Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Cyperus imbricatus
(shingle flatsedge)

Datasheet

Cyperus imbricatus (shingle flatsedge)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 27 September 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Cyperus imbricatus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • shingle flatsedge
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Monocotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • C. imbricatus is a robust, rhizomatous perennial sedge included in the Global Compendium of Weeds where it is listed as an agricultural and environmental weed (...

  • There are no pictures available for this datasheet

    If you can supply pictures for this datasheet please contact:

    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution map More information

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Cyperus imbricatus Retz.

Preferred Common Name

  • shingle flatsedge

Other Scientific Names

  • Cyperus anabaptistus Steud.
  • Cyperus biceps Vahl
  • Cyperus campestris Schrad. ex Nees
  • Cyperus confertiflorus Schult
  • Cyperus densiflorus Link
  • Cyperus densispicatus Hayata
  • Cyperus flexifolius Boeckeler
  • Cyperus macrosciadion Steud.
  • Cyperus mediorubescens Hayata
  • Cyperus obscurus Nees
  • Cyperus roylei Arn.
  • Cyperus semidives Steud.
  • Cyperus spicatus J. Presl & C. Presl
  • Cyperus verticillatus Roxb.
  • Cyperus viridispicatus Boeckeler
  • Dichostylis radiata (Vahl) Palla
  • Mariscus leptochloides Steud.

International Common Names

  • Spanish: papiro
  • French: souchet imbriqué
  • Chinese: die sui suo cao

Local Common Names

  • Indonesia: adem adem; lumbungan; tintilo
  • Philippines: alinang; balayang
  • Thailand: kok

EPPO code

  • CYPIM (Cyperus imbricatus)

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page

C. imbricatus is a robust, rhizomatous perennial sedge included in the Global Compendium of Weeds where it is listed as an agricultural and environmental weed (Randall, 2012). C. imbricatus has escaped from cultivation and become established along waterways and in wetlands, particularly near urban areas (Kennedy et al., 2009). The species is of particular concern in Asia where it is listed a common weed in rice plantations (Mangoensoekardjo and Pancho, 1975; Soerjani et al., 1987; Noda et al., 1994; Li, 1998; Koo et al., 2000). In the West Indies this species invades marshy areas and stream edges and is a persistent weed of roadside gutter channels (Kennedy et al., 2009). Once established, it can change features of ecosystem functions including hydrological cycles, biophysical dynamics, nutrient cycles, and community composition (Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2011). C. imbricatus is listed as invasive in Puerto Rico (Kennedy et al., 2009).

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  •                     Order: Cyperales
  •                         Family: Cyperaceae
  •                             Genus: Cyperus
  •                                 Species: Cyperus imbricatus

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page

Cyperaceae is a large and cosmopolitan family of monocotyledons, which includes about 98 genera and 5430 species (Stevens, 2012). Members of this family are commonly known as “sedges” and they form a major component of most wetland vegetation units around the world. Cyperaceae are grass-like species characterized by stems which are usually 3-angled and solid. The leaves are alternate, commonly in 3 ranks, usually with a closed sheathing base and a parallel-veined, strap-shaped blade. The flowers are very minute and are bisexual or unisexual.

The genus Cyperus with approximately 600 species is a genus with a large distribution in wetlands and seasonally damp habitats around the world, and also includes important economic and horticultural species (Barrett, 2013). The classification of Cyperus species is still unsettled because of morphological variations, making the determination of subgenera boundaries and species difficult (Rad and Sonboli, 2005). In Flora Iranica the genus was divided into six subgenera, and C. imbricatus placed in group 2 of the subgenus Cyperus (Rad and Sonboli, 2005), based on inflorescence type. The Plant List gives nine varieties or subspecies of C. imbricatus.

Description

Top of page

C. imbricatus is a coarse, rhizomatous perennial, 70-150 cm tall; rhizomes short, 1-3 cm long, 5-10 mm thick, hardened; roots coarse. Culms erect, trigonous, often subtriquetrous distally, firm, coarsely ribbed, smooth, 3.5 -10 mm wide, sheathing bases 1-3 cm wide. Leaves 3-7; sheaths eligulate, spongy-thickened and purple-black proximately, fading to brown streaked with black distally; ligule absent; blades linear, folded to V shaped proximally, plicate distally, 35-90 cm × 4-15 (-18) mm, with numerous cross veinlets, scabrous on the margins, abaxial mid-vein, and adaxial lateral veins, long-attenuate to triquetrous apex. Inflorescence a compound umbel-like corymb with ascending rays, 12-30 ×14-30 (-40) cm; involucral bracts 5-10, leaf-like, spreading, ascending to horizontal, the lowermost to 90 cm long; rays 6-12, to 25 cm long; spikes linear-cylindric, 1-6 (-8) cm × 3-10 (-15) mm, in subradiate groups of (1-) 3-20 at ray tips, with (20-) 30-130 (-160) densely disposed spikelet, compressed, often slightly twisted, 3-6 × 1-1.4 mm, acute to obtuse at apex, obtuse at base, with 8-22 florets. Stamens 3, the anthers 0.2 - 0.5 mm long, apiculate; styles 3-branched. Achene trigonous, dorsi-ventrally compressed, with the adaxial face plane and the abaxial faces broadly rounded, ellipsoid to ellipsoid-obovoid, 0.5-0.6 ×0.3-0.4 mm, very finely puncticulate to essentially smooth and glossy at maturity, dull whitish to stramineous (Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2005).

Distribution

Top of page

The natural distribution of C. imbricatus is pantropical. It is listed as native in temperate and tropical Asia, Africa, and along the Americas in both tropical and subtropical countries (see distribution table for details, Govaerts, 2013). C. imbricatus is listed as naturalized in the West Indies (Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012).  

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AfghanistanPresentNativeGovaerts, 2013
BangladeshPresentNativeGovaerts, 2013
ChinaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-GuangdongPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2012
-GuangxiPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2012
-HainanPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2012
IndiaPresentNativeGovaerts, 2013
-AssamPresentNativeGovaerts, 2013
IndonesiaPresentNativeMangoensoekardjo and Pancho, 1975Agricultural weed
-JavaPresentNativeGovaerts, 2013
-SulawesiPresentNativeGovaerts, 2013
-SumatraPresentNativeGovaerts, 2013
IranPresentNativeGovaerts, 2013
JapanPresentGovaerts, 2013
LaosPresentNativeGovaerts, 2013
MalaysiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentNativeGovaerts, 2013
MyanmarPresentNativeGovaerts, 2013
NepalPresentNativeGovaerts, 2013
PhilippinesPresentNativeGovaerts, 2013
TaiwanPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2012
ThailandPresentNativeNoda et al., 1994Weed
VietnamPresentNativeKoo et al., 2000Weed

Africa

AngolaPresentNativeGovaerts, 2013
BeninPresentNativeGovaerts, 2013
BotswanaPresentNativeGovaerts, 2013
Burkina FasoPresentNativeGovaerts, 2013
Central African RepublicPresentNativeGovaerts, 2013
ChadPresentNativeGovaerts, 2013
ComorosPresentNativeGovaerts, 2013
CongoPresentNativeGovaerts, 2013
Congo Democratic RepublicPresentNativeGovaerts, 2013
Côte d'IvoirePresentNativeGovaerts, 2013
EgyptPresentNativeGovaerts, 2013
EthiopiaPresentNativeGovaerts, 2013
GhanaPresentNativeGovaerts, 2013
GuineaPresentNativeGovaerts, 2013
LiberiaPresentNativeGovaerts, 2013
MadagascarPresentNativeGovaerts, 2013
MaliPresentNativeGovaerts, 2013
MauritaniaPresentNativeGovaerts, 2013
NamibiaPresentNativeGovaerts, 2013
NigeriaPresentNativeGovaerts, 2013
SenegalPresentNativeGovaerts, 2013
SeychellesPresentNativeGovaerts, 2013
South AfricaPresentNativeGovaerts, 2013
SudanPresentNativeGovaerts, 2013
SwazilandPresentNativeGovaerts, 2013
TanzaniaPresentNativeGovaerts, 2013
TogoPresentNativeGovaerts, 2013
UgandaPresentNativeGovaerts, 2013

North America

MexicoPresentIntroducedVillaseñor and Espinosa-Garcia, 2004

Central America and Caribbean

BelizePresentNativeGovaerts, 2013
Costa RicaPresentNativeHammel et al., 2003
CubaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
DominicaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2013
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
El SalvadorPresentNativeGovaerts, 2013
GrenadaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
GuatemalaPresentNativeGovaerts, 2013
HaitiPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
HondurasPresentNativeGovaerts, 2013
JamaicaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
NicaraguaPresentNativeGovaerts, 2013
PanamaPresentNativeGovaerts, 2013
Puerto RicoPresentIntroduced Invasive Kennedy et al., 2009Invasive in wet places
Trinidad and TobagoPresentNativeGovaerts, 2013

South America

ArgentinaPresentNativeZuloaga et al., 2008
BoliviaPresentNativeGovaerts, 2013
BrazilPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-ParanaPresentNativeZuloaga et al., 2008
-Rio Grande do SulPresentNativeZuloaga et al., 2008
ChilePresentNativeMolur, 2011
ColombiaPresentNativeGovaerts, 2013
EcuadorPresentNativeGovaerts, 2013
GuyanaPresentNativeFunk et al., 2007
ParaguayPresentNativeZuloaga et al., 2008
PeruPresentNativeGovaerts, 2013
UruguayPresentNativeZuloaga et al., 2008
VenezuelaPresentNativeGovaerts, 2013

Europe

ItalyPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2013
NetherlandsPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2013
SpainPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2013

Oceania

Papua New GuineaPresentNativeGovaerts, 2013

History of Introduction and Spread

Top of page

The history of introduction of C. imbricatus in the West Indies is not well known. It was probably introduced as an ornamental in the mid-1800s. Herbarium collections showed that this species was first reported in the West Indies in 1881 in the islands of Puerto Rico (US National Herbarium). Later, this species appears in US National Herbarium collections from Haiti (1924), Cuba (1927), and the Dominican Republic (1929).

In Spain, Verloove (2005) reported that it was possibly new to the flora of the Iberian Peninsula when recorded in floristic research conducted in 2001-2003.

Risk of Introduction

Top of page

The risk of introduction of C. imbricatus is moderate to high. It has been introduced as an ornamental and has escaped from cultivation and has the potential to grow as a weed in agricultural areas and pastures as well as in swamps, lake margins, and the edges of rivers and canals. Because this species spreads by seeds and by rhizomes, which can be easily dispersed by water flows, it has potential for invading new habitats and locations.

Habitat

Top of page

C. imbricatus can be found growing in wet sites and seasonally flooded areas (e.g. creeks, wetlands, swamps, drainage channels and ditches) in tropical, subtropical and warmer temperate regions. It is a weed in rice plantations, pastures, disturbed wet areas, swamps, lake margins, and the edges of rivers, aqueducts and urban canals (Tucker, 1983; Kennedy et al., 2009; Randall, 2012).

Habitat List

Top of page
CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedManaged grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Riverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Riverbanks Present, no further details Natural
Wetlands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Wetlands Present, no further details Natural
Freshwater
Irrigation channels Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Irrigation channels Present, no further details Natural
Lakes Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Lakes Present, no further details Natural
Reservoirs Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Reservoirs Present, no further details Natural
Rivers / streams Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rivers / streams Present, no further details Natural
Ponds Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Ponds Present, no further details Natural

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page

C. imbricatus is a common weed in rice plantations and banana fields in tropical and temperate Asia (Mangoensoekardjo and Pancho, 1975; Soerjani et al., 1987; Noda et al., 1994; Li, 1998; Koo et al., 2000).

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage

Biology and Ecology

Top of page

Genetics

The chromosome number reported for C. imbricatus is n = 55 (Rath and Patnaik, 1978). 

Reproductive Biology

The vast majority of species in the family Cyperaceae are wind-pollinated (Barrett, 2013). 

Physiology and Phenology

C. imbricatus has been recorded flowering and fruiting throughout the year (Tucker, 1983). It is a long-lived perennial plant (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2012).

Environmental Requirements

C. imbricatus grows best in wet and seasonally flooded areas such as the margins of ponds, ditches, swamps, and river banks at elevations ranging from 100 to 1400 m (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2012). It grows mostly on sandy and muddy soil with pH ranging from 4 to 6.5, and in direct sunlight (Kennedy et al., 2009; Molur, 2011). In urban ecosystems, it grows on aqueducts, sewers, and in urban channels where it can grow up to a height of one metre (Kennedy et al., 2009).

Climate

Top of page
ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
BS - Steppe climate Preferred > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
BW - Desert climate Preferred < 430mm annual precipitation
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

Top of page
Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
30 30

Air Temperature

Top of page
Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) -9
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 15 30

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page

C. imbricatus spreads mainly by seeds, but it can also spread to form large clumps via short underground stems (rhizomes). Seeds and pieces of rhizome are commonly dispersed to new areas by water and in dumped garden waste (Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2011).

Impact Summary

Top of page
CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Positive and negative

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Infrastructure damage
  • Modification of hydrology
  • Monoculture formation
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
  • Transportation disruption
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - smothering
  • Competition - strangling
  • Rapid growth
  • Rooting
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field

Uses

Top of page

C. imbricatus is used as a garden ornamental mainly in ponds and water features (Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2011). The stems of C. imbricatus are used for string in Java. In the Philippines the outer portions of the leaves are stripped, dried in the shade and woven into mats and screens. In Peru the crushed rhizome is used as an aphrodisiac (Prota4U, 2013).

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page

In Central America C. imbricatus is distinguished from Cyperus digitatus and Cyperus giganteus by its compressed spikelets with wingless rachillas. The excurved scale apices and ascendant appressed spikelets are characters visible before anthesis, and thus useful for determining immature plants (Tucker, 1983). 

In the West Indies, this species looks similar to Cyperus iria. Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2005) list features by which these two species can be distinguished:

  • C. iria is a caespitose annual or short-lived perennial while C. imbricatus is a coarse, rhizomatous perennial.
  • Sheaths in C. iria are pale green to pale brown, the lowermost reddish tinged, reddish lineolate while in C. imbricatus sheaths are purple-black proximately, fading to brown streaked with black distally.
  • In C. iria leaf blades are (1.5-) 2-6 mm wide, both the blades and involucral bracts not cross-veined abaxially while in C. imbricatus leaf blades are 4-15 (18) mm wide, both the blades and involucral bracts cross-veined abaxially. 

Verloove and Soldano (2011) report that it has been confused with Cyperus dives in Italy, and list features by which the species can be distinguished.

Prevention and Control

Top of page

Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

The control of C. imbricatus is labour-demanding mainly because rhizomes are persistent in the soil and plants grow in flooded areas. At present, there are no chemical or biological controls suggested for this species.

References

Top of page

Acevedo-Rodríguez P; Strong MT, 2005. Monocots and Gymnosperms of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, volume 52:415 pp.

Acevedo-Rodríguez P; Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Barrett RL, 2013. Ecological importance of sedges: a survey of the Australasian Cyperaceae genus Lepidosperma. Annals of Botany, 111(4):499-529. http://aob.oxfordjournals.org/

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2012. Flora of China Web. Cambridge, USA: Harvard University Herbaria. http://flora.huh.harvard.edu/china/

Funk V; Hollowell T; Berry P; Kelloff C; Alexander SN, 2007. Checklist of the plants of the Guiana Shield (Venezuela: Amazonas, Bolivar, Delta Amacuro; Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana). Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 584 pp.

Govaerts R, 2013. World Checklist of Cyperaceae. Richmond, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/

Hammel BE; Grayum MH; Herrera C; Zamora N, 2003. Manual of plants of Costa Rica. Vol, II. Agavaceae-Musaceae. (Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica. Vol. II. Agavaceae-Musaceae.) Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden:485 pp.

Kennedy C; Kowaleski M; Pollard J; Zabinski K, 2009. Rio Piedras Conservation Management Plan., Puerto Rico: The Conservation Trust of Puerto Rico.

Koo SK; Chin YW; Kwon YW; Cung HA, 2000. Common Weeds in Vietnam., Vietnam: Agriculture Publishing House.

Li Y, 1998. Weeds of China. Beijing, China: Agriculture Press, 1617 pp.

Mangoensoekardjo S; Pancho JV, 1975. Current Status of weed problems in plantation crops. Bulletin B.P.P.M, 6(1).

Molur S, 2011. Cyperus imbricatus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.1. http://www.iucnredlist.org

Noda K; Teerawatsakul M; Prakongvongs C; Chaiwiratnukul L, 1994. Major Weeds in Thailand. National Weed Science Research Institute Project, Revised Third Edition.

Prota4U, 2013. PROTA4U web database. Grubben GJH, Denton OA, eds. Wageningen, Netherlands: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. http://www.prota4u.org/search.asp

Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2011. Special edition of Environmental Weeds of Australia for Biosecurity Queensland., Australia: The University of Queensland and Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries. http://keyserver.lucidcentral.org/weeds/data/03030800-0b07-490a-8d04-0605030c0f01/media/Html/Index.htm

Rad MA; Sonboli A, 2005. Taxonomic revision of the Cyperus subgenus Cyperus in Iran. Rostaniha, 6(1):Pe1-16, en1-3.

Randall RP, 2012. A Global Compendium of Weeds. Perth, Australia: Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia, 1124 pp. http://www.cabi.org/isc/FullTextPDF/2013/20133109119.pdf

Rath SP; Patnaik SN, 1978. Cytological studies in Cyperaceae with special reference to the Taxonomy. Prospectives in Cytology and Genetics, 3:175-181.

Soerjani M; Kostermans AJGH; Tjitrosoepomo G, 1987. Weeds of Indonesia. Jakarta, Indonesia: Balai Pustaka, 716 pp.

Stevens PF, 2012. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

Tucker GC, 1983. The Taxonomy of Cyperus (Cyperaceae) in Costa Rica and Panama. Systematic Botany Monographs, 2:1-85.

USDA-ARS, 2013. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

Verloove F, 2005. New records of interesting xenophytes in Spain. Lazaroa, 26:141-148. http://www.ucm.es/info/lazaroa/

Verloove F; Soldano A, 2011. Studies in Italian Cyperaceae. 2. Miscellaneous notes. Webbia, 66(1):69-75. http://www1.unifi.it/webbia/

Villaseñor JL; Espinosa-Garcia FJ, 2004. The alien flowering plants of Mexico. Diversity and Distributions, 10(2):113-123.

Zuloaga FO; Morrone O; Belgrano MJ, 2008. Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur: (Argentina, Sur de Brasil, Chile, Paraguay y Uruguay) ([English title not available])., USA: Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 3348 pp.

Links to Websites

Top of page
WebsiteURLComment
Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER): Plant threats to Pacific ecosystemshttp://www.hear.org/pier/index.html
Plant Resources of Tropical Africahttp://www.prota.org

Contributors

Top of page

11/02/14 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map