Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Cyprinus carpio
(common carp)

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Datasheet

Cyprinus carpio (common carp)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 24 November 2021
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Natural Enemy
  • Host Animal
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Cyprinus carpio
  • Preferred Common Name
  • common carp
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Chordata
  •       Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •         Class: Actinopterygii
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Cyprinus carpio is a freshwater fish species in the family Cyprinidae. It has been used in aquaculture almost throughout human history, being cultured in China since at least 475 BC. It is a native of central Eurasia, from where it was sp...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Cyprinus carpio (common carp); artwork of adult fish.
TitleArtwork of adult fish
CaptionCyprinus carpio (common carp); artwork of adult fish.
CopyrightReleased into the Public Domain by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service/National Digital Library - Original artwork by Duane Raver Jr.
Cyprinus carpio (common carp); artwork of adult fish.
Artwork of adult fishCyprinus carpio (common carp); artwork of adult fish.Released into the Public Domain by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service/National Digital Library - Original artwork by Duane Raver Jr.
Cyprinus carpio (common carp); mirror carp. Artwork of adult fish.
TitleArtwork of adult fish.
CaptionCyprinus carpio (common carp); mirror carp. Artwork of adult fish.
CopyrightReleased into the Public Domain by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service/National Digital Library - Original artwork by Duane Raver Jr.
Cyprinus carpio (common carp); mirror carp. Artwork of adult fish.
Artwork of adult fish.Cyprinus carpio (common carp); mirror carp. Artwork of adult fish.Released into the Public Domain by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service/National Digital Library - Original artwork by Duane Raver Jr.
Domesticated strain of common carp: Tata scaly.
TitleTata scaly
CaptionDomesticated strain of common carp: Tata scaly.
Copyright©FAO/Janos Bakos
Domesticated strain of common carp: Tata scaly.
Tata scalyDomesticated strain of common carp: Tata scaly.©FAO/Janos Bakos
Domesticated strain of common carp: Polish linear scaled.
TitlePolish linear scaled
CaptionDomesticated strain of common carp: Polish linear scaled.
Copyright©FAO/Janos Bakos
Domesticated strain of common carp: Polish linear scaled.
Polish linear scaledDomesticated strain of common carp: Polish linear scaled.©FAO/Janos Bakos
Domesticated strain of common carp: Szarvas mirror.
TitleSzarvas mirror
CaptionDomesticated strain of common carp: Szarvas mirror.
Copyright©FAO/Janos Bakos
Domesticated strain of common carp: Szarvas mirror.
Szarvas mirrorDomesticated strain of common carp: Szarvas mirror.©FAO/Janos Bakos
Domesticated strain of common carp: Szarvas red.
TitleSzarvas red
CaptionDomesticated strain of common carp: Szarvas red.
Copyright©FAO/Janos Bakos
Domesticated strain of common carp: Szarvas red.
Szarvas redDomesticated strain of common carp: Szarvas red.©FAO/Janos Bakos
Domesticated strain of common carp: Wild Amur.
TitleWild Amur
CaptionDomesticated strain of common carp: Wild Amur.
Copyright©FAO/Janos Bakos
Domesticated strain of common carp: Wild Amur.
Wild AmurDomesticated strain of common carp: Wild Amur.©FAO/Janos Bakos

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758

Preferred Common Name

  • common carp

Other Scientific Names

  • Carpio carpio gibbosus (Kessler, 1856)
  • Carpio flavipinna Valenciennes, 1842
  • Carpio vulgaris Rapp, 1854
  • Cyprinus acuminatus (non Richardson, 1846)
  • Cyprinus alepidotus Bloch, 1784
  • Cyprinus angulatus Heckel, 1843
  • Cyprinus atrovirens Richardson, 1846
  • Cyprinus bithynicus Richardson, 1857
  • Cyprinus carpio anatolicus Hanko, 1924
  • Cyprinus carpio aralensis Spiczakow, 1935
  • Cyprinus carpio brevicirri Misik, 1958
  • Cyprinus carpio carpio Linnaeus, 1758
  • Cyprinus carpio caspicus Walbaum, 1792
  • Cyprinus carpio communis Linnaeus, 1758
  • Cyprinus carpio elongatus Walecki, 1863
  • Cyprinus carpio fluviatilis Pravdin, 1945
  • Cyprinus carpio lacustris Fitzinger, 1832
  • Cyprinus carpio longicirri Misik, 1958
  • Cyprinus carpio monstrosus Walecki, 1863
  • Cyprinus carpio oblongus Antipa, 1909
  • Cyprinus carpio specularis Lacepède, 1803
  • Cyprinus chinensis Basilewsky, 1855
  • Cyprinus cirrosus Schaeffer, 1760
  • Cyprinus conirostris Temminck & Schlegel, 1846
  • Cyprinus coriaceus Lacepède, 1803
  • Cyprinus elatus Bonaparte, 1836
  • Cyprinus festetitsii Bonaparte, 1845
  • Cyprinus flamm Richardson, 1846
  • Cyprinus fossicola Richardson, 1846
  • Cyprinus haematopterus Temminck & Schlegel, 1846
  • Cyprinus hungaricus Heckel, 1836
  • Cyprinus macrolepidotus Meidinger, 1794
  • Cyprinus melanotus Temminck & Schlegel, 1846
  • Cyprinus nigroauratus Lacepède, 1803
  • Cyprinus nordmannii Valenciennes, 1842
  • Cyprinus nudus Bloch, 1784
  • Cyprinus regina Bonaparte, 1836
  • Cyprinus regius Nau, 1791
  • Cyprinus rex Walbaum, 1792
  • Cyprinus rexcyprinorum Bloch, 1782
  • Cyprinus rondeletti Shaw, 1802
  • Cyprinus sculponeatus Richardson, 1846
  • Cyprinus specularis Lacepède, 1803
  • Cyprinus thermalis Heckel, 1843
  • Cyprinus tossicole Elera, 1895
  • Cyprinus viridescens Lacepède, 1803
  • Cyprinus viridiviolaceus Lacepède, 1803
  • Cyprinus vittatus Valenciennes, 1842

International Common Names

  • English: carp; carp, common; European carp; leather carp; mirror carp
  • Spanish: carpa
  • French: carpe; carpe commune

Local Common Names

  • Albania: krapi
  • Australia: Asian carp; German carp
  • Azerbaijan: sazan
  • Bangladesh: scale carp
  • Belarus: sazan
  • Bulgaria: sharan
  • Cambodia: cá dáy; cá gái; cá gáy; keatsrong; trey carp samahn; trey kap
  • Canada: European carp; German carp
  • China/Hong Kong: lei ue
  • Czech Republic: kapr obecný
  • Denmark: karpe; læderkarpe; laederkarpe; skælkarpe; skaelkarpe; spejlkarpe
  • Ecuador: carpa común; carpa espejo
  • Ethiopia: abba samuel; tikure
  • Finland: karppi
  • France: carpat; carpe commune; carpe cuir; carpe koï; carpe miroir; carpeau; carpo; escarpo; feuille; Flusskarpfen; karpenn; kerpaille; kerpe
  • Germany: Karpen; Karpfen; Weissfische; Wildkarpfen
  • Greece: cyprinos; grivadi; kyprinos; kyprínos
  • Hungary: ponty
  • Iceland: karpar
  • India: punjabe gad; scale carp; soneri masha
  • Indonesia: Ikan mas; lauk mas; mas massan
  • Iran: kapoor-e-maamoli
  • Ireland: carban
  • Israel: karpion
  • Japan: koi
  • Laos: pa nai; pba ni
  • Latvia: sazan
  • Malaysia: leekoh
  • Netherlands: karper
  • Norway: karpe
  • Philippines: bongka'ong; karpa
  • Poland: karp; karp dziki a. sazan
  • Portugal: sarmão
  • Romania: ciortan; ciortanica; ciortocrap; ciuciulean; crap; crapcean; olocari; saran; sulari; suloi; ulucari; Weißfische
  • Russian Federation: grass carp; karp
  • Slovakia: kapor
  • South Africa: karp
  • Sri Lanka: rata pethiya
  • Sweden: karp
  • Thailand: pla nai
  • Turkey: adi pullu; sazan baligi
  • UK: aischgrund carp; cerpyn; wild common carp
  • Ukraine: karp; korop; sazan
  • USA: European carp; German carp; koi
  • USA/Hawaii: koi
  • Vietnam: cá chép; cá chép

EPPO code

  • CYPNCA (Cyprinus carpio)

Summary of Invasiveness

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Cyprinus carpio is a freshwater fish species in the family Cyprinidae. It has been used in aquaculture almost throughout human history, being cultured in China since at least 475 BC. It is a native of central Eurasia, from where it was spread by humans through Europe and much of Asia, and is now established on all continents except Antarctica -- it can be considered the world´s most widely distributed freshwater fish. It is one of the most introduced fish, ranking as the third most introduced species in the world. It is important in many parts of the world and continues to be used both in pond and captive fisheries because of its potentially rapid growth in eutrophic waters and ability to tolerate adverse environmental conditions. It is also highly prized by anglers in many countries. However, it is considered as a pest in North America, Australia and New Zealand (although even there some people consider it to be a valuable addition to the aquatic fauna). As a zooplankton feeder in the juvenile stage and a benthic feeder later on, C. carpio may contribute considerably to algal (including cyanobacterial) blooms. Its feeding behaviour also churns up sediments altering habitats for native species. It may also directly consume the eggs of other species. It is listed by the Global Invasive Species Database as one of the world's 100 worst invasive alien species (ISSG, 2021)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Chordata
  •             Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •                 Class: Actinopterygii
  •                     Order: Cypriniformes
  •                         Family: Cyprinidae
  •                             Genus: Cyprinus
  •                                 Species: Cyprinus carpio

Description

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Wild forms of Cyprinus carpio have an elongated body. The profile index is 3.5 to 4.5, and the body width index is 1.4 to 1.8. Domesticated strains are compressed to different extents (profile index can be as low as 2.0, and body width index is above 2.0). The connection between the head and the dorsal part of the body is nearly straight in wild carp; a depression can be found in this area in domesticated and feral carp. The head is relatively small (27-32% SL). The lips are thick and can be extended. There are four barbels; the maxillary barbels are shorter than the mandibulary barbels. Wild forms have large scales and yellow-brown or green-brown coloration on the head and the dorsal and upper-lateral side of the body. The abdominal part can be yellowish or whitish. The coloration of the majority of domesticated strains is similar, with some exceptions (e.g. German/Polish blue, red, grey). The environment (colour of water, soil, etc.) may also modify the coloration. There are albino and coloured strains (koi carp, Indonesian coloured carp). Scale patterns of domesticated races can be scaled, mirror, linear (‘royal carp’), leather or scattered (Wohlfarth, 1984; Balon, 1995; Bakos and Gorda, 2001). Length may reach 1 m, and weight as much as 37.3 kg. The longest reported life span is 47 years.

The main morphological characters are summarized below, after the data of Berinkey (1966):

Number of spines and rays:

Dorsal III (IV) (15) 16-21 (22) (the first spine is a large bone, strongly serrated)

Anal (II) III 5 (6) (the first spine is serrated)

Caudal IV-VIII 16-18 IV-VIII

Pectoral I (14) 15-18 (19)

Pelvic II 7-9.

Number of scales in lateral line: (32) 33 40 (41) above and below 5-7/5-7.

Number of gill rakers: (outside/inside) 22-28/29-34 (36).

Pharyngeal teeth: 1.1.3-3.1.1 (1.2.3.-3.2.1).

Number of vertebrae: 36-38

Distribution

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Cyprinus carpio originates from Central Eurasia (Balon, 1995). There was some natural spread, but more significantly it has been introduced into more than 80 countries worldwide, many of them far away from the natural range (Welcomme, 1988; Bíró, 1995).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Feb 2022
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresentIntroduced1860As: Cyprinus carpio
AngolaPresentIntroduced1990As: Cyprinus carpio
BotswanaPresentIntroduced
BurundiPresentIntroducedAs: Cyprinus carpio. First reported: 1980 - 1989
CameroonPresentIntroduced1970As: Cyprinus carpio
Central African RepublicPresentIntroduced1966As: Cyprinus carpio
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresentIntroduced1947As: Cyprinus carpio
Côte d'IvoirePresentIntroduced1976As: Cyprinus carpio
EgyptPresentIntroduced1934As: Cyprinus carpio
EswatiniPresentIntroduced
EthiopiaPresentIntroduced1936As: Cyprinus carpio
GhanaPresentIntroduced1962As: Cyprinus carpio
KenyaPresentIntroducedInvasive
LesothoPresentIntroduced
MadagascarPresentIntroduced1914As: Cyprinus carpio
MalawiPresentIntroduced1970As: Cyprinus carpio
MauritiusPresentIntroduced1976As: Cyprinus carpio
MoroccoPresentIntroduced1925As: Cyprinus carpio
MozambiquePresentIntroduced
NamibiaPresentIntroduced
NigeriaPresentIntroduced1954As: Cyprinus carpio
RéunionPresentIntroduced1880As: Cyprinus carpio
RwandaPresentIntroduced1960As: Cyprinus carpio
South AfricaPresent, WidespreadIntroduced
SudanAbsentIntroduced in the past but apparently not established
TanzaniaPresentIntroduced
TogoPresentIntroduced
TunisiaPresentIntroduced1965As: Cyprinus carpio
UgandaPresentIntroduced1962As: Cyprinus carpio
ZambiaAbsentNot established
ZimbabwePresentIntroduced1925As: Cyprinus carpio

Asia

AfghanistanPresentIntroducedAs: Cyprinus carpio. First reported: 1970 - 1979
ArmeniaPresentNative
AzerbaijanPresentNative
BangladeshPresentIntroduced1960As: Cyprinus carpio
BhutanPresentIntroduced1983As: Cyprinus carpio
BruneiPresentIntroduced
CambodiaPresentIntroduced1969As: Cyprinus carpio
ChinaPresent, WidespreadNative
GeorgiaPresentNative
Hong KongPresentIntroduced
IndiaPresentIntroducedInvasiveCaused the disappearance of native genus Schizothorax from waters to which it has been introduced.
IndonesiaPresentIntroduced
IranPresent, WidespreadIntroduced
IraqPresent, WidespreadIntroduced
IsraelPresentIntroducedAs: Cyprinus carpio. First reported: 1927 - 1928
JapanPresentIntroduced1905As: Cyprinus carpio
JordanPresentIntroduced
KazakhstanPresentNative
KyrgyzstanPresentIntroduced
LaosPresentIntroduced1965As: Cyprinus carpio
LebanonPresentIntroduced
MalaysiaPresentIntroduced
MongoliaPresentNative
MyanmarPresentIntroducedAs: Cyprinus carpio. First reported: 1953 - 1954
NepalPresentIntroduced1956As: Cyprinus carpio
PakistanPresentIntroduced1964As: Cyprinus carpio
PhilippinesPresentIntroduced1915As: Cyprinus carpio
Saudi ArabiaPresent
SingaporePresentIntroduced
South KoreaPresentIntroduced
Sri LankaPresentIntroduced1914As: Cyprinus carpio
SyriaPresentIntroduced
TaiwanPresentIntroduced
ThailandPresentIntroduced1913As: Cyprinus carpio
TurkeyPresentIntroduced
TurkmenistanPresentIntroduced1894As: Cyprinus carpio
UzbekistanPresentNative
VietnamPresent, WidespreadNative

Europe

AlbaniaPresentIntroduced
AustriaPresent, WidespreadNative
BelarusPresent, WidespreadIntroduced
BelgiumPresentIntroduced1900As: Cyprinus carpio
Bosnia and HerzegovinaPresent, WidespreadIntroduced
BulgariaPresent, WidespreadNative
CroatiaPresent, WidespreadNative
CyprusPresentIntroduced1966As: Cyprinus carpio
CzechiaPresent, WidespreadNative
CzechoslovakiaPresentNative
DenmarkPresentIntroduced1565As: Cyprinus carpio
EstoniaPresentIntroduced1893As: Cyprinus carpio
FinlandPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedEstablished in aquaculture but not in the wild
FrancePresent, WidespreadIntroduced
GermanyPresentIntroduced
GreecePresentIntroduced
HungaryPresent, WidespreadNative
IrelandPresentIntroduced1634As: Cyprinus carpio
ItalyPresentIntroduced1701As: Cyprinus carpio
LatviaPresentIntroduced1948As: Cyprinus carpio
LiechtensteinPresentIntroduced
LithuaniaPresentIntroducedAs: Cyprinus carpio. First reported: 1500s
LuxembourgPresentIntroduced
MaltaPresentIntroduced
MoldovaPresentNative
MontenegroPresentIntroduced
NetherlandsPresentIntroduced
North MacedoniaPresent, WidespreadNative
NorwayPresentIntroduced1685As: Cyprinus carpio
PolandPresentIntroduced
PortugalPresentIntroduced1758As: Cyprinus carpio
-AzoresPresentIntroduced
RomaniaPresent, WidespreadNative
RussiaPresent, WidespreadNativeIntroduced populations as well as native ones
SerbiaPresentNative
Serbia and MontenegroPresent, WidespreadNative
SlovakiaPresentNative
SloveniaPresentIntroduced
SpainPresentIntroduced1650As: Cyprinus carpio
SwedenPresentIntroducedAs: Cyprinus carpio. First reported: 1560 - 1569
SwitzerlandPresentIntroduced
UkrainePresent, WidespreadNative
United KingdomPresentIntroducedAs: Cyprinus carpio. First reported: 1490's

North America

CanadaPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasive
-British ColumbiaPresentIntroduced
-ManitobaPresentIntroduced
-New BrunswickPresentIntroduced
-OntarioPresentIntroduced
-QuebecPresentIntroduced
-SaskatchewanPresentIntroduced
Costa RicaPresentIntroduced1976As: Cyprinus carpio
CubaPresentIntroduced1927As: Cyprinus carpio
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroduced1953As: Cyprinus carpio
El SalvadorPresentIntroduced1965As: Cyprinus carpio
GuatemalaPresentIntroduced1954As: Cyprinus carpio
HaitiPresentIntroduced1951As: Cyprinus carpio
HondurasAbsent, Formerly presentIntroduced but not established
JamaicaAbsent, Formerly presentNot established
MexicoPresentIntroducedInvasiveAssociated with the disappearance of native fishes in many waters. Very important fish for capture fisheries and culture.
NicaraguaPresentIntroduced1964As: Cyprinus carpio
PanamaPresentIntroduced1976As: Cyprinus carpio
Puerto RicoPresentIntroduced1953As: Cyprinus carpio
United StatesPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveGenerally regarded as a pest, particularly in the Western States
-AlabamaPresentIntroduced
-ArizonaPresentIntroduced
-ArkansasPresentIntroduced
-CaliforniaPresentIntroduced
-ColoradoPresentIntroduced
-ConnecticutPresentIntroduced
-DelawarePresentIntroduced
-District of ColumbiaPresentIntroduced
-FloridaPresentIntroduced
-GeorgiaPresentIntroduced
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced
-IdahoPresentIntroduced
-IllinoisPresentIntroduced
-IndianaPresentIntroduced
-IowaPresentIntroduced
-KansasPresentIntroduced
-KentuckyPresentIntroduced
-LouisianaPresentIntroduced
-MainePresentIntroduced
-MarylandPresentIntroduced
-MassachusettsPresentIntroduced
-MichiganPresentIntroduced
-MinnesotaPresentIntroduced
-MississippiPresentIntroduced
-MissouriPresentIntroduced
-MontanaPresentIntroduced
-NebraskaPresentIntroduced
-NevadaPresentIntroduced
-New HampshirePresentIntroduced
-New JerseyPresentIntroduced
-New MexicoPresentIntroduced
-New YorkPresentIntroduced
-North CarolinaPresentIntroduced
-North DakotaPresentIntroduced
-OhioPresentIntroduced
-OklahomaPresentIntroduced
-OregonPresentIntroduced
-PennsylvaniaPresentIntroduced
-Rhode IslandPresentIntroduced
-South CarolinaPresentIntroduced
-South DakotaPresentIntroduced
-TennesseePresentIntroduced
-TexasPresentIntroduced
-UtahPresentIntroduced
-VermontPresentIntroduced
-VirginiaPresentIntroduced
-WashingtonPresentIntroduced
-West VirginiaPresentIntroduced
-WisconsinPresentIntroduced
-WyomingPresentIntroduced

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroducedInvasiveRegarded by some people as a pest and by others to be a valuable addition to the aquatic fauna; declared a noxious fish in most states.
-Australian Capital TerritoryPresent, WidespreadIntroduced
-New South WalesPresent, WidespreadIntroduced
-QueenslandPresent, WidespreadIntroduced
-South AustraliaPresent, WidespreadIntroduced
-TasmaniaAbsent, EradicatedIntroduced but later eradicated
-VictoriaPresent, WidespreadIntroduced
-Western AustraliaPresentIntroduced
FijiPresentIntroduced1936As: Cyprinus carpio
GuamPresentIntroduced
New CaledoniaPresentIntroduced1950As: Cyprinus carpio
New ZealandPresentIntroducedInvasiveDesignated a noxious fish but sought after by specialist anglers
Papua New GuineaPresentIntroducedPresent In most suitable highland lakes and streams. Forms basis for an important fishery in the Seplk river.
Timor-LestePresentIntroduced

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroducedInvasivePopulations in lakes and some rivers said to cause environmental deterioration which affects other species
BoliviaPresentIntroduced1946As: Cyprinus carpio
BrazilPresentIntroduced1898As: Cyprinus carpio
-AlagoasPresentIntroduced
-Espirito SantoPresentIntroduced
-Minas GeraisPresentIntroduced
-ParanaPresentIntroduced
-Rio Grande do NortePresentIntroduced
-Rio Grande do SulPresentIntroduced
-Sao PauloPresentIntroduced
-SergipePresentIntroduced
ChilePresentIntroduced1874As: Cyprinus carpio
ColombiaPresentIntroduced1940As: Cyprinus carpio
EcuadorAbsent, Formerly present
ParaguayPresentIntroduced
PeruPresentIntroduced1946As: Cyprinus carpio
SurinamePresentIntroduced1968As: Cyprinus carpio
UruguayPresentIntroduced1850As: Cyprinus carpio
VenezuelaPresentIntroducedInvasiveEliminated some cohabiting native species

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Estonia Russian Federation 1966 No No FAO (2019a)
Estonia Latvia 1966 No No FAO (2019a)
Estonia Lithuania 1966 No No FAO (2019a)
Belgium Aquaculture (pathway cause); Fisheries (pathway cause); Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause) Yes No FAO (2019a)
Pakistan Thailand Aquaculture (pathway cause); Fisheries (pathway cause)Government Yes No FAO (2019a)
Pakistan UK Aquaculture (pathway cause); Fisheries (pathway cause)Government Yes No FAO (2019a)
Burundi Rwanda 1980s Aquaculture (pathway cause)International organisation No No FAO (2019a)
USA Germany 1831 Aquaculture (pathway cause) Yes No FAO (2019a)
Angola Hungary 1990 Aquaculture (pathway cause); Fisheries (pathway cause)Government No No FAO (2019a)
Namibia South Africa Aquaculture (pathway cause)Individual Yes No FAO (2019a)
Mauritius India 1976 Aquaculture (pathway cause); Fisheries (pathway cause) Yes No FAO (2019a)
Nepal India 1956 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Government No No FAO (2019a)
Nepal Israel 1958 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Government No No FAO (2019a)
Canada USA Yes No FAO (2019a) Diffused
Mozambique South Africa No No FAO (2019a) Diffused
Lesotho South Africa 1965 Aquaculture (pathway cause) Yes No FAO (2019a)
Tanzania Aquaculture (pathway cause) No No FAO (2019a)
Kazakhstan 1907 No No FAO (2019a) Accidental
Croatia No No FAO (2019a)
Slovenia No No FAO (2019a)
Yugoslavia (former) No No FAO (2019a)
Turkey No No FAO (2019a)
Jordan Aquaculture (pathway cause); Biological control (pathway cause); Research (pathway cause) Yes No FAO (2019a)
Pakistan Thailand 1964 Aquaculture (pathway cause) No No Khan et al. (2016)
Lebanon Aquaculture (pathway cause); Biological control (pathway cause); Research (pathway cause) Yes No FAO (2019a)
Kuwait Aquaculture (pathway cause); Biological control (pathway cause); Research (pathway cause) No Yes FAO (2019a)
Saudi Arabia Aquaculture (pathway cause); Biological control (pathway cause); Research (pathway cause) No Yes FAO (2019a)
Congo Democratic Republic Belgium 1947 Aquaculture (pathway cause) Yes No FAO (2019a)
Malawi Israel 1977 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Government No No FAO (2019a)
Brazil USA 1983 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Government Yes No FAO (2019a)
Brazil Hungary 1983 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Government Yes No FAO (2019a)
Tunisia France 1990 Aquaculture (pathway cause); Fisheries (pathway cause)Government Yes No FAO (2019a)
Tunisia Germany 1990 Aquaculture (pathway cause); Fisheries (pathway cause)Government Yes No FAO (2019a)
Algeria Hungary 1991 Fisheries (pathway cause); Research (pathway cause)Government Yes No FAO (2019a)
Mexico Asia 1872-1873 Aquaculture (pathway cause); Fisheries (pathway cause)Government Yes No FAO (2019a)
Mexico France 1872-1873 Aquaculture (pathway cause); Fisheries (pathway cause)Government Yes No FAO (2019a)
Kenya South Africa 1969 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Individual Yes No FAO (2019a)
Kenya Uganda 1969 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Individual Yes No FAO (2019a)
Vietnam Former USSR 1982 Aquaculture (pathway cause); Research (pathway cause)Government Yes No FAO (2019a)
Iran China 1992 Research (pathway cause)Government Yes No FAO (2019a)
Iran Romania 1992 Research (pathway cause)Government Yes No FAO (2019a)
New Zealand UK 1864-1911 Ornamental purposes (pathway cause)Individual Yes No FAO (2019a)
Finland 1955 Aquaculture (pathway cause); Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause); Ornamental purposes (pathway cause)Private sector No Yes FAO (2019a)
Vietnam Hungary 1975 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Government Yes No FAO (2019a)
Iraq 1955 Aquaculture (pathway cause); Research (pathway cause)Government Yes No FAO (2019a) Diffused
Romania 14th Century Aquaculture (pathway cause) Yes No FAO (2019a)
Poland Hungary 1980s Ornamental purposes (pathway cause)Individual No No FAO (2019a) Also accidental
Poland Thailand 1980s Ornamental purposes (pathway cause)Individual No No FAO (2019a) Also accidental
Hungary Vietnam 1976 Aquaculture (pathway cause); Research (pathway cause)Government Yes No FAO (2019a)
Switzerland Aquaculture (pathway cause); Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause); Ornamental purposes (pathway cause) Yes Yes FAO (2019a)
Korea, Republic of Israel 1973 Aquaculture (pathway cause); Ornamental purposes (pathway cause)Private sector Yes Yes FAO (2019a)
Korea, Republic of Japan 1973 Aquaculture (pathway cause); Ornamental purposes (pathway cause)Private sector Yes Yes FAO (2019a)
India Sri Lanka 1958 Aquaculture (pathway cause); Fisheries (pathway cause)Government Yes No FAO (2019a)
India Thailand 1958 Aquaculture (pathway cause); Fisheries (pathway cause)Government Yes No FAO (2019a)
Ireland UK c 1700 Aquaculture (pathway cause); Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause)Individual Yes No FAO (2019a)
Estonia 1893 Aquaculture (pathway cause); Fisheries (pathway cause); Ornamental purposes (pathway cause) Yes Yes FAO (2019a)
Botswana Yes No FAO (2019a)
Réunion Aquaculture (pathway cause)Private sector Yes No FAO (2019a)
Cambodia Taiwan Aquaculture (pathway cause) No No FAO (2019a)
China Former USSR No No FAO (2019a)
Thailand China Aquaculture (pathway cause) Yes No FAO (2019a)
Cambodia Vietnam No No FAO (2019a)
Myanmar Indonesia Aquaculture (pathway cause)Government No No FAO (2019a)
Myanmar Israel Aquaculture (pathway cause)Government No No FAO (2019a)
China Russian Federation No No FAO (2019a)
Haiti USA No No FAO (2019a)
Haiti Israel No No FAO (2019a)
France No No FAO (2019a)
Canada France Yes No FAO (2019a)
Bangladesh India Aquaculture (pathway cause) Yes No FAO (2019a)

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
FreshwaterIrrigation channels Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
FreshwaterLakes Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
FreshwaterLakes Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
FreshwaterReservoirs Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
FreshwaterReservoirs Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
FreshwaterRivers / streams Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
FreshwaterRivers / streams Principal habitat Natural
FreshwaterPonds Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
BrackishEstuaries Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
BrackishLagoons Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
A - Tropical/Megathermal climate Tolerated Average temp. of coolest month > 18°C, > 1500mm precipitation annually
C - Temperate/Mesothermal climate Preferred Average temp. of coldest month > 0°C and < 18°C, mean warmest month > 10°C
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
D - Continental/Microthermal climate Preferred Continental/Microthermal climate (Average temp. of coldest month < 0°C, mean warmest month > 10°C)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
61 45

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) -30
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 5 20
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 20 40
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) -5 15

Water Tolerances

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ParameterMinimum ValueMaximum ValueTypical ValueStatusLife StageNotes
Ammonia [unionised] (mg/l) 0.0 Optimum Adult
Ammonia [unionised] (mg/l) 0.1 Harmful Adult
Ammonia [unionised] (mg/l) Optimum <0.05 preferred, <0.3 tolerated
Ammonium [ionised] (mg/l) 0.0 Optimum Adult
Ammonium [ionised] (mg/l) >2.0 Harmful Adult
Ammonium [ionised] (mg/l) 1 Optimum <1 preferred, <3 tolerated; depends on pH, temperature and salinity
Arsenic (mg/l) 0.0 Optimum Adult
Cadmium (mg/l) 0.0 Optimum Adult
Carbon Dioxide (mg/l) >20 Harmful Adult
Carbon Dioxide (mg/l) 5.0 Optimum Adult
Carbon Dioxide (mg/l) 10 Optimum <10 preferred, <20 tolerated
Chloride (mg/l) 100 Optimum Adult
Chloride (mg/l) 1000 Harmful Adult
Chlorine (mg/l) 0.0 Optimum Adult
Chlorine (mg/l) 0.01 Harmful Adult
Chlorophyll-a (mg/l) 0.1 Optimum Adult
Chlorophyll-a (mg/l) 0.5 Harmful Adult
Chromium (mg/l) 0.0 Optimum Adult
Conductivity (µmhos/cm) 1000 Optimum <1000 preferred, <2000 tolerated
Copper (mg/l) 0.0 Optimum Adult
Copper (mg/l) 0.5 Harmful Adult
Cyanide (mg/l) 0.0 Optimum Adult
Cyanide (mg/l) 0.01 Harmful Adult
Depth (m b.s.l.) 3 Optimum >3 preferred, >5 tolerated, 2-10 at low winter temperatures in temperate climatic zones
Dissolved oxygen (mg/l) 1.5 Harmful Adult
Dissolved oxygen (mg/l) 8.0 Optimum Adult
Dissolved oxygen (mg/l) 6-10 Optimum 3.5-20 tolerated; should not drop below 3.5, but 0.5 may be tolerated for short periods at low water temperature
Dyes (mg/l) 0.0 Optimum Adult
Dyes (mg/l) 0.1 Harmful Adult
Hardness (mg/l of Calcium Carbonate) 150 Optimum Adult
Hardness (mg/l of Calcium Carbonate) >500 Harmful Adult
Hardness (mg/l of Calcium Carbonate) 150 Optimum <150 preferred, <300 tolerated
Hydrogen sulphide (mg/l) 0.0 Optimum Adult
Hydrogen sulphide (mg/l) 0.1 Harmful Adult
Iron (mg/l) 0.0 Optimum Adult
Iron (mg/l) 2.0 Harmful Adult
Lead (mg/l) 0.0 Optimum Adult
Magnesium (mg/l) 200 Harmful Adult
Magnesium (mg/l) 50 Optimum Adult
Manganese (mg/l) 0.0 Optimum Adult
Manganese (mg/l) 1.0 Harmful Adult
Mercury (mg/l) 0.0 Optimum Adult
Nickel (mg/l) 0.0 Optimum Adult
Nitrite (mg/l) 0.0 Optimum Adult
Nitrite (mg/l) 0.1 Harmful Adult
Nitrous acid (mg/l) 0.0 Optimum Adult
Nitrous acid (mg/l) 0.001 Harmful Adult
Oils and refined products (mg/l) 0.0 Optimum Adult
Oils and refined products (mg/l) 0.01 Harmful Adult
Ozone (mg/l) 0.0 Optimum Adult
Ozone (mg/l) 0.01 Harmful Adult
Phenols (mg/l) 0.0 Optimum Adult
Phenols (mg/l) 0.001 Harmful Adult
Phosphate (mg/l) 2.0 Optimum Adult
Phosphate (mg/l) 5< Harmful Adult
Phytoplankton toxins (mg/l) 0.0 Optimum Adult
Phytoplankton toxins (mg/l) 0.001 Harmful Adult
Polychlorinated biphenyls (mg/l) 0.0 Optimum Adult
Polychlorinated biphenyls (mg/l) 10.0 Harmful Adult
Potassium (mg/l) 10 Optimum Adult
Potassium (mg/l) 100 Harmful Adult
Salinity (part per thousand) 0.5 Optimum Adult
Salinity (part per thousand) >5 Harmful Adult
Salinity (part per thousand) 1 Optimum <1 preferred, <5 tolerated
Sulphate (mg/l) 300 Harmful Adult
Sulphate (mg/l) 50 Optimum Adult
Surfactants (mg/l) 0.0 Optimum Adult
Surfactants (mg/l) 0.01 Harmful Adult
Total Nitrogen (mg/l) 10< Harmful Adult
Total Nitrogen (mg/l) 5.0 Optimum Adult
Total Phosphorus (mg/l) 10< Harmful Adult
Total Phosphorus (mg/l) 5.0 Optimum Adult
Velocity (cm/h) 10 Optimum <10 preferred, <30 tolerated, <50 for short time periods
Water pH (pH) 7.5 Optimum Adult
Water pH (pH) 9.0< Harmful Adult
Water pH (pH) 6.5-8.5 Optimum 5.5-10.5 tolerated
Water temperature (ºC temperature) >34.8 Harmful Adult
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 16 24 Optimum Egg
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 22 24 Optimum Fry
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 22 26 Optimum Larval
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 20-28 Optimum 0.5-30 tolerated

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Environment (generally) Positive and negative
Fisheries / aquaculture Positive
Native fauna Negative

Economic Impact

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Introduction of Cyprinus carpio into many areas has resulted in significant development of aquaculture, and the farming of carp now plays an important role in the economy of many countries. On the other hand, in some developed countries, such as the USA and Australia, where the species is not consumed apart from by the poorest segments of society, it is considered as a pest (Dowal, 1996) and efforts have been made to eradicate it.

Environmental Impact

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Adverse impacts of Cyprinus carpio on natural aquatic ecosystems have been proved in some places. Carp have uprooted aquatic plants and destroyed the aquatic weed populations (Laird and Page, 1996). They also increase the turbidity of the water by digging and stirring the upper layer of the bottom. As a consequence of this, light penetration decreases, which destroys the macrophyte populations in the spawning areas of phytophilic species. Carp may directly consume the eggs of other species (Miller and Beckman, 1996).

Carp may have a significant and positive role in maintenance of the ecosystem of wetlands (Sumiec, 1995).

Impact on Biodiversity

By destroying the spawning substrata, by consumption of eggs of native species (Tyus and Saunders, 2000) and by competing with species having similar feeding habit (Laird and Page, 1996), the presence of carp may be one reason causing populations of native species to decline.

Threatened Species

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Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Gila nigra (headwater chub)NT (IUCN red list: Near threatened)Arizona; New MexicoPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2013a)
Gila nigrescens (chihuahua chub)VU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable); USA ESA listing as threatened speciesNew MexicoCompetition - monopolizing resourcesUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2010)
Gila robusta (roundtail chub)NT (IUCN red list: Near threatened)Arizona; California; NevadaPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2013b)
Oncorhynchus clarkii henshawi (Lahontan cutthroat trout)USA ESA listing as threatened speciesCalifornia; Nevada; Oregon; UtahCompetition (unspecified); PredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2000)
Pacifastacus fortis (Shasta crayfish)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesCaliforniaPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2009)
Percina jenkinsi (Conasauga logperch)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesUSACompetition (unspecified); Ecosystem change / habitat alteration; PredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service (1986)
Plagopterus argentissimus (woundfin)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesArizona; Nevada; New Mexico; UtahCompetition - monopolizing resources; PredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2008b)
Rhinichthys osculus lethoporus (Independence Valley speckled dace)USA ESA listing as endangered speciesNevadaCompetition (unspecified); Ecosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2008a)
Xyrauchen texanus (razorback sucker)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesNorth America; North AmericaPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2002)
Zizania texana (Texas wild-rice)USA ESA listing as endangered speciesTexasEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Pest and disease transmissionUS Fish and Wildlife Service (1995)

Risk and Impact Factors

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Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Gregarious
  • Has high genetic variability
Impact outcomes
  • Altered trophic level
  • Conflict
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of natural benthic communities
  • Modification of nutrient regime
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Negatively impacts aquaculture/fisheries
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of endangered species
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition (unspecified)
  • Pest and disease transmission
  • Herbivory/grazing/browsing
  • Predation
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally illegally
  • Difficult/costly to control

Uses List

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Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Bait/attractant
  • Fishmeal
  • Fodder/animal feed
  • Invertebrate food

Environmental

  • Ornamental

General

  • Laboratory use
  • Pet/aquarium trade
  • Sport (hunting, shooting, fishing, racing)

Human food and beverage

  • Fresh meat
  • Frozen meat
  • Live product for human consumption
  • Whole

References

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Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Global register of Introduced and Invasive species (GRIIS)http://griis.org/Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species – Cyprinus carpiohttps://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.aspx?speciesID=4
World Fish Centerhttp://www.worldfishcenter.org/

Organizations

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Czech Republic: Research Institute of Fish Culture and Hydrobiology, Zatisi 728/II, 389 25 Vodnany, http://www.frov.jcu.cz/en/research-institute-fish-culture-hydrobiology

Hungary: Research Institute for Fisheries, Aquaculture and Irrigation, PO Box 47, H-5541 Szarvas, http://www.haki.hu

Australia: New South Wales Department of Primary Industries, New South Wales, http://www.fisheries.nsw.gov.au

Contributors

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16/10/2019 Updated by:

Vicki Bonham, consultant, UK

29/10/2007 Updated by:

Zdenek Adamek, Research Institute of Fish Culture & Hydrobiology Laboratory, University of South Bohemia, Brno Kvetna 8, 603 65 Brno, Czech Republic

Main Author
László Váradi
HAKI Research Institute for Fisheries,, Aquaculture and Irrigation, PO Box 47, H-5541 Szarvas, Hungary

Joint Author
Dr. Sandor Gorda

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