MK, Singh R, Naresh JS, Sharma HC, 2005.

                                                                Drew RAI, 1982. I. Taxonomy, In: Drew RAI, Hooper, GHS, Bateman MA, eds. Economic Fruit Flies of the South Pacific Region. 2nd ed. Brisbane, Australia: Queensland Department of Primary Industries, 1-97

                                                                Duyck PF, David P, Quilici S, 2004. A review of relationships between interspecific competition and invasions in fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae). Ecological Entomology, 29(5):511-520

                                                                EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

                                                                Eta CR, 1986. Review eradication of the melonfly from Shortland Islands, Western Province, Solomon Islands. Solomon Islands, Agriculture Quarantine Service, 1985 annual report Honiara, Solomon Islands; Agriculture Quarantine Service, 14-23

                                                                FAO/IAEA, 2003. Trapping Guidelines for area-wide fruit fly programmes. Vienna, Austria: International Atomic Energy Agency, 47 pp

                                                                Fletcher BS, 1987. The biology of dacine fruit flies. Annual Review of Entomology, 32:115-144

                                                                Fletcher BS, 1989. Ecology; life history strategies of tephritid fruit flies, In: Robinson AS, Hooper G, eds. Fruit Flies; their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. World Crop Pests. Amsterdam, Holland: Elsevier, 3(B):195-208

                                                                Fletcher BS, 1989. Movements of tephritid fruit flies. In: Fruit Flies; their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. World Crop Pests [ed. by Robinson, A. S., Hooper, G.]. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier Science Publishers, 209-219

                                                                Follett, P. A., Armstrong, J. W., Zee, F. T., 2009. Host status of blueberry to invasive tephritid fruit flies in Hawaii. Journal of Economic Entomology, 102(5), 1859-1863. doi: 10.1603/029.102.0516

                                                                Foote RH, Blanc FL, Norrbom AL, 1993. Handbook of the Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) of America North of Mexico. Ithaca, USA: Comstock

                                                                Gogi, M. D., Ashfaq, M., Arif, M. J., Sarfraz, R. M., Nawab, N. N., 2010. Investigating phenotypic structures and allelochemical compounds of the fruits of Momordica charantia L. genotypes as sources of resistance against Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Crop Protection, 29(8), 884-890. doi: 10.1016/j.cropro.2010.03.014

                                                                Gogi, M. D., Muhammad Ashfaq, Arif, M. J., Khan, M. A., 2009. Screening of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) germplasm for sources of resistance against melon fruit fly Bactrocera cucurbitae in Pakistan. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 11(6), 746-750. http://www.fspublishers.org/

                                                                Gupta, J. N., Verma, A. N., 1978. Screening of different cucurbit crops for the attack of the melon fruit fly, Dacus cucurbitae Coquillet (Diptera: Tephritidae). Haryana Journal of Horticultural Sciences, 7(1/2), 78-82.

                                                                Hardy DE, 1948. New host of melon fly, In: Notes and Exhibitions (November 9, 1948). Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society, 13:339

                                                                Hardy, D. E., Adachi, M. S., 1954. Studies in the Fruit Flies of the Philippine Islands, Indonesia, and Malaya Part 1. Dacini (Tephritidae-Diptera). PACIFIC SCIENCE, 8, 147-204. https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/5098554.pdf

                                                                Harris, E. J., Bautista, R. C., Vargas, R. I., Jang, E. B., Eitam, A., Leblanc, L., 2010. Suppression of melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations with releases of Fopius arisanus and Psyttalia fletcheri (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in North Shore Oahu, HI, USA. BioControl, 55(5), 593-599. doi: 10.1007/s10526-010-9282-1

                                                                Hicks, C. B., Bloem, K., Pallipparambil, G. R., Hartzog, H. M., 2019. Reported Long-Distance Flight of the Invasive Oriental Fruit Fly and Its Trade Implications. In: Area-Wide Management of Fruit Fly Pests, [ed. by Perez-Staples, D., Diaz-Fleischer, F., Montoya, P., Vera, M. T.]. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. 9-25. https://www.taylorfrancis.com/books/9780429355738/chapters/10.1201/9780429355738-2

                                                                IPPC, 2014. Transient incursions of exotic Bactrocera species in Torres Strait. IPPC Official Pest Report, No. AUS-61/1. Rome, Italy: FAO. https://www.ippc.int/

                                                                Iwahashi, O., Ito, Y., Zukeyama, H., Yogi, Y., 1976. A progress report on the sterile insect releases of the melon fly, Dacus cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae) on Kume Is., Okinawa. Applied Entomology and Zoology, 11(3), 182-193.

                                                                Jacquard, C., Virgilio, M., David, P., Quilici, S., Meyer, M. de, Delatte, H., 2013. Population structure of the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, in Reunion Island. Biological Invasions, 15(4), 759-773. doi: 10.1007/s10530-012-0324-8

                                                                Jaiswal JP, Gurung TB, Pandey RR, 1997. Findings of melon fruit fly control survey and its integrated management, 1996/97. Working-Paper, Lumle Agricultural Research Centre, No. 97-53. Kaski, Nepal: Lumle Agricultural Research Centre, 12 pp

                                                                Kate, A. O., Bharodia, R. K., Joshi, M. D., Paradeshi, A. M., Makadia, R. R., 2010. Efficacy of various insecticides against fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillet) infesting cucumber. International Journal of Plant Protection, 3(1), 80-82. http://www.hindagrihorticulturalsociety.co.in

                                                                Kiritani K, 1998. Exotic insects in Japan. Entomological Science, 1(3):291-298

                                                                Knight J, 2003. Trouble in paradise - the eradication of an alien invader. AAB News, 52:89

                                                                Koyama J, Kakinohana H, Miyatake T, 2004. Eradication of the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, in Japan: importance of behavior, ecology, genetics, and evolution. Annual Review of Entomology, 49:331-349

                                                                Leblanc L, 1997. Fruit fly fauna in Federated States of Micronesia, Guam, Palua, Kiribati, Northern Marianas and Marshall Islands, In: Allwood AJ, Drew RAI (eds), Management of Fruit Flies in the Pacific. A Regional Symposium, Nadi, Fiji. ACIAR Proceedings, 76:64-67

                                                                Lee HS, 1972. A study on the ecology of melon fly. Plant Protection Bulletin, Taiwan, 14(4):175-182

                                                                Liang GQ, Hancock DL, Xu W, Liang F, 1993. Notes on the Dacinae of southern China (Diptera: Tephritidae). Journal of the Australian Entomological Society, 32:137-140

                                                                Mcbride, O. C. , Tanada, Y. , 1949. A revised List of Host Plants of the Melon Fly [Dacus cucurbitae Coq.] in Hawaii. Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society, 13(3), 411-421 pp.

                                                                McQuate GT, Follett PA, Liquido NJ, Sylva CD, 2015. Assessment of navel oranges, Clementine tangerines, and rutaceous fruits as hosts of Bactrocera cucurbitae and Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae). International Journal of Insect Science, 7:1-9. http://www.la-press.com/assessment-of-navel-oranges-clementine-tangerines-and-rutaceous-fruits-article-a4634

                                                                McQuate, G. T., Teruya, T., 2015. Melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae), infestation in host fruits in the Southwestern Islands of Japan before the initiation of island-wide population suppression, as recorded in publications of Japanese public institutions. International Journal of Insect Science, 7, 27-37. http://www.la-press.com/melon-fly-bactrocera-cucurbitae-diptera-tephritidae-infestation-in-hos-article-a4884

                                                                Meyer M De, Mohamed S, White IM, 2007. Invasive fruit fly pests in Africa. Tervuren, Belgium: Royal Museum for Central Africa. http://www.africamuseum.be/fruitfly/AfroAsia.htm

                                                                Msaidie Kassim, Soilihi AM, 2000. Fruit flies in the Federal Islamic Republic of the Comoros. Proceedings of the Indian Ocean Commission, Regional Fruit Fly Symposium, Flic en Flac, Mauritius, 5th-9th June, 2000, 71-72

                                                                Munro HK, 1984. A taxonomic treatise on the Dacidae (Tephritoidea, Diptera) of Africa. Entomology Memoir, Department of Agriculture and Water Supply, South Africa, No. 61:ix + 313 pp

                                                                Mwatawala, M., Maerere, A. P., Makundi, R., Meyer, M. de, 2010. Incidence and host range of the melon fruit fly Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Central Tanzania. International Journal of Pest Management, 56(3), 265-273. doi: 10.1080/09670871003596792

                                                                Nakagawa, S., Farias, G. J., Urago, T., 1968. Newly recognized hosts of the oriental fruit fly, melon fly, and Mediterranean fruit fly. Journal of Economic Entomology, 61(1), 339-340 pp. doi: 10.1093/jee/61.1.339

                                                                NAPPO, 2010. Phytosanitary Alert System: Bactrocera cucurbitae (Melon Fruit Fly) - Establishment of a quarantine area in Kern, California. NAPPO. http://www.pestalert.org/oprDetail.cfm?oprID=453

                                                                Nath, P., Bhushan, S., 2006. Screening of cucurbit crops against fruit fly. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences, 14(2), 472-473. http://www.indianjournals.com/ijor.aspx?target=ijor:apps&type=home

                                                                Purnima Sinha, Saxena SK, 1998. Effect of culture filtrate of three fungi in different combinations on the development of Dacus cucurbitae in vitro. Indian Phytopathology, 51(4):361-362; 3 ref

                                                                Purnima Sinha, Saxena SK, 1999. Effect of culture filtrates of three fungi in different combination on the development of the fruit fly, Dacus cucurbitae Coq. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences, 7(1):96-99; 2 ref

                                                                Ramsamy MP, Rawanansham T, Joomaye A, 1987. Studies on the control of Dacus cucurbitae Coquillet and Dacus d'emmerezi Bezzi (Diptera: Tephritidae) by male annihilation. Revue Agricole et Sucriere de l'Ile Maurice, 66(1-3):105-114

                                                                Ranganath HR, Suryanarayana MA, Veenakumari K, 1997. Management of melon fly (Bactrocera (Zeugodacus) cucurbitae Coquillett) in cucurbits in South Andaman. Insect Environment, 3(2):32-33; 1 ref

                                                                Ranganath, H. R., Kumari, K, Raj, S. M., 1999. Brassica caulorapa (Brassicaceae) - A Host of the Melon Fly. Insect Environment, 5(1), 12-13. https://eurekamag.com/research/003/056/003056387.php

                                                                Ravi KC, Puttaswamy, Viraktamath CA, Mallik B, 1998. Seasonal incidence of insect pests of gherkins Cucumis anguria L. In: Reddy PP, Kumar NKK, Verghese A, eds. Advances in IPM for horticultural crops. Proceedings of the First National Symposium on Pest Management in Horticultural Crops: environmental implications and thrusts, Bangalore, India, 15-17 October, 1997. Association for Advancement of Pest Management in Horticultural Ecosystems. Bangalore, India: Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, 132-134

                                                                Schotman CYL, 1989. Plant pests of quarantine importance to the Caribbean. RLAC-PROVEG, No. 21:80 pp

                                                                Shelly TE, Villalobos EM, 1995. Cue lure and the mating behavior of male melon flies (Diptera: Tephritidae). Florida Entomologist, 78(3):473-482

                                                                Shiga M, 1989. Control; sterile insect technique (SIT); current programme in Japan, In: Robinson AS, Hooper G, eds. Fruit flies; their biology, natural enemies and control. World Crop Pests. Amsterdam, Holland: Elsevier, 3(B):365-374

                                                                Shivendra Singh, Singh RP, 1998. Neem (Azadirachta indica) seed kernel extracts and azadirachtin as oviposition deterrents against the melon fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae) and the oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis). Phytoparasitica, 26(3):191-197; 31 ref

                                                                Smith D, Nannan L, 1988. Yeast autolysate bait sprays for control of Queensland fruit fly on passionfruit in Queensland. Queensland Journal of Agricultural and Animal Sciences, 45(2):169-177

                                                                Somta, C., Winotai, A., Ooi, P. A. C., 2010. Fruit flies reared from Terminalia catappa in Thailand. Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology, 13(1), 27-30. doi: 10.1016/j.aspen.2009.09.003

                                                                Tenakanai D, 1997, Fruit fly fauna in Papua New Guinea, In: Allwood AJ, Drew RAI, eds. Management of Fruit Flies in the Pacific. A Regional Symposium, Nadi, Fiji. ACIAR Proceedings, 76:87-94

                                                                Tewatia AS, Dhankhar BS, 1996. Inheritance of resistance to melon fruitfly (Bactrocera cucurbitae) in bitter gourd (Momordica charantia). Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 66(10):617-620; 20 ref

                                                                Tsuruta K, White IM, Bandara HMJ, Rajapakse H, Sundaraperuma SAH, Kahawatta SBMUC, Rajapakse GBJP, 1997. A preliminary note on the host-plants of fruit flies of the tribe Dacini (Diptera, Tephritidae) in Sri Lanka. Esakia, No. 37:149-160; 7 ref

                                                                Umeh VC, Garcia LE, Meyer Mde, 2008. Fruit flies of sweet oranges in Nigeria: species diversity, relative abundance and spread in major producing areas. Fruits (Paris), 63(3):145-153. http://www.fruits-journal.org/

                                                                Vagalo M, Hollingsworth R, Tsatsia F, 1997. Fruit fly fauna in Solomon Islands, In: Allwood AJ, Drew RAI, eds. Management of Fruit Flies in the Pacific. A Regional Symposium, Nadi, Fiji. ACIAR Proceedings, 76:81-86

                                                                Vayssières JF, Rey JY, Traoré L, 2007. Distribution and host plants of Bactrocera cucurbitae in West and Central Africa. Fruits (Paris), 62(6):391-396. http://www.edpsciences.org/fruits/

                                                                Vueti ET, Allwood AJ, Leweniqila L, Ralulu L, Balawakula A, Malau A, Sales F, Peleti K, 1997. Fruit fly fauna in Fiji, Tuvalu, Wallis and Futuna, Tokelau and Nauru, In: Allwood AJ, Drew RAI (eds), Management of Fruit Flies in the Pacific. A Regional Symposium, Nadi, Fiji. ACIAR Proceedings, 76:60-63

                                                                Waterhouse DF, 1993. Biological control: Pacific prospects - supplement 2. Canberra, Australia: ACIAR, 138 pp

                                                                Waterhouse DF, 1993. The Major Arthropod Pests and Weeds of Agriculture in Southeast Asia. ACIAR Monograph No. 21. Canberra, Australia: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, 141 pp

                                                                Weems HV, 1964. Melon fly (Dacus cucurbitae Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Entomology Circular, Division of Plant Industry, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, (29):1-2

                                                                Weldon CW, Schutze MK, Karsten M, 2014. Trapping to monitor tephritid movement: results, best practice, and assessment of alternatives. In: Trapping and the detection, control, and regulation of Tephritid fruit flies: lures, aarea-wide programs, and trade implications [ed. by Shelly T, Epsky N, Jang EB, Reyes-Flores J, Vargas R]. New York, USA: Springer, 175-217

                                                                Wharton RA, Gilstrap FE, 1983. Key to and status of opiine braconid (Hymenoptera) parasitoids used in biological control of Ceratitis and Dacus s.l. (Diptera: Tephritidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 76(4):721-742

                                                                Wharton RH, 1989. Control; classical biological control of fruit-infesting Tephritidae, In: Robinson AS, Hooper G, eds. Fruit Flies; their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. World Crop Pests 3(B). Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, 303-313

                                                                White IM, 1999. Morphological Features of the Dacini (Diptera, Tephritidae): their Significance to Behavior and Classification. In: Norrbom AL, Aluja M, eds., Fruit Flies (Tephritidae): Phylogeny and Evolution of Behavior. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press

                                                                White IM, Elson-Harris MM, 1994. Fruit Flies of Economic Significance. Their Identification and Bionomics. Wallingford, UK: CAB International

                                                                White IM, Hancock DL, 1997. CABIKEY to the Dacini (Diptera, Tephritidae) of the Asian, Pacific and Australasian Regions. Wallingford, UK: CAB International

                                                                Wong, T. T. Y., Cunningham, R. T., McInnis, D. O., Gilmore, J. E., 1989. Seasonal distribution and abundance of Dacus cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Rota, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. Environmental Entomology, 18(6), 1079-1082. doi: 10.1093/ee/18.6.1079

                                                                Yong, H. S., 1992. Allozyme variation in the melon fly Dacus cucurbitae (Insecta: Diptera: Tephritidae) from Peninsular Malaysia. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. B, Comparative Biochemistry, 102(2), 367-370.

                                                                Distribution References

                                                                Agboton C, Onzo A, Ouessou F I, Goergen G, Vidal S, Tamò M, 2014. Insect fauna associated with Anacardium occidentale (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) in Benin, West Africa. Journal of Insect Science (Annapolis). 14 (229), 1-11. http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1093/jisesa/ieu091

                                                                Ali S A I, Mohamed S A, Mahmoud M E E, Sabiel S A I, Ali S, Ali A, 2014. Monitoring of Tephritidae of fruit trees and their level of infestation in South Kordofan State, Sudan. International Journal of Agriculture Innovations and Research. 2 (5), 687-693. http://www.ijair.org/administrator/components/com_jresearch/files/publications/IJAIR_513_Final.pdf

                                                                Armstrong J W, Silva S T, Shishido V M, 1995. Quarantine cold treatment for Hawaiian carambola fruit infested with Mediterranean fruit fly, melon fly, or oriental fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) eggs and larvae. Journal of Economic Entomology. 88 (3), 683-687. DOI:10.1093/jee/88.3.683

                                                                AVA, 2001. Diagnostic records of the Plant Health Diagnostic Services., Singapore, Plant Health Centre Agri-food & Veterinary Authority.

                                                                Badii K B, Billah M K, Afreh-Nuamah K, Obeng-Ofori D, 2015. Species composition and host range of fruit-infesting flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in northern Ghana. International Journal of Tropical Insect Science. 35 (3), 137-151. http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayJournal?jid=JTI

                                                                Baker RT, Cowley JM, 1991. A New Zealand view of quarantine security with special reference to fruit flies. In: First International Symposium on Fruit Flies in the Tropics, Kuala Lumpur, 1988, [ed. by Vijaysegaran S, Ibrahim AG]. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute. 396-408.

                                                                Bellis G A, Brito A A, Jesus H de, Quintao V, Sarmento J C, Bere A, Rodrigues J, Hancock D L, 2017. A preliminary account of the fruit fly fauna of Timor-Leste (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacinae). Zootaxa. 4362 (3), 421-432. http://www.mapress.com/j/zt/article/view/zootaxa.4362.3.6 DOI:10.11646/zootaxa.4362.3.6

                                                                Boontop Y, Schutze M K, Clarke A R, Cameron S L, Krosch M N, 2017. Signatures of invasion: using an integrative approach to infer the spread of melon fly, Zeugodacus cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae), across Southeast Asia and the West Pacific. Biological Invasions. 19 (5), 1597-1619. DOI:10.1007/s10530-017-1382-8

                                                                CABI, EPPO, 2003. Bactrocera cucurbitae. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Map 64. DOI:10.1079/DMPP/20066600064

                                                                CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

                                                                CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

                                                                Chua T H, Chong YiVern, Lim SawHoon, 2010. Species determination of Malaysian Bactrocera pests using PCR-RFLP analyses (Diptera: Tephritidae). Pest Management Science. 66 (4), 379-384. http://www.interscience.wiley.com/pestmanagementscience

                                                                Clausen C P, Clancy D W, Chock Q C, 1965. Biological control of the oriental fruit fly (Dacus dorsalis Hendel) and other fruit flies in Hawaii. Technical Bulletin. United States Department of Agriculture. 102 pp.

                                                                Dhillon M K, Singh R, Naresh J S, Sharma H C, 2005. The melon fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae: A review of its biology and management. Journal of Insect Science. 40.

                                                                Drew RAI, 1982. I. Taxonomy. In: Economic Fruit Flies of the South Pacific Region, [ed. by Drew RAI, Hooper GHS, Bateman MA]. Brisbane, Australia: Queensland Department of Primary Industries. 1-97.

                                                                Elfekih S, Chen ChienYu, Hsu JuChun, Belcaid M, Haymer D, 2016. Identification and preliminary characterization of chemosensory perception-associated proteins in the melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae using RNA-seq. Scientific Reports. 6 (1), 19112. http://www.nature.com/articles/srep19112

                                                                EPPO, 2014. EPPO Global database (available online). Paris, France: EPPO. https://gd.eppo.int/

                                                                EPPO, 2021. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO. https://gd.eppo.int/

                                                                Follett P A, Armstrong J W, Zee F T, 2009. Host status of blueberry to invasive tephritid fruit flies in Hawaii. Journal of Economic Entomology. 102 (5), 1859-1863. DOI:10.1603/029.102.0516

                                                                Foote RH, Blanc FL, Norrbom AL, 1993. Handbook of the Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) of America North of Mexico., Ithaca, USA: Comstock.

                                                                Gogi M D, Ashfaq M, Arif M J, Sarfraz R M, Nawab N N, 2010. Investigating phenotypic structures and allelochemical compounds of the fruits of Momordica charantia L. genotypes as sources of resistance against Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Crop Protection. 29 (8), 884-890. DOI:10.1016/j.cropro.2010.03.014

                                                                Gogi M D, Muhammad Ashfaq, Arif M J, Khan M A, 2009. Screening of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) germplasm for sources of resistance against melon fruit fly Bactrocera cucurbitae in Pakistan. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology. 11 (6), 746-750. http://www.fspublishers.org/

                                                                Hardy D E, Adachi M S, 1954. Studies in the Fruit Flies of the Philippine Islands, Indonesia, and Malaya Part 1. Dacini (Tephritidae-Diptera). PACIFIC SCIENCE. 147-204. https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/5098554.pdf

                                                                Harris E J, Bautista R C, Vargas R I, Jang E B, Eitam A, Leblanc L, 2010. Suppression of melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations with releases of Fopius arisanus and Psyttalia fletcheri (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in North Shore Oahu, HI, USA. BioControl. 55 (5), 593-599. DOI:10.1007/s10526-010-9282-1

                                                                Kate A O, Bharodia R K, Joshi M D, Paradeshi A M, Makadia R R, 2010. Efficacy of various insecticides against fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillet) infesting cucumber. International Journal of Plant Protection. 3 (1), 80-82. http://www.hindagrihorticulturalsociety.co.in

                                                                Koyama J, Kakinohana H, Miyatake T, 2004. Eradication of the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, in Japan: importance of behavior, ecology, genetics, and evolution. Annual Review of Entomology. 331-349. DOI:10.1146/annurev.ento.49.061802.123224

                                                                Leblanc L, Vargas R I, Rubinoff D, 2010. Captures of pest fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) and nontarget insects in Biolure and Torula yeast traps in Hawaii. Environmental Entomology. 39 (5), 1626-1630. DOI:10.1603/EN10090

                                                                Leblanc L, Vueti E T, Drew R A I, Allwood A J, 2012. Host plant records for fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacini) in the Pacific Islands. [Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society], 44 USA: Hawaiian Entomological Society. 11-53. https://scholarspace.manoa.hawaii.edu/handle/10125/25459

                                                                Liang G Q, Hancock D L, Xu W, Liang F, 1993. Notes on the Dacinae of southern China (Diptera: Tephritidae). Journal of the Australian Entomological Society. 32 (2), 137-140.

                                                                Mathew M P, Rekha C R, Gopalakrishnan T R, 1999. New host of the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coq.). Insect Environment. 5 (3), 120.

                                                                McQuate G T, 2011. Assessment of attractiveness of cassava as a roosting plant for the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, and the Oriental fruit fly, B. dorsalis. Journal of Insect Science (Madison). Article 30. http://www.insectscience.org/11.30/i1536-2442-11-30.pdf

                                                                Meyer M De, Mohamed S, White I M, 2007. Invasive fruit fly pests in Africa. In: Invasive fruit fly pests in Africa, Tervuren, Belgium: Royal Museum for Central Africa. http://www.africamuseum.be/fruitfly/AfroAsia.htm

                                                                Msaidie Kassim, Soilihi A M, 2000. Fruit flies in the Federal Islamic Republic of the Comoros. (Les mouches des fruits à la République Fédérale Islamique des Comores.). In: Proceedings of the Indian Ocean Commission, Regional Fruit Fly Symposium, Flic en Flac, Mauritius, 5th-9th June, 2000. [ed. by Price N S, Seewooruthun I]. Quatre Bornes, Mauritius: Indian Ocean Commission. 71-72.

                                                                Munro H K, 1984. A taxonomic treatise on the Dacidae (Tephritoidea, Diptera) of Africa. In: Entomology Memoir, Department of Agriculture and Water Supply, South Africa, ix + 313 pp.

                                                                Mwatawala M, Maerere A P, Makundi R, Meyer M de, 2010. Incidence and host range of the melon fruit fly Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Central Tanzania. International Journal of Pest Management. 56 (3), 265-273. DOI:10.1080/09670871003596792

                                                                NAPPO, 2010. Phytosanitary Alert System: Bactrocera cucurbitae (Melon Fruit Fly) - Establishment of a quarantine area in Kern, California. In: Phytosanitary Alert System: Bactrocera cucurbitae (Melon Fruit Fly) - Establishment of a quarantine area in Kern, California. NAPPO. http://www.pestalert.org/oprDetail.cfm?oprID=453

                                                                Neeley A, Takeuchi Y, Liquido N J, Hennessey M K, Imai E, Redlin S, Griffin R L, Sequeira R, Hotz T, 2011. Qualitative Pathway-Initiated Risk Assessment for the Movement of Mature Green 'Sharwil' Avocado, Persea americana Mill. from Hawaii into Continental United States (Rev. 001)., 1-15. http://www.avocadosource.com/wac7/Section_03/LiquidoNicanor2011.pdf

                                                                Prabhakar C S, Pankaj Sood, Mehta P K, 2012. Fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) diversity in cucurbit fields and surrounding forest areas of Himachal Pradesh, a north-western Himalayan state of India. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection. 45 (10), 1210-1217. http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/gapp20 DOI:10.1080/03235408.2012.660612

                                                                Ramsamy M P, Rawanansham T, Joomaye A, 1987. Studies on the control of Dacus cucurbitae Coquillet and Dacus d'emmerezi Bezzi (Diptera: Tephritidae) by male annihilation. Revue Agricole et Sucrière de l'Île Maurice. 66 (1-3), 105-114.

                                                                Somta C, Winotai A, Ooi P A C, 2010. Fruit flies reared from Terminalia catappa in Thailand. Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology. 13 (1), 27-30. DOI:10.1016/j.aspen.2009.09.003

                                                                Tsuruta K, White I M, Bandara H M J, Rajapakse H, Sundaraperuma S A H, Kahawatta S B M U C, Rajapakse G B J P, 1997. A preliminary note on the host-plants of fruit flies of the tribe Dacini (Diptera, Tephritidae) in Sri Lanka. Esakia. 149-160.

                                                                Umeh V C, Garcia L E, Meyer M de, 2008. Fruit flies of sweet oranges in Nigeria: species diversity, relative abundance and spread in major producing areas. Fruits (Paris). 63 (3), 145-153. http://www.fruits-journal.org/ DOI:10.1051/fruits:2008004

                                                                Vargas R I, Mau R F L, Stark J D, Piñero J C, Leblanc L, Souder S K, 2010. Evaluation of methyl eugenol and cue-lure traps with solid lure and insecticide dispensers for fruit fly monitoring and male annihilation in the Hawaii areawide pest management program. Journal of Economic Entomology. 103 (2), 409-415. DOI:10.1603/EC09299

                                                                Vargas R I, Piñero J C, Jang E B, Mau R F L, Stark J D, Gomez L, Stoltman L, Mafra-Neto A, 2010a. Response of melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) to weathered SPLAT-Spinosad-Cue-Lure. Journal of Economic Entomology. 103 (5), 1594-1602. DOI:10.1603/EC09406

                                                                Vayssières J F, Rey J Y, Traoré L, 2007. Distribution and host plants of Bactrocera cucurbitae in West and Central Africa. Fruits (Paris). 62 (6), 391-396. http://www.edpsciences.org/fruits/ DOI:10.1051/fruits:2007037

                                                                Virgilio M, Delatte H, Backeljau T, Meyer M de, 2010. Macrogeographic population structuring in the cosmopolitan agricultural pest Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae). Molecular Ecology. 19 (13), 2713-2724. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-294X.2010.04662.x

                                                                White I M, 2006. Taxonomy of the Dacina (Diptera: Tephritidae) of Africa and the Middle East. African Entomology. 1-156. http://journals.sabinet.co.za/essa

                                                                Woods B, Steiner E, 2012. Christmas Island Fruit Fly and Scale Survey., https://www.regional.gov.au/territories/publications/fruit-fly-and-scale-survey/index.aspx

                                                                Links to Websites

                                                                Top of page
                                                                WebsiteURLComment
                                                                Featured Creatureshttp://entnemdept.ufl.edu/creatures/
                                                                GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
                                                                Invasive Fruit Fly Pests in Africahttp://www.africamuseum.be/fruitfly/AfroAsia.htm
                                                                Pacific Fruit Fly Webhttp://www.spc.int/pacifly/

                                                                Organizations

                                                                Top of page

                                                                Benin: IITA (Institut International d'Agriculture Tropicale), BP 08-0932 Cotonou, http://www.iita.org/

                                                                France: CIRAD (Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développment), Head Office, 42, rue Scheffer, 75116 Paris, http://www.cirad.fr

                                                                USA: USDA-ARS, Tropical Plant Pests Research Unit,, 64 Nowelo Street, Hilo, HI 96720, http://www.ars.usda.gov/

                                                                Contributors

                                                                Top of page

                                                                31/01/2008 Updated by:

                                                                Abdeljelil Bakri, University Cadi Ayyad, Faculty of Science Semlalia, Unit of Insect Biological Control, Boulevard Prince My Abdallah, 40 000 Marrakech, Morocco

                                                                Distribution Maps

                                                                Top of page
                                                                You can pan and zoom the map
                                                                Save map
                                                                Select a dataset
                                                                Map Legends
                                                                • CABI Summary Records
                                                                Map Filters
                                                                Extent
                                                                Invasive
                                                                Origin
                                                                Third party data sources: