Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Cyprinus carpio
(common carp)

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Datasheet

Cyprinus carpio (common carp)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 25 September 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Natural Enemy
  • Host Animal
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Cyprinus carpio
  • Preferred Common Name
  • common carp
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Chordata
  •       Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •         Class: Actinopterygii
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • C. carpio has been used in aquaculture almost throughout human history, being cultured in China since at least 475 BC. Its ornamental forms in Japan (koi) are still symbolic of courage and energy. C. carpio...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Cyprinus carpio (common carp); artwork of adult fish.
TitleArtwork of adult fish
CaptionCyprinus carpio (common carp); artwork of adult fish.
CopyrightReleased into the Public Domain by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service/National Digital Library - Original artwork by Duane Raver Jr.
Cyprinus carpio (common carp); artwork of adult fish.
Artwork of adult fishCyprinus carpio (common carp); artwork of adult fish.Released into the Public Domain by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service/National Digital Library - Original artwork by Duane Raver Jr.
Cyprinus carpio (common carp); mirror carp. Artwork of adult fish.
TitleArtwork of adult fish.
CaptionCyprinus carpio (common carp); mirror carp. Artwork of adult fish.
CopyrightReleased into the Public Domain by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service/National Digital Library - Original artwork by Duane Raver Jr.
Cyprinus carpio (common carp); mirror carp. Artwork of adult fish.
Artwork of adult fish.Cyprinus carpio (common carp); mirror carp. Artwork of adult fish.Released into the Public Domain by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service/National Digital Library - Original artwork by Duane Raver Jr.
Domesticated strain of common carp: Tata scaly.
TitleTata scaly
CaptionDomesticated strain of common carp: Tata scaly.
Copyright©FAO/Janos Bakos
Domesticated strain of common carp: Tata scaly.
Tata scalyDomesticated strain of common carp: Tata scaly.©FAO/Janos Bakos
Domesticated strain of common carp: Polish linear scaled.
TitlePolish linear scaled
CaptionDomesticated strain of common carp: Polish linear scaled.
Copyright©FAO/Janos Bakos
Domesticated strain of common carp: Polish linear scaled.
Polish linear scaledDomesticated strain of common carp: Polish linear scaled.©FAO/Janos Bakos
Domesticated strain of common carp: Szarvas mirror.
TitleSzarvas mirror
CaptionDomesticated strain of common carp: Szarvas mirror.
Copyright©FAO/Janos Bakos
Domesticated strain of common carp: Szarvas mirror.
Szarvas mirrorDomesticated strain of common carp: Szarvas mirror.©FAO/Janos Bakos
Domesticated strain of common carp: Szarvas red.
TitleSzarvas red
CaptionDomesticated strain of common carp: Szarvas red.
Copyright©FAO/Janos Bakos
Domesticated strain of common carp: Szarvas red.
Szarvas redDomesticated strain of common carp: Szarvas red.©FAO/Janos Bakos
Domesticated strain of common carp: Wild Amur.
TitleWild Amur
CaptionDomesticated strain of common carp: Wild Amur.
Copyright©FAO/Janos Bakos
Domesticated strain of common carp: Wild Amur.
Wild AmurDomesticated strain of common carp: Wild Amur.©FAO/Janos Bakos

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758

Preferred Common Name

  • common carp

Other Scientific Names

  • Carpio carpio gibbosus (Kessler, 1856)
  • Carpio flavipinna Valenciennes, 1842
  • Carpio vulgaris Rapp, 1854
  • Cyprinus acuminatus (non Richardson, 1846)
  • Cyprinus alepidotus Bloch, 1784
  • Cyprinus angulatus Heckel, 1843
  • Cyprinus atrovirens Richardson, 1846
  • Cyprinus bithynicus Richardson, 1857
  • Cyprinus carpio anatolicus Hanko, 1924
  • Cyprinus carpio aralensis Spiczakow, 1935
  • Cyprinus carpio brevicirri Misik, 1958
  • Cyprinus carpio carpio Linnaeus, 1758
  • Cyprinus carpio caspicus Walbaum, 1792
  • Cyprinus carpio communis Linnaeus, 1758
  • Cyprinus carpio elongatus Walecki, 1863
  • Cyprinus carpio fluviatilis Pravdin, 1945
  • Cyprinus carpio lacustris Fitzinger, 1832
  • Cyprinus carpio longicirri Misik, 1958
  • Cyprinus carpio monstrosus Walecki, 1863
  • Cyprinus carpio oblongus Antipa, 1909
  • Cyprinus carpio specularis Lacepède, 1803
  • Cyprinus chinensis Basilewsky, 1855
  • Cyprinus cirrosus Schaeffer, 1760
  • Cyprinus conirostris Temminck & Schlegel, 1846
  • Cyprinus coriaceus Lacepède, 1803
  • Cyprinus elatus Bonaparte, 1836
  • Cyprinus festetitsii Bonaparte, 1845
  • Cyprinus flamm Richardson, 1846
  • Cyprinus fossicola Richardson, 1846
  • Cyprinus haematopterus Temminck & Schlegel, 1846
  • Cyprinus hungaricus Heckel, 1836
  • Cyprinus macrolepidotus Meidinger, 1794
  • Cyprinus melanotus Temminck & Schlegel, 1846
  • Cyprinus nigroauratus Lacepède, 1803
  • Cyprinus nordmannii Valenciennes, 1842
  • Cyprinus nudus Bloch, 1784
  • Cyprinus regina Bonaparte, 1836
  • Cyprinus regius Nau, 1791
  • Cyprinus rex Walbaum, 1792
  • Cyprinus rexcyprinorum Bloch, 1782
  • Cyprinus rondeletti Shaw, 1802
  • Cyprinus sculponeatus Richardson, 1846
  • Cyprinus specularis Lacepède, 1803
  • Cyprinus thermalis Heckel, 1843
  • Cyprinus tossicole Elera, 1895
  • Cyprinus viridescens Lacepède, 1803
  • Cyprinus viridiviolaceus Lacepède, 1803
  • Cyprinus vittatus Valenciennes, 1842

International Common Names

  • English: carp; carp, common; common carp; European carp; leather carp; mirror carp
  • Spanish: carpa; carpa
  • French: carp commune; carpe

Local Common Names

  • Albania: krapi
  • Australia: Asian carp; German carp
  • Azerbaijan: sazan
  • Bangladesh: scale carp
  • Belarus: sazan
  • Bulgaria: sharan
  • Cambodia: cá dáy; cá gái; cá gáy; Keatsrong; trey carp samahn; trey kap
  • Canada: European carp; German carp
  • China/Hong Kong: lei ue
  • Czech Republic: kapr obecný
  • Denmark: karpe; læderkarpe; laederkarpe; skælkarpe; skaelkarpe; spejlkarpe
  • Ecuador: carpa común; carpa espejo
  • Ethiopia: abba samuel; tikure
  • Finland: karppi
  • France: carpat; carpe commune; carpe cuir; carpe koï; carpe miroir; carpeau; carpo; escarpo; feuille; flusskarpfen; karpenn; Kerpaille; kerpe
  • Germany: karpen; Karpfen; weissfische; Wildkarpfen
  • Greece: cyprinos; grivadi; kyprinos; kyprínos
  • Hungary: ponty
  • Iceland: karpar
  • India: punjabe gad; scale carp; soneri masha
  • Indonesia: Ikan mas; lauk mas; mas massan
  • Iran: Kapoor-e-Maamoli
  • Ireland: carban
  • Israel: karpion
  • Japan: koi
  • Laos: pa nai; pba ni
  • Latvia: sazan
  • Malaysia: leekoh
  • Netherlands: karper
  • Norway: karpe
  • Philippines: bongka'ong; karpa
  • Poland: karp; karp dziki a. sazan
  • Portugal: sarmão
  • Romania: ciortan; ciortanica; ciortocrap; ciortocrap; ciuciulean; crap; crapcean; olocari; saran; sulari; suloi; ulucari; weißfische
  • Russian Federation: grass carp; karp
  • Slovakia: kapor
  • South Africa: karp
  • Sri Lanka: Rata pethiya
  • Sweden: karp
  • Thailand: pla nai
  • Turkey: adi pullu; sazan baligi
  • UK: aischgrund carp; cerpyn; wild common carp
  • Ukraine: karp; korop; sazan
  • USA: European carp; German carp; koi
  • USA/Hawaii: koi
  • Vietnam: cá chép; cá chép

EPPO code

  • CYPNCA (Cyprinus carpio)

Summary of Invasiveness

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C. carpio has been used in aquaculture almost throughout human history, being cultured in China since at least 475 BC. Its ornamental forms in Japan (koi) are still symbolic of courage and energy. C. carpio is a native of Asia, from where it was spread by humans through Europe, and is now established on all continents except Antarctica – it can be considered the world´s most widely distributed freshwater fish. It is important in many parts of the world and continues to be used both in pond and captive fisheries because of its potentially rapid growth in eutrophic waters and ability to tolerate adverse environmental conditions. C. carpio is also highly prized by anglers in many countries. However it is considered as a pest in North America, Australia and New Zealand (Dowal, 1996). As a zooplankton feeder in the juvenile stage and a benthic feeder later on, C. carpio may contribute considerably to algal (including cyanobacterial) blooms.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Chordata
  •             Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •                 Class: Actinopterygii
  •                     Order: Cypriniformes
  •                         Family: Cyprinidae
  •                             Genus: Cyprinus
  •                                 Species: Cyprinus carpio

Description

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Morphology and Coloration

The wild forms have an elongated body. The profile index is 3.5 to 4.5, the body width index is 1.4 to 1.8. The domesticated strains are compressed in different extent (profile index can be as low as 2.0, the body width index is above 2.0). The connection between the head and the dorsal part of the body is nearly straight in case of wild carps. A depression can be found in this area in domesticated and feral carp. The head is relatively small (27-32% SL). The lips are thick and can be extended. There are four barbels. The maxillary barbels are shorter than the mandibulary barbels. The wild forms have large scales and yellow-brown, or green-brown coloration on the head, on dorsal and upper-lateral side of the body. The abdominal part can be yellowish or whitish. The coloration of majority of domesticated strains is similar, with some exception (German/Polish blue, red, grey). The environment (colour of water, soil, etc.) may also modify the coloration of fish. There are albino and coloured strains (koi carps, Indonesian coloured carps). The domesticated races can be scaled, mirror, linear (“royal carp”), leather or scattered by their scale pattern (Wohlfarth, 1984; Balon, 1995; Bakos and Gorda, 2001). The size of fish may extend to 1 m, the weight to as much as 37.3 kg. The reported longest life span is 47 years.

The main morphological characters are summarised below, after the data of Berinkey (1966):

Number of spines and rays:

Dorsal III (IV) (15) 16-21 (22) (the first spine is a large bone, strongly serrated)

Anal (II) III 5(6) (the first spine is serrated)

Caudal IV-VIII 16-18 IV-VIII

Pectoral I (14) 15-18 (19)

Pelvic II 7-9.

Number of scales in lateral line: (32) 33 40 (41) above and below 5-7/5-7.

Number of gill rakes: (outside/inside) 22-28/29-34 (36).

Pharyngeal teeth: 1.1.3-3.1.1 (1.2.3.-3.2.1).

Number of vertebrae: 36-38

Distribution

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The common carp developed in Central Eurasia (Balon, 1995). Natural distribution of the species to new habitats (to the basin of Danube river, and to China) and the process of different ways of domestication in the West and the East, resulted development of many carp races with different external appearance and performance (Wohlfarth et al., 1983; Hulata, 1995). The common carp has been introduced into more than 80 countries, many of them far away from the natural habitat (Welcomme, 1988; Biro, 1995). The worldwide introduction and transfer of common carp is demonstrated (see Pictures).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AfghanistanPresentIntroduced Not invasive Welcomme, 1988
ArmeniaPresentNative Not invasive Blanc et al., 1971; FAO, 1996
AzerbaijanPresentNative Not invasive Blanc et al., 1971
BangladeshPresentIntroduced Not invasive Barua et al., 2001
BhutanPresentIntroduced Not invasive Welcomme, 1988
Brunei DarussalamPresentIntroduced Not invasive FAO, 1996
CambodiaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Rainboth, 1996
ChinaWidespreadNative Not invasive Alikhuni, 1966
-HubeiPresent
Georgia (Republic of)PresentNative Not invasive Blanc et al., 1971; FAO, 1996
IndiaWidespreadIntroduced Not invasive Welcomme, 1988
-OdishaPresent
-Tamil NaduPresent
IndonesiaWidespreadIntroduced Not invasive Welcomme, 1988; Kottelat et al., 1993
IranWidespreadIntroduced Not invasive FAO, 1996
IraqWidespreadIntroduced Not invasive Coad, 1996; FAO, 1996
IsraelWidespreadIntroduced Not invasive Welcomme, 1988
JapanPresentIntroduced Not invasive Alikhuni, 1966; Masuda et al., 1984
JordanPresentIntroduced Not invasive FAO, 1996
KazakhstanPresentNative Not invasive Reshetnikov et al., 1997
Korea, Republic ofPresentIntroduced Not invasive Welcomme, 1988
KyrgyzstanPresentIntroduced Not invasive FAO, 1996
LaosPresentIntroduced Not invasive Baird, 1998; Kottelat, 2001
MalaysiaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Alikhuni, 1966; Welcomme, 1988
MyanmarPresentIntroduced Not invasive Alikhuni, 1966; FAO, 1996
NepalPresentIntroduced Not invasive Welcomme, 1988; FAO, 1996
PakistanPresentIntroduced Not invasive Welcomme, 1988
PhilippinesPresentIntroduced Not invasive Juliano et al., 1989
Saudi ArabiaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Welcomme, 1988; FAO, 1996
SingaporePresentIntroduced Not invasive FishBase, 2005
South East AsiaPresentGreathead and Greathead, 1992
Sri LankaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Welcomme, 1988; Pethiyagoda, 1991
SyriaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Welcomme, 1988; FAO, 1996
TaiwanPresentIntroduced Not invasive Welcomme, 1988
TajikistanPresentIntroduced Not invasive FishBase, 2005
ThailandPresentIntroduced Not invasive FAO, 1996
TurkeyPresentIntroduced Not invasive Alikhuni, 1966; FAO, 1996
TurkmenistanPresentIntroduced Not invasive FishBase, 2005
UzbekistanPresentNative Not invasive FAO, 1996
VietnamWidespreadNative Not invasive Alikhuni, 1966

Africa

AlgeriaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Costa et al., 1993; FAO, 1996
AngolaPresentIntroduced Not invasive FishBase, 2005
BurundiPresentIntroduced Not invasive Welcomme, 1988; Costa et al., 1993
CameroonPresentIntroduced Not invasive Welcomme, 1988; Costa et al., 1993
Central African RepublicPresentIntroduced Not invasive Welcomme, 1988
Côte d'IvoirePresentIntroduced Not invasive Welcomme, 1988
EgyptPresentIntroduced Not invasive Welcomme, 1988; Costa et al., 1993
EthiopiaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Costa et al., 1993; FishBase, 2005
GhanaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Welcomme, 1988
KenyaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Welcomme, 1988; Costa et al., 1993; FAO, 1996
LesothoPresentIntroduced Not invasive Costa et al., 1993; FAO, 1996
MadagascarPresentIntroduced Not invasive Welcomme, 1988; Costa et al., 1993
MalawiPresentIntroduced Not invasive Costa et al., 1993; FAO, 1996
MauritiusPresentIntroduced Not invasive Welcomme, 1988; Costa et al., 1993
MoroccoPresentIntroduced Not invasive Welcomme, 1988; Costa et al., 1993; FAO, 1996
MozambiquePresentIntroduced Not invasive FAO, 1996
NamibiaPresentIntroduced Not invasive FishBase, 2005
NigeriaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Ajayi, 1971; Welcomme, 1988; Costa et al., 1993
RéunionPresentIntroduced Not invasive FishBase, 2005
RwandaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Welcomme, 1988; Costa et al., 1993; FAO, 1996
South AfricaWidespreadIntroduced Not invasive Welcomme, 1988; Costa et al., 1993; FAO, 1996
SudanPresentIntroduced Not invasive Welcomme, 1988; Costa et al., 1993
SwazilandPresentIntroduced Not invasive Welcomme, 1988; Costa et al., 1993
TanzaniaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Costa et al., 1993; FishBase, 2005
TogoPresentIntroduced Not invasive Welcomme, 1988; Costa et al., 1993
TunisiaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Welcomme, 1988; Costa et al., 1993; FAO, 1996
UgandaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Welcomme, 1988; Costa et al., 1993; FAO, 1996
ZambiaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Costa et al., 1993; FAO, 1996
ZimbabwePresentIntroduced Not invasive Welcomme, 1988; Costa et al., 1993

North America

CanadaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Welcomme, 1988
-British ColumbiaPresentIntroducedFishBase, 2005
-QuebecPresentIntroducedFishBase, 2005
MexicoPresentIntroduced Not invasive
USAPresentIntroduced Invasive Welcomme, 1988
-ArizonaPresent
-NevadaPresent

Central America and Caribbean

Costa RicaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Welcomme, 1988; Lever, 1998
CubaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Welcomme, 1988; Lever, 1998
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroduced Not invasive Welcomme, 1988; FAO, 1996; Lever, 1998
El SalvadorAbsent, formerly presentWelcomme, 1988; FAO, 1996; Lever, 1998
GuatemalaAbsent, formerly presentWelcomme, 1988; FAO, 1996; Lever, 1998
HaitiPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Lever, 1998
HondurasPresentIntroduced Not invasive Welcomme, 1988
JamaicaPresentIntroduced Not invasive FishBase, 2005
NicaraguaPresentIntroducedFAO, 1996; Lever, 1998
PanamaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Welcomme, 1988; FAO, 1996; Lever, 1998
Puerto RicoAbsent, formerly presentLever, 1998

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Welcomme, 1988
BoliviaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Welcomme, 1988; FAO, 1996
BrazilPresentIntroduced Not invasive Welcomme, 1988
ChilePresentIntroduced Not invasive Welcomme, 1988; Lever, 1998
ColombiaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Welcomme, 1988; FAO, 1996; Lever, 1998
EcuadorAbsent, formerly presentLever, 1998
PeruPresentIntroduced Not invasive Welcomme, 1988; FAO, 1996; Lever, 1998
SurinamePresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Lever, 1998
UruguayPresentIntroduced Not invasive Welcomme, 1988; FAO, 1996; Lever, 1998
VenezuelaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Welcomme, 1988; Lever, 1998

Europe

AustriaWidespreadNative Not invasive Alikhuni, 1966; FAO, 1996
BelarusWidespreadIntroduced Not invasive Blanc et al., 1971
BelgiumPresentIntroduced Not invasive Welcomme, 1988; FAO, 1996
Bosnia-HercegovinaWidespreadIntroduced Not invasive FishBase, 2005
BulgariaWidespreadNative Not invasive Alikhuni, 1966; FAO, 1996
CroatiaWidespreadNative Not invasive Steffens, 1975; Balon, 1994; FAO, 1996
CyprusPresentIntroduced Not invasive Welcomme, 1988
Czech RepublicWidespreadNative Not invasive Steffens, 1975; Balon, 1994
Czechoslovakia (former)PresentNativeFAO, 1996
DenmarkPresentIntroduced Not invasive Welcomme, 1988
EstoniaPresentIntroduced Not invasive FishBase, 2005
FinlandPresentIntroduced Not invasive FishBase, 2005
FranceWidespreadIntroduced Not invasive FishBase, 2005
GermanyWidespreadIntroduced Not invasive Welcomme, 1988
GreecePresentIntroduced Not invasive Welcomme, 1988; FAO, 1996
HungaryWidespreadNative Not invasive Alikhuni, 1966; FAO, 1996
IrelandPresentIntroduced Not invasive Welcomme, 1988
ItalyPresentIntroduced Not invasive FAO, 1996
LatviaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Blanc et al., 1971; FAO, 1996
LiechtensteinPresentIntroduced Not invasive Welcomme, 1988
LithuaniaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Blanc et al., 1971; FAO, 1996
LuxembourgPresentIntroduced Not invasive Welcomme, 1988
MacedoniaWidespreadNative Not invasive FAO, 1996
NetherlandsPresentIntroduced Not invasive Welcomme, 1988
NorwayPresentIntroduced Not invasive Welcomme, 1988
PolandWidespreadIntroduced Not invasive Welcomme, 1988; FAO, 1996
PortugalPresentIntroduced Not invasive Welcomme, 1988
RomaniaWidespreadNative Not invasive Steffens, 1975; Balon, 1994
Russian FederationWidespreadNative Not invasive FishBase, 2005
SlovakiaWidespreadNative Not invasive FishBase, 2005
SloveniaPresentIntroduced Not invasive FishBase, 2005
SpainPresentIntroduced Not invasive Welcomme, 1988
SwedenPresentIntroduced Not invasive Welcomme, 1988
SwitzerlandPresentIntroduced Not invasive Welcomme, 1988
UKWidespreadIntroduced Not invasive Welcomme, 1988
UkraineWidespreadNative Not invasive Alikhuni, 1966; FAO, 1996
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)WidespreadNative Not invasive FAO, 1996

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroducedBanarescu and Coad, 1991; FishBase, 2005
-New South WalesPresent
FijiPresentIntroduced Not invasive FishBase, 2005
GuamPresentIntroduced Not invasive Welcomme, 1988; FAO, 1996
New ZealandPresentIntroduced Invasive Welcomme, 1988
Papua New GuineaPresentIntroduced Invasive Welcomme, 1988

Habitat List

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CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Brackish
Estuaries Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Lagoons Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Freshwater
Irrigation channels Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Lakes Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Lakes Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Ponds Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Reservoirs Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Reservoirs Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Rivers / streams Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rivers / streams Principal habitat Natural

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
A - Tropical/Megathermal climate Tolerated Average temp. of coolest month > 18°C, > 1500mm precipitation annually
C - Temperate/Mesothermal climate Preferred Average temp. of coldest month > 0°C and < 18°C, mean warmest month > 10°C
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
D - Continental/Microthermal climate Preferred Continental/Microthermal climate (Average temp. of coldest month < 0°C, mean warmest month > 10°C)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
61 45

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) -30
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 5 20
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 20 40
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) -5 15

Water Tolerances

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ParameterMinimum ValueMaximum ValueTypical ValueStatusLife StageNotes
Ammonia [unionised] (mg/l) 0.0 Optimum Adult
Ammonia [unionised] (mg/l) 0.1 Harmful Adult
Ammonia [unionised] (mg/l) Optimum <0.05 preferred, <0.3 tolerated
Ammonium [ionised] (mg/l) 0.0 Optimum Adult
Ammonium [ionised] (mg/l) 2.0< Harmful Adult
Ammonium [ionised] (mg/l) Optimum <1 preferred, <3 tolerated, depends on pH, temperature and salinity
Arsenic (mg/l) 0.0 Optimum Adult
Cadmium (mg/l) 0.0 Optimum Adult
Carbon Dioxide (mg/l) 20< Harmful Adult
Carbon Dioxide (mg/l) 5.0 Optimum Adult
Carbon Dioxide (mg/l) Optimum <10 preferred, <20 tolerated
Chloride (mg/l) 100 Optimum Adult
Chloride (mg/l) 1000 Harmful Adult
Chlorine (mg/l) 0.0 Optimum Adult
Chlorine (mg/l) 0.01 Harmful Adult
Chlorophyll-a (mg/l) 0.1 Optimum Adult
Chlorophyll-a (mg/l) 0.5 Harmful Adult
Chromium (mg/l) 0.0 Optimum Adult
Conductivity (µmhos/cm) Optimum <1000 preferred, <2000 tolerated
Copper (mg/l) 0.0 Optimum Adult
Copper (mg/l) 0.5 Harmful Adult
Cyanide (mg/l) 0.0 Optimum Adult
Cyanide (mg/l) 0.01 Harmful Adult
Depth (m b.s.l.) Optimum >3 preferred, >5 tolerated, 2-10 at low winter temperatures in temperate climatic zones
Dissolved oxygen (mg/l) 1.5 Harmful Adult
Dissolved oxygen (mg/l) 8.0 Optimum Adult
Dissolved oxygen (mg/l) 6-10 Optimum 3.5-20 tolerated, should not drop below 3.5, but 0.5 may be tolerated for short time periods at low water temperature
Dyes (mg/l) 0.0 Optimum Adult
Dyes (mg/l) 0.1 Harmful Adult
Hardness (mg/l of Calcium Carbonate) 150 Optimum Adult
Hardness (mg/l of Calcium Carbonate) 500< Harmful Adult
Hardness (mg/l of Calcium Carbonate) Optimum <150 preferred, <300 tolerated
Hydrogen sulphide (mg/l) 0.0 Optimum Adult
Hydrogen sulphide (mg/l) 0.1 Harmful Adult
Iron (mg/l) 0.0 Optimum Adult
Iron (mg/l) 2.0 Harmful Adult
Lead (mg/l) 0.0 Optimum Adult
Magnesium (mg/l) 200 Harmful Adult
Magnesium (mg/l) 50 Optimum Adult
Manganese (mg/l) 0.0 Optimum Adult
Manganese (mg/l) 1.0 Harmful Adult
Mercury (mg/l) 0.0 Optimum Adult
Nickel (mg/l) 0.0 Optimum Adult
Nitrite (mg/l) 0.0 Optimum Adult
Nitrite (mg/l) 0.1 Harmful Adult
Nitrous acid (mg/l) 0.0 Optimum Adult
Nitrous acid (mg/l) 0.001 Harmful Adult
Oils and refined products (mg/l) 0.0 Optimum Adult
Oils and refined products (mg/l) 0.01 Harmful Adult
Ozone (mg/l) 0.0 Optimum Adult
Ozone (mg/l) 0.01 Harmful Adult
Phenols (mg/l) 0.0 Optimum Adult
Phenols (mg/l) 0.001 Harmful Adult
Phosphate (mg/l) 2.0 Optimum Adult
Phosphate (mg/l) 5< Harmful Adult
Phytoplankton toxins (mg/l) 0.0 Optimum Adult
Phytoplankton toxins (mg/l) 0.001 Harmful Adult
Polychlorinated biphenyls (mg/l) 0.0 Optimum Adult
Polychlorinated biphenyls (mg/l) 10.0 Harmful Adult
Potassium (mg/l) 10 Optimum Adult
Potassium (mg/l) 100 Harmful Adult
Salinity (part per thousand) 0.5 Optimum Adult
Salinity (part per thousand) 5 Harmful Adult
Salinity (part per thousand) Optimum <1 preferred, <5 tolerated
Sulphate (mg/l) 300 Harmful Adult
Sulphate (mg/l) 50 Optimum Adult
Surfactants (mg/l) 0.0 Optimum Adult
Surfactants (mg/l) 0.01 Harmful Adult
Total Nitrogen (mg/l) 10< Harmful Adult
Total Nitrogen (mg/l) 5.0 Optimum Adult
Total Phosphorus (mg/l) 10< Harmful Adult
Total Phosphorus (mg/l) 5.0 Optimum Adult
Velocity (cm/h) Optimum <10 preferred, <30 tolerated, <50 for short time periods
Water pH (pH) 7.5 Optimum Adult
Water pH (pH) 9.0< Harmful Adult
Water pH (pH) 6.5-8.5 Optimum 5.5-10.5 tolerated
Water temperature (ºC temperature) >34.8 Harmful Adult
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 16 24 Optimum Egg
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 22 24 Optimum Fry
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 22 26 Optimum Larval
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 20-28 Optimum 0.5-30 tolerated

Economic Impact

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Introduction of common carp into many areas has resulted in significant development of aquaculture. The carp is not native in 16 out of the 33 main carp-producing countries, where the production is above 1000 t/year. However, the rapid (in certain periods exponential) growth of carp production in these countries proves the economic advantages of introduction of carp (FAO, 2002). Moreover, pond culture of other species was rendered possible after introduction of carp, since the bottom-stirring habit of carp increased the biological productivity of fish ponds (Sinha and Olah, 1982). Carp may have significant and positive role in maintenance of the ecosystem of wetlands (Sumiec, 1995).

In those developed countries, as for example in USA and Australia, where the carp is not consumed apart from by the poorest segments of societies, the species is considered as pest, and efforts have been made for the eradication of this species.

Environmental Impact

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Adverse impacts of carp on the natural water ecosystems have been proved in some places. Carp have uprooted aquatic plants and destroyed the aquatic weed populations (Laird and Page, 1996). They also increase the turbidity of waters by digging and stirring the upper layer of the bottom. As a consequence of this, light penetration decreases, which destroys the macrophyte populations in the spawning areas of phytophil species. Carp may directly consume the eggs of other species (Miller and Beckman, 1966).

Impact: Biodiversity

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By destroying the spawning substrata, by consumption of eggs of native species (Tyus and Saunders, 2000) and by competing with species having similar feeding habit (Laird and Page, 1995) the presence of carp may be one reason why the populations of native species are declining.

Threatened Species

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Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Gila nigra (headwater chub)NT (IUCN red list: Near threatened) NT (IUCN red list: Near threatened)Arizona; New MexicoPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013a
Gila nigrescens (chihuahua chub)VU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable) VU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable); USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesNew MexicoCompetition - monopolizing resourcesUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010
Gila robusta (roundtail chub)NT (IUCN red list: Near threatened) NT (IUCN red list: Near threatened)Arizona; California; NevadaPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013b
Oncorhynchus clarkii henshawi (Lahontan cutthroat trout)USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesCalifornia; Nevada; Oregon; UtahCompetition (unspecified); PredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2000
Pacifastacus fortis (Shasta crayfish)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesCaliforniaPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009
Percina jenkinsi (Conasauga logperch)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesCompetition (unspecified); Ecosystem change / habitat alteration; PredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1986
Plagopterus argentissimus (woundfin)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesArizona; Nevada; New Mexico; UtahCompetition - monopolizing resources; PredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008b
Rhinichthys osculus lethoporus (Independence Valley speckled dace)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesNevadaCompetition (unspecified); Ecosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008a
Xyrauchen texanus (razorback sucker)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered species; PredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2002
Zizania texana (Texas wild-rice)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesTexasEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Pest and disease transmissionUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1995

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Gregarious
  • Has high genetic variability
Impact outcomes
  • Altered trophic level
  • Conflict
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of natural benthic communities
  • Modification of nutrient regime
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Negatively impacts aquaculture/fisheries
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of endangered species
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition
  • Pest and disease transmission
  • Herbivory/grazing/browsing
  • Predation
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally illegally
  • Difficult/costly to control

Uses List

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Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Bait/attractant
  • Fishmeal
  • Fodder/animal feed
  • Invertebrate food

Environmental

  • Ornamental

General

  • Laboratory use
  • Pet/aquarium trade
  • Sport (hunting, shooting, fishing, racing)

Human food and beverage

  • Fresh meat
  • Frozen meat
  • Live product for human consumption
  • Whole

References

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Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
World Fish Centerhttp://www.worldfishcenter.org/

Organizations

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Czech Republic: Research Institute of Fish Culture and Hydrobiology, Zatisi 728/II, 389 25 Vodnany, http://www.vurh.jcu.cz

Hungary: Research Institute for Fisheries, Aquaculture and Irrigation, PO Box 47, H-5541 Szarvas, http://www.haki.hu

Australia: New South Wales Fisheries, New South Wales, http://www.fisheries.nsw.gov.au

Contributors

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29/10/2007 Updated by:

Zdenek Adamek, Research Institute of Fish Culture & Hydrobiology Laboratory, University of South Bohemia, Brno Kvetna 8, 603 65 Brno, Czech Republic

Main Author
László Váradi
HAKI Research Institute for Fisheries,, Aquaculture and Irrigation, PO Box 47, H-5541 Szarvas, Hungary

Joint Author
Dr. Sandor Gorda

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